Teaching Techniques for Adult Learners by 67nMlIE

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									             CCCAOE 2003
Leadership and Creativity:Opportunities in Shifting Sands


      Transfer of Learning:
     Evaluating Work-Based
 Transfer of Training Techniques
                      Wendy Flint
                 College of the Desert
                   Palm Desert, CA
 “Employers deliver learning to
more people than does the entire
 U.S. higher-education system.”

        1989 Research Study
        Merriam & Caffarella
    Instructor Background
Performance Consulting, Workforce Training,
Management Development
  Hewlett-Packard Ink Jet Division
  Executive Forum
  Electric Lightwave
Fulltime Faculty College of the Desert
     Contract Education
     Chair, Faculty Development Committee
     Presenter for Learner-Centered College
                Objectives
1. Define transfer of learning
2. Review learning theories
3. Compare pedagogy to andragogy
4. Apply adult learning theory to community
   college classrooms
5. Evaluate work-based instructional methods
6. Review what 21st century companies want in
   employees
What is transfer of learning?
Transfer takes place when existing
knowledge, abilities and skills assist us in the
performance of new tasks or affect the next
step in the learning process.
In occurs when the learning in one context or
with one set of materials impacts the
performance in another context or with other
related materials.
It is when students apply or practice new
learning in new or existing work situations.
    Theories of Transfer
Meaningful learning promotes better transfer
than rote learning
The more thoroughly something is learned,
the more likely it is to be transferred to a new
situation
The more similar two situations are, the more
likely it is that what is learning in one
situation will be applied to the other situation
Theories of Transfer (cont.)
Principles are more easily transferred than
knowledge
Numerous and varied examples and
opportunities for practice increase the extent
to which information and skills will be applied
in new situations
The probability of transfer decreases as the
time interval between the original task and
the transfer task increases

Omrod, 1999, p. 254-257
Learning Theory
   Pedagogy
       Learning Theory
EXPERIENTIAL
   Lewinian and Dewey
 Cognitive learning is a continuous process
 grounded in experiences.
 Curriculum design focuses on process
 rather than outcomes.
         Learning Theory
EXPERIENTIAL
   David Kolb
 Kolb, researcher and expert in learning
 styles, believes that all learning is relearning.
 “The learner’s mind is not a blank sheet of
 paper and the educator needs to bring out
 the learner’s beliefs and theories, examine
 and test them, and THEN integrate the new
 ideas into the person’s belief systems.”
Adult Learning Theory
      Andragogy
        Knowles (1980)
The art and science of helping adults
learn
The value of understanding adult
learning theory impacts the degree in
which the facilitator can enhance the
adult learning process and improve the
transfer of learning
     Five Characteristics of Adult
              Learning
1. As a person matures, his or her self-concept
   moves from that of a dependent personality
   toward one of a self-directing human being
2. An adult accumulates a growing reservoir of
   experience, which is a rich source for
   learning
3. The readiness of an adult to learn is closely
   related to the development tasks of his or
   her social role
     Five Characteristics of Adult
           Learning (cont)
4. There is a change in time perspective as
   people mature – from future application of
   knowledge to immediacy of application –
   thus an adult is more problem-centered
   than subject-centered in learning
5. Adults are motivated to learn by internal
   factors rather than external ones

     Knowles, 1980, p. 249
             Cross, 1981
Characteristics of adults, including aging,
stage and phase development, participation,
motivation influence how learning takes place
Understanding reasons adults participate in
learning enhances the ability of the facilitator
to set expectations for the depth of transfer
of learning
  How Adults Prefer to Learn
1. Need to know why they should learn
   something.

2. Need to be self-directed.

3. Need to have their experience
   respected and considered a resource
   for the learning process.
                    Adults
4.   Make voluntary commitment to learn when
     they experience a real need to know or to
     be able to do something
5.   Have a task-centered or problem-centered
     approach to learning.
6.   Are motivated to learn.
7.   Need to have feedback regarding their
     learning.
  Applying Adult Learning
          Theory
ADULT LEARNING THEORY SHOULD DRIVE
THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANY CUSTOMIZED
TRAINING FOR BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY
  Maximizing Your Impact in Contract Education,
  1996 – ED>Net

A workplace trainer or adult educator must recreate
  a child-like sense of fun and enjoyment and make
  people want to learn.
Does adult learning theory
  apply to occupational
   community college
      classrooms?
  Knowledge/Skill Transfer
TRANSFER OF TRAINING
  What is learned in the classroom is not transferred
  until the learner successfully applies or practices
  the learning in a new or work situation or to a
  problem-based scenario in the classroom.
TRANSFER OF LEARNING
  What is learning in the classroom is not
  transferred until the learner successfully applies or
  practices the learning in a new context.
TRANSFER OF TRAINING ENHANCERS
Most readily happens when there is:
  Applying and practicing of new learning
  Integrated learning contexts
  Integrated secondary learning objectives of a
  workplace skill or attitude
  Meaningful learning – relates to real world
  Process and principles in addition to content
  Instructional strategies
  Feedback and assessment techniques
  Motivation
  Coaching and mentoring
Work-based Transfer of
 Learning Techniques
Applying training concepts to the
 Community College classroom
   National Research Council
             2002
1. Supervisors and employees must actively
   participate for the transfer of learning to
   take place.
2. Supervisors can support learners by
   ensuring their work assignments are
   covered while the employee is learning.
3. Supervisors need to reward and recognize
   the value of learning and review and debrief
   with the employee following learning
   National Research Council
          2002 (cont)
4. Employees should periodically review their
   course materials following a training
   program.
5. Employees should maintain contact with
   other learners that participated in the
   course.
6. Employees must immediately apply the
   knowledge and solve a set of transfer
   problems or there will be knowledge and
   skill “decay.”
  Problem-Based Learning
Transfer thinking skills to new or
different situations.
All new learning is based on previous
learning.
Solve a set of problems immediately
after the initial learning task.
No right answer – only recommended
solutions and justification as to why the
solution was chosen.
Instructional Method:
     Case Study
Project Based Learning (PBL)
Tap learners’ drive to learn, and their
capability to do important work
Complex, real-world projects
Where ultimate results are not fully
predictable
Draw from many disciplines
Make decisions related to resources,
time, materials, and facilities
   Oakey, 1995
    Coaching & Mentoring
Provides a safe environment in which practice
and feedback can take place.
  American Express
  American Management Association
  AT&T
  Citibank
  Colgate
  Levi Strauss
  Northern Telcom
  Procter & Gamble
  Nynex
    Coaching & Mentoring
Pilot program of executive coaching at a
public sector organization, yielded
productivity increases almost four times
the level achieved by training alone.
Main reason? Goal Setting
The coach and “coachee” worked
together to define concrete actions
This led to higher transfer levels.
The Role of the Trainer
      Guide, director, or facilitator
      versus teacher.
      Promotes intellectual discoveries
      versus learning from lecture.
      Plans instructional strategies
      that aligns with performance
      objectives.
      Assesses and evaluates learners
      and adjusts curriculum versus
      preparing students for a test.
        The Learning Cycle –
         Reflective Learning
               1) Tell the Learner What
               They are Going to Learn

4) Have the Learner
Reflect on What was              2) Teach the Knowledge or
      Learned                               Skill



               3) Measure the Knowledge
                  or Practice the Skill
Instructional Methods and
         Activities
         Training Methods
1. Facilitator Presentation
2. Group Discussion – Large
3. Demonstration
4. Role Play
5. Case Study / Small Group Activity
6. Simulation / Drill
      Highly Interactive
25%
                           Lecture

                           Practice




                       75%
Accelerating the Classroom
Visual
Audio
Kinesthetic
            Training Activities
1. Flip-charting   6. PowerPoint   11. White Board
                   Slides

2. Overhead        7. Lecture      12.
Slides                             Demonstration
3. Video           8. Audio Tape   13. Ice Breaker
4. Slides          9. Music      14. Handouts or
                                 Job Aids
5. Simulation      10. Computer- 15. Games
                   based / web-
                   based
Instructional Activity:
      Simulation
Preparing Students for the
       21st Century

    Integrating “Secondary
          Objectives”
Industrial Age Vs Information
             Age




 Answer questions page 5
What are companies asking for?
  Technical Skills
  Oral & written skills
  Flexibility
  Tolerance
  Problem solving – critical thinking
  Goal setting
  Interpersonal skills including conflict
  resolution, influence, and negotiation
  Project management & time management
  Decision making
  Innovation and creativity

								
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