Sam challis

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For this assessment unit I have written and evaluated a series of materials that aim to
develop the procedural concept of toleration in citizenship. To do this, I have used
Northern Ireland as a historical case study. Northern Ireland illustrates what can
happen when tolerance collapses, and I feel it can show to students the importance of
developing their own ability to tolerate.

Throughout the materials, I have worked with the belief that the more students learn
about the nature of toleration, think about what it means, and consider how it has or
has not worked in practice, the more they are likely to consider how tolerant they
should be. If it is accepted that intolerance tends to come from ignorance, then this is
likely to significantly increase toleration amongst students using these materials and
potential lessons.

I have not been able to teach the lessons that I have included with these materials as
citizenship provision at Fulford, my main placement school, is carried out across the
curriculum and therefore does not have blocks of lessons and Northern Ireland is not
an option followed on the GCSE history course. I have used information from my
time at Selby High to adapt what is used there as a coursework unit at GCSE for these
purposes. However, I have aimed the materials directly at a year ten group I have
been teaching at Fulford and the level of work required reflects the abilities of this top
set. I have, in places, indicated how materials could be adapted for sets working at a
lower level.



Lesson Plans

Cards on forms of protest

Introduction to Northern Ireland booklet

Newspaper articles

Questions on newspaper articles (also with answers)

OHT definitions of toleration (submitted on paper)

Role play card sheets

Teachers’ guide
                       Lesson Plan for             Northern Ireland (1 of 3)

Class 10 (1)                      Period 70 mins              Date
Aim (to include relevant National Curriculum information)
This lesson introduces students to the concept of toleration and allows them to start thinking about its importance
to society, what happens if it collapses, and how it can be built. Pupils will, by exploring the case study of Northern
Ireland, gain a realisation of the importance of toleration due to their own deductions rather than by prescription.
By the end of the lesson, students will be able to define various different types of protest, state a personal
position on what kinds of protest are acceptable in a democracy, know the basic facts about Northern Ireland,
understand that there are many different ways of changing society and be able to move on to a more concentrated
discussion of the concept of toleration in the next lesson. (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1f, 1i, 2a, 2b, 3c)
‘Northern Ireland’ booklets
Cards showing ways of protesting

Tim                            Teacher Action                                               Pupil Action
Start     Introduction. Explain that the lesson will be looking at          Listen to introduction and begin to think about
          Northern Ireland, but strongly stress how we will look at the     previous knowledge of Northern Ireland, and
          idea of toleration.                                               what is involved in toleration.

5 mins    Ask for ideas of different ways of expressing opinions or         Give ideas of ways of protesting. Think about all
          registering dissent that are available in Britain. If students    the different kinds of protest that happen in
          have any difficulty coming up with a list of 10 or more, remind   Britain,
          of a few institutions Britain has – press, parliament etc – and
          give two minutes for them to think in pairs. Note ideas on
          the board.

15        Distribute cards on forms of protest – give a brief chance        Look at cards on forms of protest in small
mins      for pupils to look through them and get into groups of 3 or 4.    groups. Think about and discuss what they
          Explain to pupils they are looking at protest options and ask     regard as acceptable forms of protest in this
          them to categorise into ones acceptable, not acceptable and       country. Place into three categories and be
          sometimes acceptable in Britain. Give at least ten minutes        ready to justify decisions.
          for them to debate and discuss in groups.

          Ask groups to volunteer to feedback. Ask why they have put        Either feedback or listen to other groups doing
25        more debateable ones where they have. Ask if other                so. Dispute other groups’ placings if there is
mins      students disagree – take three groups unless none differ at       disagreement. Consider why different people
          all. If a lack of disagreement, adopt a devil’s advocate          believe in different forms of protest. Listen to
          position. Explain we tolerate certain forms of dissent, but       explanation that in different kinds of society, we
          not others.                                                       accept different things.

40        Introduce Northern Ireland. Explain that all the kinds of         Think about Northern Ireland as a ‘different’
mins      protest have happened, and that toleration is very different      society yet very close to us. See the paradox of
          there. People will often tolerate actions from their              different kinds of toleration and recall news
          community we are not used to, while will not tolerate actions     stories etc that may have been seen.
          from the opposite community, such as walking down streets,
          that we are used to.

45        Give a reasonably brief introduction to the history of            Listen to presentation and think about key points
mins      Northern Ireland explaining events and breakdown of               – answer questions in places, make notes in books
          tolerance. Give out booklets afterwards.                          on anything found interesting.

          Ask pupils to find an expression of protest, or disagreement,     Think about the different events, almost all of
52        that they find interesting, and make notes on whether they        which are a protest in some sense, and consider
mins      agree with it or not, and why.                                    whether they would tolerate it. Write down
          Ask to complete for homework by using the internet to             homework and ask any necessary questions.
          research further. Discuss for last five minutes.                  Answer plenary questions.
Key Question
What kinds of protest are tolerable in Britain?
 - how do we protest?
 - what is different about Northern Ireland

Key Words/Concepts

Toleration. Protest. Politics. Community norms.

Students are given an introduction to the sequence of lessons that will allow them to debate
more thoroughly later on. This lesson provides stimulus to in depth discussion of how we set
norms of tolerable political behaviour and a wider discussion of the importance of a clear
concept of toleration within agreed boundaries.
It is vital that less confident pupils are drawn into this unit from the start as the issues
discussed can be complex. Those pupils that tend to contribute less should be asked first in
the initial ideastorm exercise and also if possible when feeding back the group work. Small
groups should be a useful tool in allowing all to contribute to at least some form of discussion.
Stronger pupils will naturally be able to suggest different ideas and take greater risks with
what they think of, allowing them to extend and develop their understanding.
 Extension work, if required, could involve investigating why different kinds of protest are
tolerable in different places. A list of factors could be drawn up and discussed. Also, the
roots of intolerance could be looked into – why is there trouble between Protestants and
Catholics in Belfast and Glasgow but not in York for example.
            Lesson Plan for            Northern Ireland (2 of 3)

Class 10 (1)                         Period 70 mins              Date
Aim (to include relevant National Curriculum information)
This lesson will develop students’ views on the concept of toleration, and allow them to consider
its importance. They will be able to consider what they think toleration means, while also looking
at what it has been taken to mean. Students should be able to name a wide variety of reasons for
breakdowns of toleration and consider how it could plausibly be rebuilt. They will also consider
the role of the media, and the lack of shared culture, in creating collapses of toleration. (1b, 1c,
1d, 1f, 1g, 1i, 2, 3a)
Role play cards.                 Northern Ireland booklets.
Toleration definition OHT.       Toleration worksheet
Newspaper articles.
Timing       Teacher Action                                 Pupil Action
Start        Introduce the tighter focus on the concept     Understand the meaning of toleration –
             with an explanation of how we will be          think about what it means, how far we
             looking at wildly divergent views, seeing      practice it, and what causes it to fall
             how toleration has broken down, what           apart in places such as Northern Ireland.
             happens when it does, and considering how
             it can be rebuilt.

5 mins       Ask pupils to write a personal definition of   Write down what they think tolerance is –
             tolerance and give an example of when it is    should be personal. Then give an example
             used. When they have done this show and        of its use.
             discuss the OHT.

12 mins      Brainstorm reasons why people might stop       Think of reasons and listen to those of
             tolerating others.                             others.

             Briefly recap the major differences in         Remember work from previous lesson –
20 mins      Northern Ireland, link in to reasons that      why people don’t tolerate each other
             have just been suggested.                      much there, historical background etc.

25 mins      Distribute newspaper articles –show that       Read through articles then give ideas of
             there is widespread disagreement over          the viewpoints of different publications
             issues, division is unavoidable, but the       on people and talks. Think what the key
             collapse of toleration comes from              disagreements are, understand that this
             elsewhere. Read through and briefly            can happen, while still tolerating, but if
             discuss what main disagreements seem to        there is a breakdown of toleration,
             be.                                            differences of interpretation became a
                                                            vicious circle.
30 mins      Distribute toleration worksheet. Pupils to
             complete and answer questions.                 Read, understand and complete worksheet

             Debate answers to questions. Also, why         Discuss – think about what we have talked
40 mins      some places can tolerate differences while     about so far, what is special about places
             others can’t, what happened? Move on,          like Northern Ireland – relative poverty,
             after ten minutes or so, to what can           religion, uncertain status, historical
             rebuild toleration.                            awareness, single issue politics etc.

60 mins      Distribute role play cards for next lesson –   Read role play card, think about what this
             homework is to research and prepare            means and be ready to develop ideas at
             character for next lessons. Answer any         home.
Key Question
Why, when there are differences everywhere, do some places see collapses of

Key Words/Concepts
 Toleration. Conflict. Degrees of difference in interpretation. Shared culture of
dispute resolution.

Students will build on the basic knowledge of the situation in Northern Ireland
that they gained in the previous lesson and begin to think about toleration more
closely while continuing to consider the particular situation in the six counties.
They will continue to build debating skills and be able to consider a wide range of
points of view and how it is necessary to tolerate this, while also having an
understanding of the fluidity of boundaries of toleration that will develop their
thinking skills.
Most activities in this lesson should be accessible to all pupils with differentiation
being by outcome. The main area for greater differentiation is in the preparation
for the role play, where it should be ensured that less confident pupils receive
cards that will allow them to speak, while not having to be a major target for
others, while the most confident receive cards that will make them think, rather
than dominate discussion.
 Why does the boundary of what is tolerable change over time?
            Lesson Plan for            Northern Ireland (3 of 3)

Class 10 (1)                         Period 70 mins              Date
Aim (to include relevant National Curriculum information)
In this lesson, students will develop their understanding of both the situation in Northern
Ireland and the idea of toleration. By considering the reactions and ideas of others, they will be
able to think about their own views, and argue them effectively in an essay format. The
extended role play will also develop students’ ability to give an argument orally, and consider the
views of others which they may not share. (1b, 1c, 1d, 1f, 1g, 1i, 2, 3a)
Role play cards
Northern Ireland booklets

Timing      Teacher Action                              Pupil Action
Start       Begin lesson by directing pupils to         Pupils settle into correct seats and
            seats – pane; at front of room consists     understand that the lesson is going to be
            of seven pupils who play                    dedicated to the role play.
            representatives of the four main NI
            political parties, a liberal churchman
            (no denomination specified), the
            Secretary of State for Northern
            Ireland and a Northern Irish 14/15
            year old. The teacher can chair the
            debate, or, alternatively, using a
            confident but occasionally disruptive
            pupil in this role can work very well.

            Once students are settled, remind of        Remember and understand what is
5 mins                                                  happening. Look back at definition of
            debate topic – how can we tolerate
            each other? – and that it is important      toleration and notes on sources from
            to be in character. Also establish the      previous lesson.

            Begin role play – ensure that all issues    Take part in role play, remembering
12 mins                                                 to remain in character and to discuss
            are dealt with and kept focussed on
            idea of toleration – including ‘moderate’   the issues seriously.
            characters’ toleration of those with
            strong views.

            Ask the three ‘journalist’ characters       Listen or take part in summing up of
45 mins                                                 what has been heard.
            to sum up.

50 mins     Ask what other areas of society would       Consider wider ideas of toleration,
            benefit from greater toleration – make      start seeing it as a complex concept
            pupils consider its importance for a        that is affected by many different
            final time.                                 variables.

            Vote on three most important ways to        Take part in vote. Think about
65 mins     develop toleration.                         developing toleration.

            For homework, write a short essay
            ‘what is toleration and why do we need
            it?’ using any examples wanted.
Key Question
How do different kinds of people tolerate others?

Key Words/Concepts
Toleration. Consideration of the viewpoints of others. Change in society.

Students will further develop their ability to understand the concept of toleration
and also their personal level of tolerance by attempting to understand the
motivations of a wide range of different people, the vast majority of whom will
seem distinctly alien. They will also extend their discussion skills and their
confidence in their abilities to contribute orally.
It is vitally important to get every pupil involved in the role play – at just over 30
minutes in length, there is time for each student to talk for a minute on average,
and it should be ensured that no-one fails to make at least one point. However,
the panel structure of the debate is designed to allow particularly confident
student to excel, but also includes roles appropriate for the less confident. The
possibility of choosing a particular pupil to chair also provides a useful opportunity
for differentiation. Focus questions for the essay can also be altered to reflect
the abilities of different pupils.
 Extension work could involve evaluating the likely effectiveness of different
initiatives designed to promote toleration. For example, does positive
discrimination in favour of minorities create more or less toleration?
Legal Protests (marches, rallies etc.)

[picture shows an Anti Nazi League rally]

Letter writing (to MPs, newspapers etc.)

[picture shows a “Dear Mr Blair” letter]

Illegal protests
(occupying buildings, blocking roads)

[picture shows some students occupying a building]

 Painting slogans on walls

[picture shows ‘You are now entering Free Derry’ slogan]

Violence against property

[picture shows the aftermath of the IRA docklands bomb]

Targeted assassinations

[Picture shows the coffin of Lord Mountbatten]
Killing police, soldiers, etc.

[picture shows British army corporals being attacked at 1988 IRA


[picture shows a wall mural ‘Vote [Gerry] Adams’.

Hunger Strike/Suicide
[Picture shows emaciated hunger striker Raymond McCartney]


[picture shows Unison pickets]

Indiscriminate killing

[Picture shows World Trade Center burning]

Use the Courts

[Picture shows the European Court of Human Rights]
                                        Northern Ireland

[picture – map of the north of Ireland featuring main transport links and towns]


Ireland has suffered from division and conflict for hundreds of years. The ‘Troubles’ – the
violence between Catholic and Protestant people in Northern Ireland – that have happened since
1968 are the latest in a long line of violent struggles.

It is difficult to date the beginning of the conflict in Ireland. Certainly
Oliver Cromwell’s campaign of violence against the Irish people in the
1640s is still remembered, as is the Battle of the Boyne in 1689 that
confirmed Protestant rule over England and Ireland. This battle is still
celebrated every year by Protestants in Northern Ireland on the Twelth
of July.

After the First World War, Ireland was divided into North and South.
The South became an independent country, while the North remained
part of the United Kingdom. This situation has remained ever since.
Most of the disagreements in Ireland relate to whether Northern
Ireland should remain a part of the UK or rejoin the rest of Ireland.
Over the years, the Republic of Ireland has become relatively peaceful,
and the disputes over the North have mostly stayed within Northern

The modern ‘Troubles’

Since 1968, Northern Ireland has been famous for the violence that has been a massive feature
of its society. This violence is essentially between Nationalists – those who want Northern
Ireland to join the South – on one side, and Unionists – those who want it to stay a part of the UK
– on the other. Usually, Nationalists tend to be Catholics, and Unionists Protestants. Describing
the various groups in Northern Ireland is difficult, as language itself forms part of many of the
disputes. For example, many people who feel Northern Ireland should be part of the South refuse
to use the term ‘Northern Ireland’ itself. Also, there are various disagreements over how far
violence can be used to defend either side of the argument, while the importance of religion is
extremely controversial. As an introduction, the following diagram gives an idea of the two sides:

[picture – horseshoe diagram placing the main political/paramilitary organisations on two spectrums – Unionist vs
Nationalist and peaceful vs violent]

While there is the obvious division between those who want to be a part of the UK, and those who
want to join the Republic of Ireland, there are also divisions between those who are willing to use
violence and those who are not, and also between the two religious traditions. Divisions can be
between people who, in at least one of these three divisions, could be seen to be on the same side.
However, it is usually the case that political conflicts are between Republicans/Nationalists aiming
at a united Ireland, and Loyalists/Unionists attempting to keep Northern Ireland in the UK. This
division runs through almost everything that happens in Northern Ireland. Different people,
depending on where on the above horseshoe they stand, interpret all the events that have
occurred during the ‘Troubles’ differently.

Key events

The following table shows some of the major events that have happened in Northern Ireland. It
does not include every major terrorist attack but illustrates a small number of the most notorious
sequences of violence. What can be seen throughout is that it took a great amount of time for
both sides in the conflict to be able to compromise and for a degree of toleration to develop.

1968 – A worldwide wave of protest influences Northern Ireland. Catholics, and
        some Protestants, called for civil rights for the Catholic minority.
1969 – Marches for civil rights attacked by loyalist protestors and parts of the
       British soldiers are sent into the towns of Derry and Belfast.
1971 – First British soldier killed by the IRA. A major IRA bombing campaign
1972 – Thirteen civil rights marchers killed by the British Army Parachute
       Official IRA bombs Parachute Regiment headquarters in Aldershot,
       England, killing five civilian cleaners and a Catholic chaplain.
       Official IRA declares ceasefire after protests against its killing of a
       Northern Irish Catholic member of the British Army.
       Provisional IRA declares ceasefire and enters secret meetings with
       British government. Ceasefire ends when no compromise can be reached.
1974 – Loyalist Ulster Workers Council collapses Power Sharing government with
1975 – Provisional IRA ceasefire in January. Fight with Official IRA, who
       themselves are fighting the INLA, throughout the year. Ceasefire ends
       in November.
1981 – IRA prisoners go on hunger strike in an attempt to be recognised as a
       special category of prisoner. One hunger striker, Bobby Sands, is
       elected MP for Fermanagh and South Tyrone before dying in May. Two
       other hunger strikers are elected to the Irish parliament in June.
1983 – Gerry Adams elected MP for West Belfast.
1984 – IRA bombs the Grand Hotel, Brighton, during the Conservative Party
       conference in narrowly unsuccessful attempt to kill Margaret Thatcher.
1985 – The British and Irish governments sign the Anglo-Irish agreement. This
       is an attempt to co-operate on issues relating to the North.
1988 – Senior members of the Nationalist SDLP enter talks with Gerry Adams
       and other leading members of Sinn Fein.
       British government bans the voices of Sinn Fein members from the
       television and radio.
1991 – An IRA mortar explodes in the garden of 10 Downing Street while John
       Major’s cabinet debates the Gulf War.
1992 – Eight Protestant building workers at a security force base are killed by
       the IRA.
       Five Catholics are murdered by Loyalist terrorists in a betting shop in
       Gerry Adams loses his West Belfast seat.
       IRA bomb in London causes £800 million of damage.
       The two main Unionist political parties agree to talks with the Irish
1993 – IRA bombs in Warrington, England, kill two children
       IRA kills ten Protestants in a fish shop in Belfast in an attempt to
       destroy loyalist offices above it.
       Loyalist terrorists retaliate by shooting seven Catholics in a bar in
       It becomes public knowledge that the British government has been
       talking to Sinn Fein and the IRA for two years.
       The British and Irish governments give the Downing Street Declaration –
       increased co-operation in Northern Ireland.
1994 – IRA declares a ceasefire.
       Loyalist terrorists agree a ceasefire two months later.
1995 – 1000 police and 10000 Protestant Orangemen involved in confrontation
       over whether the Orangemen can march down a Catholic street.
1996 – IRA ends its ceasefire after the British government refuse to allow it to
       enter talks without giving up weapons, confirming its ceasefire is
       permanent and stating it will accept any agreement that has the consent
       of the majority of people in Northern Ireland.
1997 – Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness become MPs. The newly elected
       Labour government in Britain has said that Sinn Fein can join talks in
       June if the IRA calls a new ceasefire.
       IRA declares a ceasefire in July.
       Gerry Adams and Martin McGuinness meet Tony Blair in Downing Street –
       five years after the IRA attacked it and seventy-six years since the last
       Sinn Fein members had entered negotiations.
1998 – Mo Mowlam, British Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, enters the
       Maze Prison to convince Loyalist terrorists to keep supporting their
       On Good Friday, 10th April, most of Northern Ireland’s political parties
       reach an agreement. The Good Friday Agreement, if successful, would
       lead to a power sharing system similar to that which collapsed in 1974. It
       also states that no change to the status of Northern Ireland can happen
       without the agreement of its people. The Republic of Ireland accepts
       this by agreeing to remove clauses in its constitution that claim Northern
       Ireland as a part of the Republic. Terrorist prisoners from all
       organisations supporting the agreement are to be released and all sides
       will have to work with people they strongly dislike. All parties have had
       to make massive compromises beyond anything that had been thought
       Elections to the Northern Ireland Assembly – from which a new
       government of Northern Ireland would come – lead to gains for Sinn Fein
       and a narrow victory for pro-Agreement Unionists.
       Real IRA bombs Omagh on 15th August, killing twenty-nine people.
1999 - Two members of Sinn Fein enter the new government of Northern
       Ireland. Until now, Sinn Fein had never recognised it as a state.
       Unionists had also usually said they would never work with Sinn Fein.
2000 – IRA agrees structures to put its weapons beyond use.
       Pro-Agreement Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) loses its second safest
       Parliamentary seat to the anti-Agreement Democratic Unionist Party
2001 – Sinn Fein wins four seats in the British general election, making it the
       larger than the moderate Nationalist SDLP. The DUP wins three seats
       from the UUP.
       IRA destroys some of its weapons.
2002 – Northern Ireland Assembly suspended in October after allegations of
       IRA spying within the Northern Ireland Civil Service.

History is very important in Northern Ireland. There is disagreement over the nature of all major
events and all can be used to develop the various political projects. Part of the peace process has
been to develop versions of Northern Irish history that are acceptable to more than one
community within the country. Studying the history of Northern Ireland, and understanding how
greater toleration has begun to develop, involves understanding both what happened, and how it
can be interpreted differently. To understand how people interpret historical events, we have to
understand both what they want, and how all previous history has affected them.

Glossary of important terms

Catholics – Members of the Catholic Church. The majority of the population of the island of
      Ireland are Catholics but in Northern Ireland they are the minority.
Civil Rights – Demanded by the Catholic community in Northern Ireland who see themselves as
      discriminated against. Catholics had found it harder to get jobs and houses.
DUP – Democratic Unionist Party. A political party extremely strongly committed to keeping
       Northern Ireland in the UK. Led by the extreme Protestant Reverend Ian Paisley and
       strongly anti-Catholic.
Hunger Strike – A protest made by refusing to eat, sometimes to the point of death. A traditional
       part of Irish culture most famously used by IRA prisoners in 1980-1981.
IRA – Irish Republican Army. A secret terrorist organisation that has fought for Northern
       Ireland to become part of the South. It has split on various occasions but the main
       organisation – fully titled the Provisional IRA – is biggest, has the most support, and is the
       most powerful. The IRA has been on ceasefire since 1997.
IRSP – Irish Republican Socialist Party. Political voice of the INLA. Anti-Good Friday Agreement.
INLA – Irish National Liberation Army. Extremely violent, communist terrorist organisation
       committed to a united Ireland.
Loyalists – Extreme unionists who do not want to see any involvement of the Republic of Ireland in
       the affairs of the North. Often willing to use violence to defend their views, loyalists are
       usually strongly anti-Catholic and see religion as highly important. Loyalist terrorist groups
      include the Ulster Defence Association, Ulster Freedom Fighters and Loyalist Volunteer
      Force. Some are officially on ceasefire although violence is still common.
Nationalists – People who want Northern Ireland to join the South, but are not willing to support
      violence to achieve this. Usually Catholics but not exclusively so.
Official IRA – Communist-influenced terrorist organisation committed to a united Ireland but on
      long term ceasefire. The main IRA split from it in 1969 and it has shrunk ever since.
Orangemen – Members of the Orange Order, a Protestant cultural organisation dedicated to
      defending the union with Britain. Anti-Catholic and while officially peaceful it contains
      members linked to Loyalist terrorism.
Power Sharing – A way of forming governments that represent the interests of both those who
      want Northern Ireland to be part of the UK and those who want it to join the South. The
      government formed after the 1998 Good Friday Agreement included members of four
      parties – the DUP, the UUP, the SDLP and Sinn Fein.
Protestants – Members of one of the many Protestant Churches – includes Anglicans, Methodists,
      Baptists and Presbyterians.
Real IRA – Republican terrorist organisation. Responsible for the Omagh bombing and a continuing
      campaign of violence. Split from main IRA over ceasefire in 1998.
Republicans – People committed to a united Ireland including the North. Will usually accept that
      violence can be used to achieve this although many republican groups have stopped
      supporting violence. Almost always Catholics.
SDLP – Social Democratic and Labour Party. A political party that aims to achieve a united Ireland
      by peaceful means. It is mostly Catholic but aims to be non-religious.
Sinn Fein – A political party strongly linked to the IRA. It is committed to a united Ireland and
      has been willing to support violence to achieve its aims. It claims to be non-religious but is
      made up almost entirely of Catholics and has previously refused to condemn IRA attacks on
      civilian Protestants. It has supported the IRA ceasefire since 1997.
Unionists – People who believe Northern Ireland should remain in the UK. There are a large
      number of unionist political parties and other organisations.
UUP – Ulster Unionist Party. A political party strongly committed to keeping Northern Ireland in
      the UK, but usually willing to negotiate with others. Strongly anti-violence.
              on recent peace talks in Northern Ireland

Source One

Speaking at the weekend in South Armagh, Sinn Féin's chief negotiator, Martin
McGuinness, had described the Hillsborough talks as "absolutely critical to the future
of the entire island". And he had a message to the leadership of the Ulster Unionist
Party: "We say there is an opportunity here to move forward."

David Trimble had told Saturday's meeting of the Ulster Unionist Council: "We want
the Assembly back." Significantly, party supporters rather than hard line anti-
Agreement elements had flanked Trimble. Jeffrey Donaldson and David Burnside
were left to snipe from the sidelines.

Earlier criticism of Trimble's handling of the peace process by the US National
Committee on Foreign Policy had been dismissed by UUP spokespersons, but
privately they admitted Trimble had been rattled. The US think tank had been
'disappointed' by Trimble's performance; the UUP leader had failed to stand up for
the Good Friday Agreement, said committee chairperson Bill Flynn.

Dr George Schwab, the committee's president, went even further, accusing Trimble
of destabilising the Agreement by "constantly issuing ultimatums" which went "far
beyond what was provided for in the Good Friday Agreement".

An Phoblacht/Republican News (March 2003)

Source Two

It had been perhaps the best negotiating session in five years.

Sometimes this kind of spin is just damage limitation - the government trying to make
the best of a bad job.

But then commentators reflected, Tony Blair had put off meetings with the Russian
Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov and the Queen to continue these talks.

Surely the prime minister wouldn't do that at a time of great international tension
unless real progress was being made.

From inside, participants told us the atmosphere was blowing hot and cold.

The gap appeared to be narrowing between unionists and republicans on the
question of what sanctions should be imposed on a party found to be in breach of
any future deal.

BBC online, March 2003
Source Three

THE DUP today slammed the planned political sanctions package _ revealed by the
Belfast Telegraph - as "convoluted, unworkable and farcical".

Deputy leader Peter Robinson argued the system, to be made public by the
Government next month, would ensure action could not be taken against Sinn Fein.

The leading anti-Agreement party also said the proposals should be spurned by
Ulster Unionist leader David Trimble.

Senior pro-Agreement party sources yesterday confirmed how they believed
sanctions would work. The issue could prove the key to the restoration of devolved

So far Sinn Fein insists the plan is outside the terms of the Belfast Agreement while
the UUP insists credible sanctions are a pre-requisite before they can even consider
a return to government.

Under the plan, the so-called peace commission which would monitor the ceasefires
would report any breach to the two governments and the existing Stormont
Implementation Group.

That body which is boycotted by the DUP would ask the party involved in the breach
for an explanation, which if unsatisfactory to any other party, would then lead the
Implementation Group preparing a report on remedies.

Belfast Telegraph (Unionist) March 2003.

Source Four
it is clear that unionists have paid a heavy price for the latest concessions negotiated
by David Trimble.

How many times must unionists pay a price for David Trimble’s mistakes on Good
Friday? It is a corruption of democracy to reward terrorists. It is sheer lunacy for any
unionist leader to sign up to such a process time and time again.

David Trimble seems willing to pay any price to get back in Government and
republicans can extract huge concessions on this basis.

Any movement from the IRA will be purely tactical and used to cynically deceive the
unionist electorate. This is a trick which has been used by republicans before and
has fooled the Ulster Unionist party every time. David Trimble and his party
colleagues seem destined to repeat the same mistakes all over again.

The Newsletter (Loyalist), March 2003
       How do people see events in Northern Ireland?

You have been given news articles that describe events at
recent talks attempting to re-establish the Northern Ireland
Assembly and bring government back to the local politicians.
Think about how the four sources present the events
differently and what the different types of people who read
the different types of news service will believe.

1)      What do the four sources say about David Trimble?
        Which approve of his actions, which do not? Use evidence
        to support your views.

Source One, from the Sinn Fein newspaper An Phoblacht/Republican News is moderately anti-
Trimble but accepts that with him there “is an opportunity here to move forward” despite
agreeing he has “failed to stand up for the Good Friday Agreement. It reserves real criticism for
anti-agreement Unionists who “snipe from the sidelines”.

Source Two, from the BBC, does not mention Trimble directly but
focuses on the activities of the British and Irish governments. It can be
inferred from suggestions that “it had been perhaps the best negotiating
session in five years” and similar notes of progress that the BBC are
satisfied with Trimble but the main point to be drawn, with which
students are likely to need some help, is that the BBC believes its readers
will struggle with too many details of the political situation, and may be
impatient with Northern Ireland in general – “trying to make the best of a
bad job.”

Source Three, from the unionist-leaning Belfast Telegraph, is relatively
neutral about Trimble, but leads with quotations from the anit-agreement
DUP, putting the emphasis on Trimble signing up to a “convoluted,
unworkable and farcical” agreement. Phrases like “so-called peace
commission” suggest a lack of confidence in the process and those
promoting it.

Source Four, from the loyalist, DUP supporting Newsletter is the most
anti-Trimble. “How many times must Unionists pay a price for David
Trimble’s mistakes on Good Friday” and “sheer lunacy” are among many
statements to this effect. Students should, if they do not raise it, be asked
to think about what this suggests about cross-cutting collapses of
tolerance. Those who try to make peace are often seen as traitors by their
own side.

2)      Which of the articles is easiest to understand?

Students are likely to suggest source two, from the BBC. This indicates the complex nature of
the political situation, and how outsiders usually fail to understand it – the BBC does not want to
confuse its readers. Time can be taken to think about what this suggests for British people’s
tolerance of the situation in Northern Ireland. There would be more detail in a story about
American politics.

3)      What do the four sources say about ‘Republicans’ –
        supporters of Sinn Fein and the IRA?

Source One shows Martin McGuinness in a postive light, aiming at the future.

Source Two is also reasonably positive where they appear as effective
negotiating partners for unionists.

Sources Three and Four completely distrust them and want to keep them
out of government.

Students could think about why this is – it is much harder to be tolerant of
people, despite political realities, if they have very recently been involved
in violence against you.

4)      What do you think the main disagreements are?

The role and nature of Sinn Fein, whether David Trimble has
followed the correct strategy, whether the Good Friday
Agreement was a good idea, whether Northern Ireland is ready
for its own government.

5)      How would you build understanding between different
        groups of people?
Answers may suggest ideas such as ensuring people talk in negotiations, getting different kinds of
people outside of politics to talk to each other, producing impartial news and producing trusted
leaders. The aim here is not to get the ‘perfect’ answers from students, but for them to see that
this is an extremely hard question but that the first building block of tolerance is understanding.
If pupils are to build their ability to tolerate, they first need to understand and know about what
they are tolerating.
To tolerate something is to accept it and let it happen even if you do not like it.

When we show toleration we are being
patient and understanding even when we
find something annoying or upsetting.

We might tolerate someone we live with
playing loud music we dislike.

When we allow people to do what they
want, even when we do not understand
them, or maybe even do not like them,
we are showing toleration.
Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

           The Reverend Dr Ian Paisley MLA, MEP, MP
You are very strongly in favour of keeping Northern Ireland in the UK. You are a preacher in a
Protestant Church and believe that Catholics are very dangerous. In the past you have
suggested the Pope is the devil. You are the leader of the Democratic Unionist Party who
campaign against both those who want a united Ireland and less extreme unionists who will talk
to Sinn Fein or the Irish government. You want people to live in peace, but you believe the only
way to do this is to prevent anyone from arguing against the view of the majority of society.

       You will sit on the panel where other people will ask you questions.

                        Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

                             Gerry Adams MLA, MP

You are very strongly in favour of making Northern Ireland part of the Irish
Republic. You are the President of Sinn Fein and, while you do not admit to this,
have never been able to disprove the suggestion that you are a very senior member
of the IRA. You claim to believe that Protestants and Catholics could live together
in a peaceful, socialist United Ireland but have in the past refused to condemn IRA
killings of Protestant civilians. You believe that intolerance occurs when people in
power use their position unfairly to discriminate against minorities and believe that
changes to the way societies are governed would bring more tolerance.

       You will sit on the panel where other people will ask you questions
                        Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

                            David Trimble MLA, MP
You are the leader of the Ulster Unionist Party. You believe that Northern Ireland should
remain part of the UK, but are willing to negotiate with anyone who is not currently involved in
violence to bring peace. You will accept some changes to the way Northern Ireland is governed
to end the violence. You are a strong Protestant, but you do not attack people because of their
religion, although you have supporters who are anti-Catholic and have to be careful not to upset
them too much. You want a tolerant society and have changed significantly during your attempts
to achieve this.

       You will sit on the panel where other people will ask you questions

                        Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

                                    John Hume MP

You were the founding leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party –
representing moderate Catholics who tend to believe in a united Ireland but do not
want violence and believe in religious toleration. You have recently retired from
the leadership, but have immense experience of Northern Ireland and the problems
caused by the lack of toleration.

       You will sit on the panel where other people will ask you questions
Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

                              Rev John Smith

You are a preacher in a church that is very strongly in favour of Catholics and
Protestants talking to each other and working for peace and toleration. You are
very strongly in favour of peace, condemning all violence, and believe people are
entitled to any belief as long as it does not prevent other people from believing
what they wish.

      You will sit on the panel where other people will ask you questions

                    Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

                          Rt Hon Paul Murphy MP

                    Northern Ireland Role Play
                         Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

                             Rt Hon Paul Murphy MP
You are the British Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. You have the responsibility of
running Northern Ireland while it does not have a government of its own. You want to re-
establish the local government as soon as possible but will only do so if all the main parties will
work together. You strongly desire peace and complete religious toleration in Northern
Ireland, and wish that all the political parties would talk to each other to work out a
compromise. You understand that the political parties cannot be more tolerant than the people
who vote for them, and see the need to start from the bottom in building toleration.

       You will sit on the panel where other people will ask you questions

                         Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

                                       Claire Jones

You are a fourteen year old from Belfast. You are a Muslim and of mixed race.
You have lived in Northern Ireland all your life and know people who have lost
family members in the violence. You strongly believe in toleration and freedom but
are not sure whether Northern Ireland should be part of the South or part of the UK.

       You will sit on the panel where other people will ask you questions
                        Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

                                     BBC journalist
You have no particular view on the conflict in Northern Ireland although you generally believe in
the importance of letting people believe what they wish. You have to produce neutral reports
and do not favour any particular point of view.

     You sit at the media desk and will make notes throughout the debate.
                           You will sum up at the end.

                        Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

            RTE (Irish equivalent of the BBC) journalist
You have a slight bias in favour of the Nationalist, Catholic community in Northern Ireland, and
ideally would like it to be part of the South, but have a duty to produce neutral reports. You
generally believe in toleration and letting people believe what they wish, although you are
strongly opposed to those who seek to attack others for their beliefs, especially if they are
British or strong Unionists.

     You sit at the media desk and will make notes throughout the debate.
                          You will sum up at the end.
                       Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

Belfast Telegraph (moderate Unionist newspaper) reporter

You are personally quite strongly in favour of keeping Northern Ireland in the UK,
as is your newspaper, and this will be slightly noticeable in your reports. You are
always very careful to ensure that you report facts correctly, and do not believe in
attacking people unless they have done something wrong. You believe it is
important that your newspaper is independent from politics and will accept some
of the arguments of people you disagree with if they make sense. Your newspaper
believes in toleration, and letting people have whatever opinions they wish, but is
strongly opposed to violence from any side. You are read mostly by Unionists,
some of whom are quite extreme, and will not write anything that will stop them
buying your paper, although you will not be that extreme yourself.

     You sit at the media desk and will make notes throughout the debate.
                          You will sum up at the end.

                       Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

Your role is to chair the discussion. You decide who speaks and when, and will prevent anyone
from speaking when they should not be. You will choose who asks questions from the audience,
and what members of the panel can answer. You will be careful to make sure that the audience
get a chance to discuss amongst themselves, but also that the panel can give their opinions.

                   You sit in the Chair and control the discussion
Northern Ireland Role Play
Northern Ireland Role Play
Northern Ireland Role Play

Your character is:

                              Rev John Smith

You are a preacher in a church that is very strongly in favour of Catholics and
Protestants talking to each other and working for peace and toleration. You are
very strongly in favour of peace, condemning all violence, and believe people are
entitled to any belief as long as it does not prevent other people from believing
what they wish.

      You will sit on the panel where other people will ask you questions
  Teachers’ guide to Northern Ireland and Toleration Unit
Who is the unit for?

These materials are aimed at key stage 4 pupils, specifically a Year Ten top set, and
can be delivered either as part of an independent Citizenship programme or as an
element within History or, possibly, English literature or Drama if some alterations
are made. There is a particular possibility of incorporating this unit within the study
of the Troubles in Northern Ireland that is a part of many GCSE History courses.

The unit is aimed at KS4 pupils as the materials assume some pre-existing knowledge
of the nature of political and cultural disputes, and also that pupils will be able to
attain a level of mature reflection that will allow them to consider the motivation for
an event or viewpoint, rather than make subjective judgements on its moral
‘acceptability’. Some pupils may have this ability before they begin the unit, while
others should gain it during their study. It is anticipated that students will vary in
their knowledge of the case study and in the depth of their answers to questions. All
pupils should be able to engage with this unit although the enclosed materials will
require a significant amount of alteration.

Learning Objectives

At the end of this unit, pupils will have gained a greater understanding of the nature
and importance of toleration. They will have concrete examples of what can happen
when toleration breaks down in a society, and will also, through the medium of the
Northern Ireland case study, have increased their understanding of how toleration can
decrease or collapse. They will be able to use their knowledge and ideas to identify
and analyse trends in other areas and in contemporary society.

Pupils will have gained developed an understanding of diversity, the nature of a
multicultural society, conflict and human rights, as well as developing their ability to
empathise with the situation of others. They will be able to understand the need for
“respect for diversity and difference” (DfES, 1999: 7) as more than just an abstract
notion of ‘right’. They will also see that while an absence of this respect tends to
have unfortunate consequences, it is not simply the case that people should be
tolerant, and therefore are simply ‘bad people’ if they are not. Pupils will understand
how experiences, cultural attitudes and other aspects of the life of an individual or
community can lead to a reduction or collapse in tolerance.

What parts of the National Curriculum it aims to cover.

This unit aims to cover wide sections of the National Curriculum programme of study
for Citizenship at key stage 4. It works towards the general aim to “ensure that
knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens are acquired and
applied when developing skills of enquiry and communication, and participation and
responsible action” (DfES, 1999: 15) while also including elements related to the
following National Curriculum sections:
   Pupils should be taught about:

   1a) the legal and human rights and responsibilities underpinning society and how
   they relate to citizens, including the role and operation of the criminal and civil
   justice systems

   1b) the origins and implications of the diverse national, regional, religious
   and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom and the need for mutual
   respect and understanding

   1c) the work of parliament, the government and the courts in making and shaping the

   1d) the importance of playing an active part in democratic and electoral processes

   1e) how the economy functions, including the role of business and financial services

   1f) the opportunities for individuals and voluntary groups to bring about social
   change locally, nationally, in Europe and internationally

   1g) the importance of a free press, and the media's role in society, including the
   internet, in providing information and affecting opinion

   Pupils should be taught to:

   2a) research a topical political, spiritual, moral, social or cultural issue,
   problem or event by analysing information from different sources,
   including ICT - based sources, showing an awareness of the use and abuse
   of statistics

   2b) express, justify and defend orally and in writing a personal opinion about such
   issues, problems or events

   2c) contribute to group and exploratory class discussions, and take part in formal

   3a) use their imagination to consider other people’s experiences and be able to think
   about, express, explain and critically evaluate views that are not their own.
   (DfES, 1999: 15-16)

The lack of a breadth of study requirement in citizenship gives a large amount of
flexibility in how the programme of study is implemented. These materials provide
for the implementation of the above parts of the programme of study through the
example of Northern Ireland and with particular focus on toleration, but it is entirely
possible for teachers to develop methods of covering the remaining areas using this
case study, or concentrating on some of the above more deeply. Many of the
materials could also be used to develop other skills, or in ways less directly related to
the concept of toleration.
Notes on included materials
The major material is the Northern Ireland introduction booklet. This has been written
to provide stimulus material for students and as a reference resource that they can
consult for information throughout the unit and when producing written work relating
to Northern Ireland. It begins with a map of the north of Ireland – showing the major
transport routes and towns in the six counties, which clearly illustrates the geography
of the society being studied. The use of a map including such infrastructure is
intended to move beyond the representation of Northern Ireland as an Union Jack
coloured segment in the top right corner of a tricoloured Eire. Northern Ireland is a
real society, with a massively varied population, the vast majority of whom only
having a limited interest in politics and the awareness of this reality is important in
understanding the nature of toleration within it and in wider contexts.

As the booklet states, history is vitally important to Northern Ireland, and the written
text of the booklet begins with a brief introduction to Ireland’s past. The explanation
of the historical roots of conflict in Ireland and the nature of partition given here is
particularly brief as the purpose of this unit is not to transmit information about Irish
history but to get students thinking about the nature of toleration, and by doing so
developing their own ability to tolerate. When these materials are used, it is vital that
questions about the case study are encouraged, but it is important to avoid too much
pure historical discussion.

The next page of the booklet is another combination of text and a picture – here a
diagram of political divisions in Northern Ireland. While the page does feature
reasonably large blocks of text – something that can be seen as intimidating – it is
more likely that at this level classes will respond to interesting reading material and
be ready to carry out more detailed and extensive investigation of text. If the
materials were to be used with less able groups, it would of course be reasonably easy
to reduce the amount of written material. Throughout the page, the topic of political
and religious divisions is explained, allowing students to consider the different
obstacles to toleration represented by the extensive, cross cutting disagreements in
Northern Irish society. The use of divisive language, while a complex concept, is
vitally important to comprehending this, especially as one of the key aims of this unit
is to stimulate students’ consideration of how far mutual communication and
understanding is vital to toleration. This page seeks to begin suggesting that the way
people in Northern Ireland often reject particular phrases depending upon their
religious or political affiliations is both an expression of and a contributory factor to
the collapse of tolerance that has occurred. It is not intended that students will
immediately grasp this on reading the page, but that it will begin to give some
students relevant ideas while most can return to it and consider suggestions later.

The horseshoe shaped diagram of divisions in Northern Ireland, together with the
descriptive text below it, is also intended as introductory material that can be returned
to at later points. It is intended to show the varied divisions in the society, and that it
is more complicated than a simple division over sovereignty. The importance of this
for the study and development of toleration is that pupils will understand the
importance of the legacy of violence in creating division within communities, while
also seeing that the correlation of religion with political opinion leads to an
atmosphere particularly difficult for tolerance.

Both the index of important events and the glossary are intended as reference
resources rather than segments to be read on one occasion. It is unlikely that students
at this level will be unused to this kind of resource and will therefore be able to use it
effectively to explain other reading or the suggestions of different pupils. Neither
resource represents an exhaustive list of important facts and both contain entries
selected to draw particular attention to problems of toleration – for example, in the
chronology of events, the inclusion of two examples of ‘tit for tat’ killing allows the
opportunity to consider what a complete breakdown of tolerance looks like, the nature
of its legacy, and now key actors redevelop some form of toleration after this.
Students investigating this should be unable to avoid considering their own responses
to things they find difficult to tolerate, and see the consequences of failing to do so as
well as an example of people overcoming immense barriers to begin to redevelop a
tolerant society.

The first suggested activity in this unit is the card sort using different forms of protest.
This is intended to stimulate students’ thinking about the nature of disagreement, and
how far it is possible to express discontent without transgressing a barrier of tolerable
behaviour. When discussing the results of this activity, it is important to consider
what options are available to people in different circumstances. For example, is it
ever possible to be more tolerant of bombing when all less violent forms of protest
have been ignored? The cards contain a variety of images, mostly taken from the
conflict in Northern Ireland, that can provoke discussion of particular areas. This is to
be encouraged and it is for this reason that they do not contain detailed descriptions
of what they show. Students who begin by asking questions about the events shown,
are likely to continue thinking about how they happened, and can then be directed
towards considering the importance of toleration.

Two different overhead transparencies have been included – one being an example of
how these materials can be differentiated. It is clearly vital that students understand
what toleration means if they are to think about the concept and use their thinking to
develop their practical ability to tolerate and the use of a quotation from the Oxford
English Dictionary is intended to be clearly authoritative. Colours have been used to
emphasise key areas within toleration, such as it including the acceptance of things
that can be found exceedingly unpleasant.

Four different newspaper articles are included in order to demonstrate the lack of
shared ground between people in Northern Ireland. The articles themselves are
reasonably short, yet students will be able to produce a wide variety of reasponses to
them using the worksheet which is also included. As with many of the materials in
this unit, the questions are deliberately challenging and, when used in lessons, it
would be important to explicitly stress that there is no correct answer, and that the
important thing is for students to record their feelings and ideas. Answers to the
questions have been included but they are not the only possible answers. The
materials are relatively simple, but the level of thinking they provoke should be deep
- especially in the last two questions – and it is important that the post-task discussion
includes as many pupils as possible so none are left confused. Answers and ideas
must be explained effectively, and the importance of toleration returned to reasonably

The last materials included are cards for a role playing activity that will consider all
the ideas that have been suggested in lessons while continuing to use the case study of
Northern Ireland. Role play cards are included for the main participants in the
activity although the other students in the class would also be told of the vital
importance of preparing for their role as ‘ordinary people’ in the discussion. One of
the major points about toleration that they should learn is that it cannot be forced by
leaders, so all members of a group would be asked to contribute ideas. The cards give
some assistance to those who will be asked to take on a role that will initially appear
more daunting. Depending on the nature of the group, it may be consider useful to
assign particularly vital roles to usually quiet students, or alternatively to give them to
those who are most comfortable ‘performing’. One possibility is to place any student
who has difficulty applying him/herself in the Chair as this has been seen to have a
significant positive effect.

This unit can be assessed in a number of ways. While there is a clear formal
assessment of how far students understand debates about toleration at the end in the
form of an essay on ‘What is toleration and why do we need it?’ this is only one
contribution to assessing what has been learnt. Students should be assessed
throughout the unit, and information from this assessment used to develop an
effective conclusion to it. It is particularly important that verbal contributions are
seen as as important, if not more so, than written ones. Students should be developing
their ability to tolerate as much as, and preferably more than their academic
understanding of what toleration is and why it is so difficult in Northern Ireland. It is
particularly important that factual knowledge of Northern Ireland does not take the
place of a reasoned understanding of why it is necessary to tolerate others. All written
work produced during the unit can be marked, but it is not vital to do so, especially
with the responses to the newspaper articles, where verbal consideration of the
concepts being explored, and understanding feedback after the task is completed, is
significantly more important than ‘correct’ answers to the questions.


DfES (1999) Citizenship: The National Curriculum for England (London: DfES/QCA)

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