Mexican American Education 1930 1950

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					Objectives

1. To become acquainted with the history of Mexican
   American segregation and desegregation in U.S. public
   schools.

2. Become familiar with The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo,
   and it’s implications

3. Understand what is meant by ‘subtractive schooling’

4. Become familiar with issues regarding: school access,
   quality of education, curricular policies, & patterns of
   school performance for Mexican American students in
   the southwest
 From the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to Hopwood:
 The Educational Plight and Struggle of Mexican
 Americans in the Southwest
• Abstract (roughly pages 1-2)
• Expansion of Mexican American Public Education, 1890-
   1930

•   School Access
•   Quality of Education
•   Curricular Policies
•   Pattern of School Performance
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo brought an end to the Mexican American
War (1846-1848) and led to the annexation, by conquest, of over 525,000
square miles of territory by the United States (including present-day
Arizona, California, western Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and
Utah).

The authors contend that, following this treaty, Mexican American
students faced the exclusion and removal of the Mexican-origin
community and its cultural heritage from the schools; the formation of the
template (segregated, inferior schooling) for Mexican American
education; the quest for educational equality; the continuing academic
gap between Mexican American and Anglo or White students; and the
impact of nativism on educational opportunity
Discussion Questions:

•How do schools shape issues of nationhood and
citizenship?

•To what extent does public education unify the United
States?

•How do you see public schools as the battleground for
issues related to racial, ethnic, religious, and gender
differences?
                     School Access
• Increased enrollment due to a mixture of contrary forces such as the
  increasing availability of school facilities; the passage of child labor
  and school attendance laws; immigration; urbanization and
  concentration in rural pockets; and greater economic stability and
  increased economic exploitation

• Nonetheless: Three major groups of Mexican American students were
  denied full access to public education during the first half of the
  twentieth century: agricultural migrants, secondary school-age
  students, and postsecondary school-age students.
             Quality of Education
• Mexican American children received an inferior quality
  education, as evidenced by segregated facilities and
  administrative mistreatment, among others

• State officials played an important role in the expansion of
  educational segregation by sanctioning its presence and
  by allocating state funds for the maintenance of these
  locally segregated schools

•   Separate schools were unequal in many respects to those
    provided for Anglo children.
 Discussion Questions:

To what extent do you see schools responsible for, or
involved in Americanization or assimilation?

How has school shaped and defined the lives of the American
public?

To what extent does public education promote individual
growth among students versus exert social control?

To what extent is Americanization or cultural diversity the
purpose for education?
                  Curricular Policies
• Mexican American children were provided an academically imbalanced
  and culturally subtractive curriculum.

• The curriculum for Mexican American school children in the early
  decades of the twentieth century emphasized socialization and non-
  academic concerns at the expense of academics.

• The "3Cs," common cultural norms, civics instruction, and command
  of the English tongue (Carter & Segura, 1979).

• At the secondary level, the emphasis was shifted to vocational and
  general education.

• English-only laws were challenged in the courts during the mid-1920s
  by a variety of religious, racial, and minority groups. These challenges
  eventually led to the repeal of proscriptive laws by the U.S. Supreme
  Court in the 1920s
        Pattern of School Performance
• Patterns of poor school performance was reflected through low test
  scores, high withdrawal rates from school, and low median number of
  school years completed.

• Although performance improved over the decades, the gap between
  Anglo and Mexican American students did not change significantly
  over time

• Although data on secondary and post-secondary enrollment is lacking,
  existing sources refute the myth of unprecedented poor achievement
  and suggest exceptions to the patterns of school performance in the
  Mexican-origin community
Questions & Objectives

1. To become acquainted with the history of Mexican American
   segregation and desegregation in U.S. public schools.

2. Become familiar with The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, and it’s
   implications

3. Understand what is meant by ‘subtractive schooling’

4. Become familiar with issues regarding: school access, quality of
   education, curricular policies, & patterns of school performance for
   Mexican American students in the southwest

				
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