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Introduction To Genetics- Chapter 11

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Introduction To Genetics-  Chapter 11 Powered By Docstoc
					Introduction To Genetics-
       Chapter 11




                            1
I. The work of Gregor Mendel
 A. Gregor Mendel was born in 1822
 and after becoming a priest; Mendel
 was a math teacher for 14 years and a
 monastery. Mendel was also in charge
 of the monastery garden.

    .

                                     2
1. Mendel carried out
  his work with
  garden peas




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2. Fertilization is the fusion of an egg
and a sperm.

3. True breeding plants are plants that
were allowed to self-pollinate and the
offspring would be exactly like the
parent.

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B. Genes and Dominance
 1. The different forms of a gene is
 called and an alleles.

 2. The principal of dominance states
 that some alleles are dominant and
 others are recessive.


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                       Pinky Finger Traits
At John Burke High School they tested dominant and recessive traits in
our school population. We tested pinky finger traits, whereby, the bent
        finger is dominant and the straight finger is recessive.




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C. Segregation
 1. Each trait has two genes, one from the
 mother and one from the father.

 2. Traits can be either dominant or recessive.

 3. A dominant trait only needs one gene in
 order to be expressed.



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4. A recessive trait needs two genes in
order to be expressed.




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5. Egg and sperm are sex cells called
  gametes.

 6. Segregation is the separation of
 alleles during gamete formation.




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II. Probability and Punnett
Squares
A. Genetics and Probability

   1. The likelihood that a particular
   event will occur is called probability.

   2. The principals of probability can be
   used to predict the outcome of genetic
   crosses.

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B. Punnett Squares
 1. The gene combination that might result
 from a genetic cross can be determined by
 drawing a diagram known as a Punnett
 square.

 2. Punnett squares can be used to predict
 and compare the genetic variations that will
 result from a cross.



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3. Each trait has two genes- one from
the mother and one from the father.

4. Alleles can be homozygous – having
the same traits.

5. Alleles can be heterozygous- having
different traits.

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6. Physical characteristics are called
the phenotype.

7. Genetic make up is the genotype.




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III. Exploring Mendalian
Genetics
A. Independent assortment

   1. Genes segregate independently.




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2. The principle of independent assortment
states that genes for different traits can
segregate independently during the formation
of gametes.

3. Independent assortment helps account for
the many genetic variations observed in
plants, animals and other organisms.


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B. A summary of Mendel’s
Principals
 1. Genes are passed from parent to
 offspring.

2. Some forms of a gene may be
  dominant and others recessive.




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3. In most sexually producing organisms,
each adult has two copies of each gene- one
from each parent. These genes are
segregated from each other when gametes
are formed.

4. The alleles for different genes usually
segregate independently of one another.


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C. Beyond Dominance and
Recessive alleles
 1. Some alleles are neither dominant
 nor recessive, and many traits are
 controlled by multiple alleles or multiple
 genes.

 2. Cases in which one allele is not
 completely dominant over another are
 called incomplete dominance.

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    a. Example: White (W) and Red (R)
is both dominate. If WW X RR the
F1 generation would be WR= pink.




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 3. Codominance is when both alleles
 contribute to the phenotype.

Example: Feather colors




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4. Many genes have more than two
alleles and are referred to have multiple
alleles.

   a. This means that more than two
possible alleles exist in a population.
Example: colors of rabbits see page
273.

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5. Traits that are controlled by two or
more genes are said to be polygenic
traits, which means, “having many
genes.”

a. Example: eye color has many
different genes.

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D. Applying Mendel’s principles

   1. Mendel’s principals do not only
apply to plants.




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IV. Meiosis
 A. Chromosome number

 1. Every individual has two sets of
 chromosomes. One from the mother
 one from the father. When the
 chromosomes pair up for the same trait
 they are called homologous
 chromosomes.

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2. A cell that contains homologous
chromosomes (2 genes) is said to be
diploid/ 2n.

3. Gametes (egg /sperm) have only
one chromosome and are said to be
haploid/ n.

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B. Phases of Meiosis
 1. Meiosis is a process of reduction division
 in which the number of chromosomes per cell
 is cut in half through the separation of
 homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.

 2. Meiosis I- ****The homologous
 chromosomes line up BUT then they CROSS
 OVER, exchanging genetic information.


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  3. Meiosis II- The two cells produced
  by meiosis I now enter a second meiotic
  division. The final product = start with
  1 cell with 46 chromosomes and get 4
  DIFFERENT cells each with 23
  chromosomes.

Go to Internet: www.SciLinks.org code cbn-4114 to view meiosis.

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V. Linkage and gene maps
A. Gene linkage

 1. Thomas Hunt Morgan research on
 fruit flies led him to the principal of
 linkage.

 2. Morgan discovered that many genes
 appeared “linked” together.

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3. It is the chromosomes, however,
that assort independently not individual
genes.

4. Mendel DID miss gene linkage.




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5. Even though if two genes are found
on the same chromosome this does not
mean they are linked forever. Crossing
over can occur.

6. Crossing over creates genetic
diversity.

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7. A gene map
shows the relative
location of each
gene. See page 280
figure 11.9




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THE END




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