2 25 09 Test Review by x2ky3Ch8

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 114

									            Bell Ringer
Name:
2/25/2009

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Response
Newton’s Cooling Lab
                               New ton's Cooling


                  60



                  50



                  40
    Temperature


                  30                                      Temp



                  20



                  10



                  0
                       1   4   7   10 13     16 19   22
                                   Minutes
             Homework Answers
2.   A room temperature metal is a better conductor than
     the room temperature paper, wood or cloth.
3.   A conductor transfers heat quickly and an insulator
     transfers heat slowly
4.   Materials such as wood, fur, feathers and snow are not
     tightly packed and air can occupy the empty spaces
     and air is a good insulator.
7.   Costal winds change direction because land is warmer
     than the water during the day and warm air rises
     allowing dense air from water to slip underneath. At
     night the process reverses and the wind direction
     changes.
              Homework Answers
8.  Gas is compressed and temperature increases; Gas
    expands and temperature cools (molecules move
    further apart and collide less frequently)
11. Higher temperatures produce shorter wavelengths
    (sun and UV), cooler temperatures produce longer
    wavelengths (fire and infrared)
12. A good absorber of radiant energy appears black
    because it absorbs visible radiant energy and so
    appear black in color.
13. Eye pupils appear black because they are almost
    perfect absorbers of visible light and reflect very little.
             Homework Answers
16. The red hot poker in a hot fire will have the lower rate
    of cooling than the red hot poker in a cool room
    because the temperature difference is smaller.
18. Terrestrial radiation is the radiant energy naturally
    emitted by Earth.
19. The sun in a hot object and produces short waves,
    Earth’s temperature is cooler than the sun so it
    produces longer waves.
20. A. The greenhouse effect lets energy through in one
    direction, only the short waves pass back out.
20. B. Earth; The waves must pass through both the
    atmosphere and glass before they get to the
    greenhouse.
          Homework Answers


Extra credit:
26. Coal dust is a good absorber and then
    emitter of radiant energy and melts the
    snow.
           Test Review #1
• Explain why white clothing helps keep us
  cool, whereas black clothing helps to
  warm us. Which is the better reflector?
  Which is the better absorber?
                Test Review #1
• Explain why white clothing helps keep us cool,
  whereas black clothing helps to warm us. Which
  is the better reflector? Which is the better
  absorber?
  – White clothing reflects all colors of light and absorbs
    very little of the light. It also reflects infrared radiation.
    Since the energy of the infrared and light radiation is
    reflected away, we are not warmed by it. Black
    clothing absorbs almost all of the radiation that falls
    on it, infrared as well as light. The energy absorbed
    by black clothing is felt as heat and warms us.
            Test Review #2
• Write a few sentences about the differences
  between conduction and convection. Give
  examples of each.
                 Test Review #2
• Write a few sentences about the differences
  between conduction and convection. Give
  examples of each.
  – Heat conduction occurs when a warmer electron, atom, or
    molecule bumps into a cooler electron, atom, or molecule,
    transferring kinetic energy. This particle, in turn, bumps into the
    next particle and in effect transfers kinetic energy even further,
    and so on. Convection occurs when the warmer atom or
    molecule actually travels to another place in space. Whereas
    conduction occurs primarily in solids, convection occurs in fluids
    -- liquids or gases. When cold water is poured into hot soup, the
    water soon spreads by convection to all parts of the mixture.
    When a spoon is placed in the hot soup, the whole spoon
    becomes hot by conduction.
             Test Review #3
• Explain why putting a dented Ping-Pong ball in a
  pot of boiling water will help remove the dent.
             Test Review #3
• Explain why putting a dented Ping-Pong ball in a
  pot of boiling water will help remove the dent.
   – As air inside the ball is heated, it expands and
     pushes outward on the dented ball. Often a
     dented Ping-Pong ball can be put back in a
     rounded shape this way.
             Test Review #4
• The rate of cooling of an object is proportional to
  the temperature difference between the object
  and its surroundings.
• True or False
             Test Review #4
• The rate of cooling of an object is proportional to
  the temperature difference between the object
  and its surroundings.
• True or False
   – True
             Test Review #5
• All objects with any temperature at all radiate
  energy.
• True or False
             Test Review #5
• All objects with any temperature at all radiate
  energy.
• True or False
   –T
             Test Review #6
• The absorption effect is the name given to the
  process whereby long-wavelength radiation
  enters a house through the windows, is
  absorbed and reradiated by objects in the
  house, and is unable to be retransmitted through
  the windows.
• True or False
             Test Review #6
• The absorption effect is the name given to the
  process whereby long-wavelength radiation
  enters a house through the windows, is
  absorbed and reradiated by objects in the
  house, and is unable to be retransmitted through
  the windows.
• True or False
  –F
            Test Review #7
• Heat transfer by means of atoms moving from
  place to place is conduction.
• True or False
            Test Review #7
• Heat transfer by means of atoms moving from
  place to place is conduction.
• True or False
  –F
             Test Review #8
• A good emitter of heat is also a good reflector of
  heat.
• True or False
             Test Review #8
• A good emitter of heat is also a good reflector of
  heat.
• True or False
   –F
             Test Review #9
• Materials that are poor heat conductors are
  insulators.
• True or False
             Test Review #9
• Materials that are poor heat conductors are
  insulators.
• True or False
  –T
           Test Review #11
• Winds and weather patterns are good examples
  of radiation currents.
• True or False
           Test Review #11
• Winds and weather patterns are good examples
  of radiation currents.
• True or False
  –F
            Test Review #12
• A good reflector of heat is a poor absorber of
  heat.
• True or False
            Test Review #12
• A good reflector of heat is a poor absorber of
  heat.
• True or False
  –T
            Test Review #13
• Heat that is transferred to us from the sun is
  transferred by radiation.
• True or False
            Test Review #13
• Heat that is transferred to us from the sun is
  transferred by radiation.
• True or False
   –T
            Test Review #13
• Heat transfer by means of electrons colliding
  with other electrons in a metal is convection.
• True or False
            Test Review #13
• Heat transfer by means of electrons colliding
  with other electrons in a metal is convection.
• True or False
  –F
            Test Review #14
• The rate of cooling of an object is proportional to
  the temperature difference between the object
  and its surroundings.
• True or False
            Test Review #14
• The rate of cooling of an object is proportional to
  the temperature difference between the object
  and its surroundings.
• True or False
   –T
            Test Review #15
• All objects with any temperature at all radiate
  energy.
• True or False
            Test Review #15
• All objects with any temperature at all radiate
  energy.
• True or False
   –T
           Test Review #16
• Heat transfer by means of atoms moving from
  place to place is conduction.
• True or False
           Test Review #16
• Heat transfer by means of atoms moving from
  place to place is conduction.
• True or False
  –F
           Test Review #17
• Gases don't expand very much when heated.
• True or False
           Test Review #17
• Gases don't expand very much when heated.
• True or False
  –F
            Test Review #18
• A temperature scale that has 100 degrees
  between the boiling point and the freezing point
  of water is the Fahrenheit scale.
• True or False
            Test Review #18
• A temperature scale that has 100 degrees
  between the boiling point and the freezing point
  of water is the Fahrenheit scale.
• True or False
  –F
           Test Review #19
• Water contracts when heated from 0 degrees C
  to 4 degrees C.
• True or False
           Test Review #19
• Water contracts when heated from 0 degrees C
  to 4 degrees C.
• True or False
  –T
            Test Review #20
• Heat is the energy that transfers from one object
  to another because of a temperature difference.
• True or False
            Test Review #20
• Heat is the energy that transfers from one object
  to another because of a temperature difference.
• True or False
  –T
            Test Review #21
• The amount of heat required to change the
  temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1
  degree is its specific heat capacity.
• True or False
            Test Review #21
• The amount of heat required to change the
  temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1
  degree is its specific heat capacity.
• True or False
  –T
             Test Review #22
• The total of all energies in a substance is its
  temperature.
• True or False
             Test Review #22
• The total of all energies in a substance is its
  temperature.
• True or False
   –F
           Test Review #23
• Liquids usually expand when heated.
• True or False
           Test Review #23
• Liquids usually expand when heated.
• True or False
  –T
            Test Review #24
• The average kinetic energy of molecules in a
  substance is related to temperature.
• True or False
            Test Review #24
• The average kinetic energy of molecules in a
  substance is related to temperature.
• True or False
  –T
            Test Review #25
• A calorie is a common unit of force.
• True or False
            Test Review #25
• A calorie is a common unit of force.
• True or False
  –F
           Test Review #26
• Gases don't expand very much when heated.
• True or False
           Test Review #26
• Gases don't expand very much when heated.
• True or False
  –F
            Test Review #27
• A temperature scale that has 100 degrees
  between the boiling point and the freezing point
  of water is the Fahrenheit scale.
• True or False
            Test Review #27
• A temperature scale that has 100 degrees
  between the boiling point and the freezing point
  of water is the Fahrenheit scale.
• True or False
  –F
           Test Review #28
• Water contracts when heated from 0 degrees C
  to 4 degrees C.
• True or False
           Test Review #28
• Water contracts when heated from 0 degrees C
  to 4 degrees C.
• True or False
  –T
            Test Review #29
• Heat is the energy that transfers from one object
  to another because of a temperature difference.
• True or False
            Test Review #29
• Heat is the energy that transfers from one object
  to another because of a temperature difference.
• True or False
  –T
            Test Review #30
•  If a volume of air is warmed, it expands. If a
   volume of air expands, it __________.
a) neither warms nor cools.
b) cools.
c) warms.
             Test Review #30
•  If a volume of air is warmed, it expands. If a
   volume of air expands, it __________.
a) neither warms nor cools.
b) cools.
c) warms.
    –   b)
             Test Review #31
•    Planet earth loses heat primarily by
     __________.
a)   radiation.
b)   convection.
c)   conduction.
d)   all of these.
              Test Review #31
•    Planet earth loses heat primarily by
     __________.
a)   radiation.
b)   convection.
c)   conduction.
d)   all of these.
     –   a)
            Test Review #32
•    Heat travels from the sun to the earth by
     __________.
a)   convection.
b)   conduction.
c)   radiation.
d)   insulation.
e)   vacuumization.
              Test Review #32
•    Heat travels from the sun to the earth by
     __________.
a)   convection.
b)   conduction.
c)   radiation.
d)   insulation.
e)   vacuumization.
     –   c)
             Test Review #33
•    Newton's law of cooling says that the rate of
     cooling depends on __________.
a)   the temperature difference between the object
     and its surroundings.
b)   the mass of the object.
c)   the volume of the object.
d)   the specific heat capacity of the object.
e)   all of the above.
              Test Review #33
•    Newton's law of cooling says that the rate of
     cooling depends on __________.
a)   the temperature difference between the object
     and its surroundings.
b)   the mass of the object.
c)   the volume of the object.
d)   the specific heat capacity of the object.
e)   all of the above
     –   a)
              Test Review #34
•    Heat transfer by conduction occurs when
     __________.
a)   electrons bump into atoms and other electrons.
b)   electromagnetic waves travel from one place to
     another through a vacuum.
c)   atoms give off heat in the form of electromagnetic
     waves.
d)   large numbers of atoms move from place to place.
e)   none of the above
             Test Review #34
•    Heat transfer by conduction occurs when
     __________.
a)  electrons bump into atoms and other electrons.
b)  electromagnetic waves travel from one place to
    another through a vacuum.
c) atoms give off heat in the form of electromagnetic
    waves.
d) large numbers of atoms move from place to place.
e) none of the above
   – a)
             Test Review #35
•    A piece of metal will feel colder than a piece of
     wood at the same temperature. Why?
a)   Metal, in general, has a higher specific heat
     capacity than wood
b)   Metals, in general, are good heat conductors
c)   Metal is colder than wood
d)   Wood, in general, is a poor insulator
e)   Metal atoms are moving more slowly, on the
     average, than wood atoms
              Test Review #35
•    A piece of metal will feel colder than a piece of
     wood at the same temperature. Why?
a)   Metal, in general, has a higher specific heat
     capacity than wood
b)   Metals, in general, are good heat conductors
c)   Metal is colder than wood
d)   Wood, in general, is a poor insulator
e)   Metal atoms are moving more slowly, on the
     average, than wood atoms
     –   b)
             Test Review #36
•    A good reflector of radiation is __________.
a)   a good emitter of radiation.
b)   a good absorber of radiation.
c)   a poor absorber of radiation.
d)   none of the above
              Test Review #36
•     A good reflector of radiation is __________.
a)    a good emitter of radiation.
b)    a good absorber of radiation.
c)    a poor absorber of radiation.
d)    none of the above
     – c)
            Test Review #36a
•    A good absorber of radiation is __________.
a)   a good reflector.
b)   a poor emitter of radiation.
c)   a good emitter of radiation.
d)   none of the above.
             Test Review #36a
•     A good absorber of radiation is __________.
a)    a good reflector.
b)    a poor emitter of radiation.
c)    a good emitter of radiation.
d)    none of the above.
     – c)
             Test Review #37
•    A piece of paper wrapped around a thick metal
     bar will not ignite when touched with a lit match
     because __________.
a)   energy goes to the bar, preventing ignition
     temperature in the paper.
b)   the bar keeps the paper relatively cool.
c)   the bar is slow to heat up.
d)   the paper absorbs internal energy poorly.
              Test Review #37
•    A piece of paper wrapped around a thick metal
     bar will not ignite when touched with a lit match
     because __________.
a)   energy goes to the bar, preventing ignition
     temperature in the paper.
b)   the bar keeps the paper relatively cool.
c)   the bar is slow to heat up.
d)   the paper absorbs internal energy poorly.
     –   a)
              Test Review #38
•    The reason sea breezes are usually from the
     sea toward the land during the day is that
     __________.
a)   a high-pressure area is created high above the water.
b)   cool air high over the ocean flows downward.
c)   land is hotter than water.
d)   a low-pressure area is created just over the shore.
e)   all of the above
               Test Review #38
•     The reason sea breezes are usually from the
      sea toward the land during the day is that
      __________.
a)    a high-pressure area is created high above the water.
b)    cool air high over the ocean flows downward.
c)    land is hotter than water.
d)    a low-pressure area is created just over the shore.
e)    all of the above
     – e)
              Test Review #39
•    Heat transfer by convection occurs when
     __________.
a)   electromagnetic waves travel from one place to
     another through a vacuum.
b)   electrons bump into other electrons.
c)   atoms give off heat in the form of electromagnetic
     waves.
d)   large numbers of atoms move from place to place.
e)   none of the above.
               Test Review #39
•     Heat transfer by convection occurs when
      __________.
a)    electromagnetic waves travel from one place to
      another through a vacuum.
b)    electrons bump into other electrons.
c)    atoms give off heat in the form of electromagnetic
      waves.
d)    large numbers of atoms move from place to place.
e)    none of the above.
     – d)
             Test Review #40
•    Specific heat capacity is related to the amount
     of internal energy __________.
a)   a specific object has
b)   transferred by one molecule
c)   one molecule contains
d)   transferred by one object
e)   needed to change the temperature of one
     gram of a substance one degree
              Test Review #40
•    Specific heat capacity is related to the amount
     of internal energy __________.
a)   a specific object has
b)   transferred by one molecule
c)   one molecule contains
d)   transferred by one object
e)   needed to change the temperature of one
     gram of a substance one degree
     –   e)
            Test Review #41
• Internal energy is the __________.
a) average amount of energy contained in an
   object.
b) amount of kinetic energy all the molecules
   have.
c) amount of energy that is transferred from one
   object to another object.
d) total amount of energy contained in an object.
e) all of the above
            Test Review #41
• Internal energy is the __________.
a) average amount of energy contained in an
   object.
b) amount of kinetic energy all the molecules
   have.
c) amount of energy that is transferred from one
   object to another object.
d) total amount of energy contained in an object.
e) all of the above
  –   d)
             Test Review #42
•    Which of the following expands most when the
     temperature is lowered?
a)   Helium
b)   Wood
c)   Iron
d)   Water at 4 degrees C
e)   None of the above expands when the
     temperature is lowered.
              Test Review #42
•    Which of the following expands most when the
     temperature is lowered?
a)   Helium
b)   Wood
c)   Iron
d)   Water at 4 degrees C
e)   None of the above expands when the
     temperature is lowered.
     –   d)
            Test Review #43
•  The fact that desert sand is very hot in the day
   and very cold at night is evidence that sand
   has a __________.
a) high specific heat capacity
b) low specific heat capacity
             Test Review #43
•  The fact that desert sand is very hot in the day
   and very cold at night is evidence that sand
   has a __________.
a) high specific heat capacity
b) low specific heat capacity
    –   b)
            Test Review #44
•  A container of water has its smallest volume at
   __________.
a) -20 degrees C
b) 4 degrees C
c) 0 degrees C
             Test Review #44
•  A container of water has its smallest volume at
   __________.
a) -20 degrees C
b) 4 degrees C
c) 0 degrees C
    –   b)
             Test Review #45
•    Which temperature scale labels the freezing
     point of water at 0 degrees?
a)   Celsius
b)   Caloric
c)   Fahrenheit
d)   Kelvin
e)   none of the above.
              Test Review #45
•    Which temperature scale labels the freezing
     point of water at 0 degrees?
a)   Celsius
b)   Caloric
c)   Fahrenheit
d)   Kelvin
e)   none of the above.
     –   a)
             Test Review #46
•    Mix some 40 o C water with some 30 o C water
     and you'll get water at __________.
a)   40 o C .
b)   35 o C .
c)   depends on the masses (or volumes) of water
d)   30 o C .
              Test Review #46
•    Mix some 40 o C water with some 30 o C water
     and you'll get water at __________.
a)   40 o C .
b)   35 o C .
c)   depends on the masses (or volumes) of water
d)   30 o C .
     –   c)
            Test Review #47
•    Heat is measured in __________.
a)   kilocalories.
b)   calories.
c)   joules
d)   all of the above
e)   none of the above.
              Test Review #47
•    Heat is measured in __________.
a)   kilocalories.
b)   calories.
c)   joules
d)   all of the above
e)   none of the above.
     –   d)
              Test Review #48
•    Which is denser, ice at 0 o C or water at 4 o C ?
a)   The ice
b)   The water
c)   They both have the same density.
              Test Review #48
•    Which is denser, ice at 0 o C or water at 4 o C ?
a)   The ice
b)   The water
c)   They both have the same density.
     –   b)
            Test Review #49
•  Which releases the most energy, 100 grams of
   100 o C water cooling to 50 o C or 100 grams of
   iron at 100 o C cooling to 50 o C ?
a) Iron
b) Water
c) both the same
             Test Review #49
•  Which releases the most energy, 100 grams of
   100 o C water cooling to 50 o C or 100 grams of
   iron at 100 o C cooling to 50 o C ?
a) Iron
b) Water
c) both the same
    –   b)
             Test Review #50
•    A bimetallic strip will bend when heated
     because __________.
a)   metals bend when heated.
b)   each metal expands at different rates.
c)   each side of the strip is at a different
     temperature.
d)   metals contract when heated.
e)   all of the above.
              Test Review #50
•    A bimetallic strip will bend when heated
     because __________.
a)   metals bend when heated.
b)   each metal expands at different rates.
c)   each side of the strip is at a different
     temperature.
d)   metals contract when heated.
e)   all of the above.
     –   b)
             Test Review #51
•    Temperature is related mostly to the
     __________.
a)   total energy in something.
b)   average molecular kinetic energy in a
     substance.
c)   average energy in a substance.
d)   total kinetic energy in something.
e)   average kinetic energy of an object.
              Test Review #51
•    Temperature is related mostly to the
     __________.
a)   total energy in something.
b)   average molecular kinetic energy in a
     substance.
c)   average energy in a substance.
d)   total kinetic energy in something.
e)   average kinetic energy of an object.
     –   b)
           Test Review #52
•  Heat is the __________.
a) amount of energy all the molecules have.
b) total amount of energy contained in an object.
c) energy transferred between objects because of
   a temperature difference.
d) average amount of energy-per-molecule
   contained in an object.
e) all of the above.
              Test Review #52
•  Heat is the __________.
a) amount of energy all the molecules have.
b) total amount of energy contained in an object.
c) energy transferred between objects because of
   a temperature difference.
d) average amount of energy-per-molecule
   contained in an object.
e) all of the above.
     –   c)
            Test Review #53
•  Which has the higher specific heat capacity,
   water or sand?
a) Sand
b) Water
c) They both have the same specific heat
   capacity.
             Test Review #53
•  Which has the higher specific heat capacity,
   water or sand?
a) Sand
b) Water
c) They both have the same specific heat
   capacity.
    –   b)

								
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