Human Origins and Early Man
Ancient man-beginnings of civilization
• THEMES OF THE WORLD: HISTORICAL AND
• LOCATION: ABSOLUTE and RELATIVE
• PLACE: area that contains physical or
• HUMAN/ENVIROMENTAL INTERACTION:
How people respond/alter
• MOVEMENT: Trade, Transportation,
Exchange of ideas/culture
• REGION: an area that is unified by some
features or a mixture of features
9 THEMES OF WORLD
• CULTURAL DIFFUSION
• RELATION TO THE ENVIROMENT
The Study of ancient history
• Variety of methods
• Use of scientific clues
• Archaeologists: study of artifacts; analyze
cultural finds/way of life
• Anthropologists; study of artifacts to study
• Paleontologists; study of fossils/time-date
• AUSTRALOPITHEUES; Up right walker
• East Africa; Ethiopia; Footprints
imprinted in volcanic ash
• Dr. Leakey/Dr. Mary Leakey
• “Lucy”; Beatles-3.5 million years ago
• Opposable thumb
Ardi, a 125-piece hominid skeleton that is 1.2 million years older than the celebrated Lucy
(Australopithecus afarensis) and by far the oldest one ever found. Tim White of the University of
California, Berkeley, a co-leader of the Middle Awash research team that discovered and studied the
new fossils, says, "To understand the biology, the parts you really want are the skull and teeth, the
pelvis, the limbs and the hands and the feet. And we have all of them."
By MICHAEL D. LEMONICK AND ANDREA DORFMAN Thursday, Oct. 01, 2009 Time
• Development of tools/fire/language
• Paleolithic Age; Old Stone Age 2.5 million to
• Beginnings of tools/fire/language; Homo Habilis
• Neolithic Age; New Stone Age; 8000b.c to
• “Ice Age” Period; last one was 10,000 years ago
• Advancements of fire/tool/culture/language;
Modern Man: Homo Sapiens
• Neanderthal: Neander Valley-1856
• 200,000 to 30,000 years ago
• Culture; family? Burials? Hunting in packs
• Cro-Mangon: 40,000 to 80,000 years ago
• More sophisticated than Neanderthals
• Resembled modern man
L-R NEANDERTHAL MAN CRO-MAGNON
IN SEARCH OF NEANDERTHAL MAN
• Compare Neanderthal man body type to modern
mans? How do they differ? How have scientists
determined the body types?
• What conclusions about the lifestyles, habits and
behaviors can be made from the artifacts and remains
in the Neanderthal caves? Be Specific!!!
• Identify the conclusions the video stated, about the
non-existence of Neanderthal man today.
• Draw a simple Neanderthal figure; include
KEY TO TLC NEANDERTHAL VIDEO
• Compare Neanderthal man body type to modern mans? How
do they differ? How have scientists determined the body
• BIGGER, MORE DENISTY BONES; SHORTER, LARGER CORE MUSCLE
GROUPS; BRAIN SIZE-SAME OR EVEN LARGER; BUILT FOR SURVIVAL;
BONE INJURIES SUGGEST DIFFICULT HUNTING TRIPS, SAME INJURIES OF
A RODEO RIDER.
• What conclusions about the lifestyles, habits and behaviors
can be made from the artifacts and remains in the
• EVIDENCE OF SIMPLE TOOLS; LARGE MUSCLES NEEDED TO USE;
SPECULATION OF LITTLE OR NONE FAMILY STRUCTURE? DAY TO DAY
FOOD PROCURING,LANGUAGE, BURIALS
• Identify the conclusions the video stated, about the non-
existence of Neanderthal man today.
• A. “SURVIVAL ENCOUNTERIST”; ATE ON THE SPOT; LACK OF PLANNING
SKILLS, LITTLE EVIDENCE OF ANY ORGANIZED FOOD PROCURING OTHER
THAN GROUP HUNTING; Just different, which does mean bad; “Out
competed for resources; disease?
VERY COOL WEB LINK TO THE HUMAN MIGRATION MOVEMENT
Time Period Name Quick Glimpse
Did man live at the same time as dinosaurs? What is a hominid? What is an
artifact? What is a fossil?
About Australopithecus Lucy
3 million BCE "Southern Ape" Basic traits of humans. Special because he could stand up. Main physical
difference between early man and apes are the hands.
First true humans
About Stone tools - the first tool-maker
2 million BCE Lived in Africa
Taller, had a larger brain
About Made and controlled fire
1.5 million Homo Erectus The first hunters
BCE "Upright Man" Traveled over land bridges from Africa, to begin to populate the world, about 1
million years ago
Neanderthals Buried their dead with ceremony.
About Stone-tipped spears, bone needles, bone fish hooks, sewed their clothes from
500,000 B.C. animal skins, warm boots
About Homo Sapiens Cro-Magnon & "Moderns"
25,000 BCE Sapiens & Bow and arrows, well constructed huts with central hearths for fires; necklaces
until about "Moderns" & pendants, cave art, little statues made from ivory, antler, bone; tools and
10,000 BCE weapons for hunting and fishing, oil lamps. Used honey to sweeten food. End of
the last Ice Age about 10,000 years ago.
Yabba Dabba Doo….Would Fred have
been a Old Stone Age or New Stone Age
WHAT IS A CIVILIZATION?
• EMERGENCE OF THE RIVER VALLEYS
• Which major rivers are missing? Why?
• WHAT BASIC NEEDS DID THE RIVERS PROVIDE?
• EARLY ECONOMIES OF RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS
• TRADING-LABOR SPECIALIZATION…”CULTURAL DIFFUSION”
• CITY PLANNING-LEVELS OF SOCIAL STATUS
• WRITING SYSTEMS-WORDS/NUMBERS-RECORDS-LANGUAGE
• SYSTEM OF VALUES; MYTHS/MORALS/ETHICS/RELIGION
THE ICE MAN
OOPS! Wrong “Ice Man”
TLC: VIDEO”THE ICE MAN” George Gervin
NBA Hall of Famer
• Personal Observations
• Social Status:
• Physical Features: Describe
• Medical Findings from the autopsy?
– Why was he in such a high elevation?
– How did he die?
• Personal Belongings
• Describe clothing
• Personal items: Medicine/amulet
• How was he discovered?
• Personal Observations
• Social Status
– Medicine man/ Tribal Leader/ Holy Man/ Trader
• Physical Features
– 5’2”/25-26 yrs. Old /5,000-5,200 yrs. Old. /Beard/Tattoos-Why?
– Buried arrowhead in left shoulder-Why?
• Autopsy Results
– Lungs filled with smoke
– Last meal examined in colon: contained parasites
– Arrowhead in left shoulder
• Questions left unanswered
– Why in such high elevation? Found by skiers in 1991-Frozen
• Religious pilgrimage?
• Trading mission
• Goat herder/ stealing from another herd?
– Reasons for Death
• Caught in a fierce storm?
• Bled to death?
• Personal Belongings
• a. Clothing-Most destroyed in discovery
– Animal skin/grass plaited cape: precise stitching
• b. Personal Items
• 1. Amulet-Spiritual use?
– Fungi on a string-medicine?
• c. Weapons/Tools
• Bow/Arrows: six-foot long; dozen arrowheads
• Flint dagger w/wood handle
• Cooper axe; oldest known example of copper
• Flint: fire tool/ charcoal
• Wheat grain-hardbread/ food
• NUMBER OF EVENTS SLOWLY LEAD TO THE A.R.
• END OF THE “ICE AGE”
• FERTILE SOIL; MOVED BY GLACIERS
• DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS
• USE OF NEW/IMPROVED TOOLS
• DEVELOPMENT OF SEEDS/GRASSES
• EXTENDED PLANNING/COOPERATION
• FOOD SURPLUS
• COPPER AGE/BRONZE AGE
• SPECIALIZATION OF JOBS
• FOOD SURPLUS
• INSTITUTIONS CREATED/NEEDED
LONG RANGE CAUSES
END OF THE ICE AGE-AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION-NEW TECHNOLOGY
FERTILE SOIL-TRANSPORTATION-FOOD SURPLUS-POPULATION INCREASE
DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY CIVILIZATIONS
GOVERNMENT-RELIGIONS-SOCIAL CLASSES-SPOKEN/WRITTEN LANGUAGE
LONG RANGE EFFECTS
TRADE BETWEEN CIVILIZATIONS-CULTURAL DIFFUSION-COINED MONEY