Research Coordination Presentation 1 7 2010 by 6rlEDhL


									PERM Meeting 3 Jan.5-7, 2010

   Research Coordination
         S. Meschter

          Pb-Free Is Not Free!   1
            Current reality … shrinking or no effort more risk
Research     Identified or published related research work… Characterized by
  gaps       independent competing          some coordination   builds on previous work
  3                                                                  • Gaps identified but not “significant
  4                                                                  enough” to fund (start work) or
                                                                     relationship to other gaps not
                                                                     •No funding available
                                                                     •Gap not identified!
                                                                     •Gaps only recently identified

                                                         • Gap know for some time “popular”
                                                         as basic research…results
                                                         conflict..little or no conclusive usable

                                                                           ••Gap know for some time
                                                                              Gap know for some time
                                                                            …continually funded …clear and
                                                                           …continually funded …clear and
                                                                            industry wide accepted results
                                                                           industry wide accepted results

                            Pb-Free Is                                                                        2
Research                             Review
  gaps                               Assess      3 years

                                                 ADDITIVE RESEARCH
                                                 CROSS CO-ORDINATED
                          Pb-Free Is Not Free!                        3
      Research Coordination Task Team
• Provide updated GAPs analysis
       • Working with the phase 2 Pb-free electronics risk reduction program to finalize.
         The Phase 2 provides a gap summary and a time line and cost for gap closure.
       • The current effort compliments the Phase 2 by providing a more complete
         summary of the existing DoD project funding and the various consortium efforts.
       • Effort delay due in part by the Phase 2 report shift to the right.
       • Due date: End 1Q 2010

• Provide data structure for technical data repository.
       • Intend to work with communications team on website structure
            –   Abstract
            –   Citation and/or link to paper if available
            –   Assign papers to one of our gap areas and not applicability to life cycle
            –   Provide an assessment of completeness of data so that it would be useful for
                comparison with other work.
       • Need to be careful of our scope
            – John Barnes’ web site has over 16,000 articles related to Pb-free solder
            – Which ones will we include?
       • Due: end 2Q 2010 (after our June Meeting)

                                       Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                    4
                  Gaps worksheet
• Rows
  – A Tin Whiskers: A. Touw, Boeing
  – B Assembly and soldering: D. Hillman, Rockwell Collins
  – C Solder Joints: Mike Osterman, CALCE
  – D Components: R. Deshmukh, Concurrent technologies, and D. Locker MDA
  – E Printed Circuit Boards: F. Byle, Aerospace
  – F Aerospace/DoD Complex Systems: D. Humphrey/L.
  Remaining task: Compile summary power point charts indicating the gap areas,
  Schedule, percent funded, and percent gap complete similar to ELF-IPT

                             Pb-Free Is Not Free!                         5
         Supporting worksheets

Need to add a tabs for:
INEMI – C. Handwerker to complete
HDPUG – J. Carrigan to complete
Japan-Asia – T. Mikami to complete
National Labs/Groups – P. Vianco to complete
                               Pb-Free Is Not Free!   6
Remember LEAP Meeting #19,
      Melbourne, FL.
   September 16-17, 2008
  Slides that follow show the summary of the
             four AIA gap areas and the
 prioritization/funding levels of the gap projects
 compiled from the 2008 research gap survey.

                   Pb-Free Is Not Free!              7
     Need 1: Testing and Qualification
• Insufficient test data and
  standardized qualification             2007 assessment
  procedures on LF alloys and                 1%
• Pb to Pb free
• Pb free to Pb
• Lack of full scale testing in High      3%
  Performance environments
• Rotary Wing, Transport, Fighter    Funded – 450k
  Aircraft; Space Systems, Ground Required 17,300k
          Potential Funding – 9%               Updated 3 Sept
                       Pb-Free Is Not Free!                8
Need 2: Systems Analysis
• Lack of full systems analysis                 2007 assessment
• Cost and readiness data that                      52%
  support AoA
     • Rework; Mixed Repair
• Logistics data and analysis                   28%
•2007 Assessment levels at 2200k
  Lack of system reliability models
•Increases due to
     Increased Logistics Analysis
                                            Funded – 1505k
     Depot (XRF) Evaluation                 Required 5455k
     Detailed Systems level risk analysis

               Potential Funding – 28%
                      Pb-Free Is Not Free!           Updated 3 Sept
Need 3: Tin Whisker Formation, Growth,
         and Characterization
                                                2007 assessment
• Insufficient knowledge of tin
  whiskers growth
• Proven mitigation methods
• Failure effects                               10%
• Whisker shorting potential
                                           Funded – 1445k
                                           Required 14,700k

        Potential Funding – 26%                      Updated 3 Sept
                    Pb-Free Is Not Free!                        10
    Need 4: Solder Joint Reliability
 Insufficient knowledge of Pb-                     2007 assessment
  free solders material properties
 Low melting temperature alloys
 Mixed solder characteristics
 Ball Grid Arrays                                  23%
 Costs for testing alloys and solder
 joints increased                               Funded – 2045k
     Estimated 4 DoD/NASA test                  Required 9480k
     efforts over the years

           Potential Funding – 36%                       Updated 3 Sept
                         Pb-Free Is Not Free!                       11
                        Pri 1 – Processes to Re-Ball BGA’s
                                                                  Funding                           Potential
                                                                                      %     Prob of           Funding FY-X
WBS      Research Area             Research Topic                 Category $ Funded
                                                                                    Funded Funding*
                                                                                                    + Actual
                                                                                                              Type 6.x 2006
                                                                                                                            2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
                                                               ($ thousands)                        Funding ReBalled BGAs                                            $1,400     $100    7%      63%         $880
                         Multiple Ball BGA Reliability            $100      $100                 5      $100     6.4

                         Fine Pitch Reballed BGA Reliability      $100                           3       $60    6.3/7.8
                         Pb to Pb Free                            $350                           3      $210    6.3/7.8
                         Pb Free to SnPb                          $350                           3      $210    6.3/7.8
                         Re-Balled BGA Reliability                $500                           3      $300    6.3/7.8

   Part level focus: Since the electronics                                                   Percent                                Sector Interest
   industry is already changing to Pb free BGA                                               funded
   designs, methods must be developed with                                                           7%                Aero         Ground           Ship        Space
   quantifiable reliability to re-configure these                                        Service Interest                 x              x            x            x

   Pb free devices with alloys compatible with

                                                                                                                                                      CALCE or



   the qualified avionics systems                                                                      Univ

  Funding Type 6.3,                                                       Funded
                                                                   Pb-FreePotential Y
                                                                           Is Not Free!
                                                                                                                                                                 12 Y
                                                                                                                                                      Updated 3 Sept
Pri 2 – Development of a “Whisker Tough Coating
                                                                         Funding                           Potential
                                                                                             %     Prob of           Funding FY-X
WBS      Research Area               Research Topic                      Category $ Funded
                                                                                           Funded Funding*
                                                                                                           + Actual
                                                                                                                     Type 6.x 2006
                                                                                                                                   2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
                                                                      ($ thousands)                        Funding New Coatings Development                                        $2,700      $0       0%      20% $550

                              Whisker Tough Coating Development          $950                         3        $550       6.2
                                    Applied Demonstration                $750                         1                   6.3
                             Applied Demonstration - Fuel Resistant     $1,000                        1                   6.4

    All non-SnPb alloys grow whiskers                                                                Percent                              Sector Interest
    which can penetrate conformal                                                                    funded
    coatings and short circuit CCAs.                                                                      0%                    Aero     Ground                   Ship         Space
    Studies have shown that development                                                        Service Interest                   x               x                x             x
    of a new coating is possible which will

    contain the whisker within the

                                                                                                                                                                    CALCE or





    conformal coating

   Funding Type 6.2 -                                                                    Funded
                                                                                         Potential    Y                                 Y                                         Y
                                                                          Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                                                            13
                                                                                                                                                                  Updated 3 Sept
          Pri 3 – New Solders Reliability Characterization
                                                                              Funding                           Potential
                                                                                                  %     Prob of           Funding FY-X
 WBS          Research Area                  Research Topic                   Category $ Funded
                                                                                                Funded Funding*
                                                                                                                + Actual
                                                                                                                          Type 6.x 2006
                                                                                                                                        2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
                                                                           ($ thousands)                        Funding
   1.1.1 Solder - Coupon/Small assembly Testing                              $5,880    $1,470   25%     25%     $1,470
          Temperature Effects (alloy   1)                                                                 $1,525     $125                     $125
                                          Lead Free Solders at High
                                          Temperature Applications            $125      $125             5       $125       6.2

                                            Follow on alloys (2-4)            $350                       1                  6.3
                                         Cold Temperature (Tin Pest)          $250                       1                  6.2

                                            Follow on alloys (2-4)            $450                       1                  6.3
                                       Cold Temperature (Ductile/Brittle
                                                  transition)                 $100                       1                  6.2

                                            Follow on alloys (2-4)            $250                       1                  6.3

 Section 1.1.1 has 10 different WBS elements                                                                 Percent                           Sector Interest
     Industry is attempting to standardize                                                                   funded
                                                                                                                25%                 Aero      Ground            Ship        Space
     on a handful of Pb free alloys, but
     detailed test data is required to feed                                                            Service Interest              x              x            x           x


                                                                                                                                                                 CALCE or
     reliability predictions & models.




     NASA/DoD has funded research on
     two current commercial alloys
                                                                                           Funded                                                                  Y

     Funding Type 6.2 or Is Not Free!
                                                                                           Potential                                                                   14
                                                                                                                                                                Updated 3 Sept
 Pri 4 – Fundamentals of Whisker Growth and Formation

                                                                          Funding                           Potential
                                                                                              %     Prob of           Funding FY-X
WBS      Research Area               Research Topic                       Category $ Funded
                                                                                            Funded Funding*
                                                                                                            + Actual
                                                                                                                      Type 6.x 2006
                                                                                                                                    2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
                                                                       ($ thousands)                        Funding

3.1.1 Formation (Incubation and Growth)                                  $2,650     $300     11%    33%        $880
                            Controlling Tin WHISKER Formation             $1,200     $300             3        $660      6.2
                            Cu, Pb, & Sn concentration, stress, and
                            whisker formation                              $200                       3        $120      6.2

                            Metallurgical/Contamination Formation          $750                       1                  6.2
                            Bulk Pb-Free Solder Whiskering (e.g. not
                            thin film)                                     $500                       2        100       6.2
                                                                                                            Percent                         Sector Interest
      Pb was added to legacy solders to                                                                     funded
      prevent whisker growth. Not enough                                                                     11%                 Aero       Ground            Ship        Space
      is known about the factors that cause
                                                                                                   Service Interest               x              x             x           x
      whiskers to grow so that risk


                                                                                                                                                               CALCE or
      methodology can be developed and





      whiskers mitigated

      Funding Type 6.2                                                               Funded
                                                                           Pb-Free Is Not Free!
                                                                                    Potential                              Y            Y
                                                                                                                                                     Y           Y
                                                                                                                                                              Updated 3 Sept
               Pri 5 – Mixed Alloys BGA Reprocessing
                                                             Funding                           Potential
                                                                                 %     Prob of           Funding FY-X
 WBS      Research Area              Research Topic          Category $ Funded
                                                                               Funded Funding*
                                                                                               + Actual
                                                                                                         Type 6.x 2006
                                                                                                                       2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
                                                          ($ thousands)                        Funding

        Pb-free BGAs with SnPb solder                                         $500        $0     0%      60% $300
                            BGA SnPb Reliability             $250                       3          $150         6.3/7.8
                            BGA Balls and Compatibility      $250                       3          $150         6.3/7.8
   Assembly reliability focus: The electronics
   industry is already changing to Pb free                                              Percent                                       Sector Interest
   BGA designs, so methods must be                                                      funded
   developed that allow the repair facility to                                                0%                          Aero        Ground             Ship         Space

   understand what new alloys work well                                             Service Interest                        x               x             x                  x
   with legacy solders, avoiding costly


                                                                                                                                                          CALCE or




   - Ties into Pri 1 and Pri 5.

   -Need to evaluate thermal aging,
   vibration, shock and life modeling
                                                                          Potential Y
     Funding Type 6.3 or                                      Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                                                   Updated 3 Sept
                                                 Top 16 concerns

                                                        Total                             Required
WBS                  Research Area               Pri             Funded Potential   %                FY09     FY10          FY11
                                                       Funding                            Funding   Reballed BGA (Pb Free to SnPb)         1      $1,400    $100     $880     63%    $1,300     $250     $700          $350   New Coating Development                2      $2,700     $0      $550     20%    $2,700     $950     $750         $1,000
1.1.1     Solder/Assembly Characterization       3      $5,880   $1,470   $1,470    25%    $4,410    $1,515   $1,495        $1,400
3.1.1     Whisker Growth/Formation               4      $2,650    $300     $880     33%    $2,350    $1,100    $700          $550   Mixed Alloys BGA Processing            5       $500      $0      $300     60%     $500     $150     $350
3.2.3     Component Reprocessing                 6      $1,550     $0       $0      0%     $1,550    $800     $750
1.1.2     Mixed Solder Eval                      7      $1,200    $175     $555     49%    $1,025    $300     $350          $275
1.2       Modeling for Systems Effectiveness     8      $1,325    $525     $895     68%     $800              $300          200

3.1.3     Modeling, Test & Inspection            9      $400      $150     $150     38%    $250               $250
1.1.3     CCA Joint Testing                      10     $1,100    $100     $350     32%    $1,000    $400     $300          $300
2.3       Reworked Assembly Qualification        11     $950      $250     $250     26%    $700               $400          $300

3.1.2     Factors Affecting Tin Whisker Growth   12     $1,700    $100     $900     53%    $1,600    $500     $500          $400
          Evaluation of New Coatings After   Rework                                 13     $530      $100     $150     28%    $430               $250          $180   BGA Package Characterization/New BGA 14       $1,600    $100     $100     6%     $1,500    $300     $600          $400
          Evaluation and Characterization of   Whisker Penetration into Coatings    15        $920     $795     $875     92%     $125     $125
2.2A      Flight Test -Fixed Wing Trans        16       $1,500     $0       $0      0%     $1,500             $1,500
                                                       Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                            17
           NEXT TASKS

• Finish adding cost and schedule
• Include “flavors of money” (R&D,
  prototype, sustainment…)
• Compile summary power point similar to
  Melbourne 2008 presentation

                Pb-Free Is Not Free!       18

  Pb-Free Is Not Free!   19
PERM Meeting 3 Jan. 6, 2010

   Research Coordination
     Break-out Session
         S. Meschter

          Pb-Free Is Not Free!   20
             Research Coordination
             LF Gaps Spread-Sheet
• Objective today
  – Provide a summary of the lead-free projects pertinent
    to Military and Aerospace
• Spread-sheet structure
  – Gaps worksheet
     • Rows
     • Columns
  – Supporting worksheets
     • Projects/papers
        – DoD, NIST, NASA, SERDP, EPA, Company, Consortia and
          University efforts

                         Pb-Free Is Not Free!                   21
                  Recent Mil-Aero
• Perspectives: Cutting Through the Lead-Free Alloy Clutter
• Tuesday, January 5, 2010 | Clyde Coombs
   – ….Once it became clear that no single alloy was an obvious choice to
     be a "drop-in" replacement for eutectic tin-lead, a rash of candidates for
     at least a dominate position were put forth. Over time, the list has gotten
     broader, rather than narrower, and now, over three years after the
     official implementation of the lead-free mandate, new alloys are still
     being developed.
     All these alloys are supported by information on properties and
     performance, which is the result of sincere and, usually, extensive
     research and testing. The problem, however, seems to be that the
     information provided, and the testing behind it, are not
     necessarily performed in a uniform and comparable manner that would
     allow comparison between them and their relation to standards--or the
     needs of the product for which an alloy is intended. …

                               Pb-Free Is Not Free!                           22
                  Gaps worksheet
• Columns
  Resource        Res. Coord.          Task
                                                   Section        Topic   Sub-topic
  Needed          Team Focal           ID

                     Project Status:
    Topic cross                           % Gap         Funding     Funding
      reference                          Complete       Org.          Ref.
                        Current or

                   Investigating       Principle                   Cross
                                                        Title     Reference
                   Organization        Investigator

                                Pb-Free Is Not Free!                          23
                    Gaps worksheet
• Columns (continued)

              Total      LF Risk        Other                                   Actual
 Number     Estimated   Reduction     Estimated     Probability               Funding
 of Years    Funding     Phase 3       Funding      of Funding                  Rate
               ($K)       ($K)           ($K)                                  ($K/Yr)

                2010      2011       2012         2013      2014       2015     2016

                                    Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                 24
Supporting worksheets

       Pb-Free Is Not Free!   25
        US SBIR (Small business innovation
Organization   Principle Investigator   Cross Reference      Citation/Description
                                                             Title: Reliability Analysis and Prediction tool for
US DOD SBIR DfR Solutions               OSD 08-M01           Reballed BGAs in DoD Environments
                                                             Title: Assessment of Reballing Methods for Ball
US DOD SBIR Radiance Technologies Inc. OSD 08-M01            Grid Array (BGA) Devices
                                                             Title: Development of Complex Shock and
US DOD SBIR DfR Solutions               OSD 08-M03           Vibration Model and Reliability Prediction Tool for
                                                             Title: Assessment and Modeling of Shock and
US DOD SBIR GCAS Incorporated           OSD 08-M03           Vibration Performance of Lead-Free Alloys
                                                             Title: Performance Analysis System Software
US DOD SBIR QRDC, Inc.                  OSD 08-M03           (PASS)
            Texas Research Institute                         Title: Assessment and Modeling of Shock and
US DOD SBIR Austin, Inc.                OSD 08-M03           Vibration Performance of Lead-Free Alloys

                                           Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                           26
       US SBIR (Small business innovation
                                                            Title: Mitigating Lead-Free Issues in Electronic
            SMITH & CO.                                     Circuit Board Manufacturing With an Advanced
            Steve Smith                Topic#: MDA 07-027   Conformal Coating to Manage Tin Whisker Risk

              SUNDEW TECHNOLOGIES                           Title: Mitigating Lead-Free Issues in Electronic
              Ofer Sneh           Topic#: MDA 07-027        Circuit Board Manufacturing and Repair

            CONSULTING, LLC                                 Title: POSS-Based Conformal Coating with Active
            John Cassimus              Topic#: MDA 07-027   Tin Whisker Mitigation Properties

US DOD SBIR Award in Process           AF093-111             Lead-free Solder Alternative Interconnect Material
US DOD SBIR Faraday Technology, Inc.   OSD08-M04             Development of Tin Whisker Growth Model Using
            Texas Research Institute                         Development and Validation of Tin-Whisker

US DOD SBIR Austin, Inc.               OSD08-M04             Growth Model and Accelerated Testing
US DOD SBIR ECI Technology, Inc.       OSD08-M04             Development and Validation of Tin-Whisker

                                           Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                                27
 US STTR (Small Business Technology
          Transfer funds)

Principle Investigator   Cross Reference      Citation/Description
                         Agency: MDA
Foresite, Inc./Purdue    ID#: B08B-010-0031   Title: Tin Whisker Mitigation Technologies for Sn-based
Terry Munson             Topic#: 08-010       Surface Finishes on Electronic Assemblies and
                         Awarded: 2/17/2009   Microelectronic Devices
                         Agency: MDA
Applied Nanotech,        ID#: B08B-010-0020
Inc./Univ. of Maryland                          Title: Tin Whisker Mitigation by Photonic Sintering for
Mohshi Yang              Topic#: 08-010         Sn-based Surface Finishes
                         Awarded: 3/5/2009

                                      Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                         28
  US SERDP (Strategic Environmental
  Research and Development Program)
Principle Investigator Cross Reference      Citation/Description

Thomas Woodrow           WP-1751          The Role of Trace Elements in Tin Whisker Growth

Peter Borgesen           WP-1752          Microstructurally Adaptive Constitutive Relations
                                          and Reliability Assessment

Stephan Meschter         WP-1753          Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling

Elizabeth Hoffman        WP-1754           Contributions of Stress and Oxidation on the Formation of
                                           Whiskers in Lead-Free Solders

                                         Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                     29
         US EPA (Environmental Protection

Principle Investigator     Cross Reference   Citation/Description
Faraday Technology, Inc.                     Enabling Commercialization of a Lead-Free Coating
Garich, Holly              EPA EPD09021      Manufacturing Process
                                             Project Period: February 1, 2009 through July 31, 2009

Georgia Tech                                 Fundamental Understanding and Performance
Investigators: Wong, C. P. EPA R831489       Enhancement of Conductive Adhesive for Microelectronic
                                             Packaging Applications

                                         Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                     30
           US NIST (National Institute of
            Standards and Technology)
• Database for Solder Properties with Emphasis
  on New Lead-free Solders
•   The purpose of this web site is to provide an on-line database for solder
    properties emphasizing new lead-free solders. Lead-free solder data are
    being developed rapidly, but are still difficult to find. (See the Alloy Database
    section in the August 29, 2000 press release on the NEMI web site - Therefore, we hope this web site will allow us to collect this
    information in one place, and update it frequently. If you have additional
    data to contribute, please send it to the contact at the bottom of this page.
    The data reported in this site has been collected from reliable sources and
    orderly put together. There is no restriction to access the datafile.

                                  Pb-Free Is Not Free!                             31
  US JCAA-JGPP (Joint Council of Aging
Aircraft-Joint Group on Pollution Prevention)

· Thermal Shock Test. Boeing Phantom Works. (ThShockEMP Rev. A.pdf, 4MB, 105 pages, Mar 01, 2006)
· Thermal Cycling Test -20 to +80 deg. C. Boeing Phantom Works (WoodrowThCycleEMP Final formatted for
print.pdf, 2,104KB, 68 pages, Oct 31, 2008).
· Thermal Cycling Test -55 to +125 deg. C. Rockwell Collins (Rockwell Collins Inc JCAA JGPP Final Report
neg55C to pos125C testing Rev B.pdf, 2MB, 74 pages, May 28, 2006)
1. Final Report for the CSP, Hybrid & SMT Resistor/Capacitor Components Rockwell Collins (Rockwell Collins
Inc JCAA JGPP CSP-Hybrid Final Report -55C to +125C testing Rev D.pdf, 33 pages, 6MB, June 2007)
· Combined Environments Test. Raytheon. (Combined Environments Test Report - Final.pdf, 4 MB, 128 pages,
Aug 15, 2005)

1. Combined Environments Test Failure Analysis (ITB Report 3.pdf, 15MB, 116 pages, Jan 31, 2006).
Mechanical Shock Test. ACI. (JG-PP LEAD-FREE Solder Final Report finalized 061506.doc, 10.5MB, 58 pages,
Jun 20, 2006)
Salt Fog and Humidity Tests. ACI. (ITB 01366R1a-080305.pdf, 2MB, 16 pages, Aug 11, 2005)
1. Electro-chemical Migration Resistance (EMR)/Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) Final Report. Boeing-
Anaheim. (TR05_01EMRSIR.doc, 1.21MB, 11 pages, Mar 21, 2005)
2. Rev. B – EMR & SIR Test Results. Boeing-Anaheim. (JGGPEMRSIR(revB).pdf, 1.07MB, 30 pages, Dec 14,
3. Rev. A - SIR Test Results - Updated (JGGPSIR(reva).pdf, 249KB, 13 pages, Jan 17, 2005)

                                          Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                           32
                           US NASA-DOD

• NASA DOD Lead-free electronics testing

  – SAC305, Sn0.7Cu0.05Ni+Ge, SnPb
  – Thermal cycling
       • -20 to +80 C
       • -55 to +125 C
  –   Vibration
  –   Mechanical shock
  –   Repair
  –   Copper dissolution

                             Pb-Free Is Not Free!                  33
   US NASA Tin Whisker (and Other Metal
          Whisker) Homepage
   – NASA Goddard Publications
   – Military Specifications Review for EEE Parts
   – Industry/Academia Publications

                       Pb-Free Is Not Free!           34
    US IBIF (Industrial base innovation fund)

• Project Title: Lead-Free (Pb-free) Solder Material Property
    – Performing Organization: Aviation and Missile Research Development and
      Engineering Center Redstone Arsenal, Alabama
    – Project Cost: $150,000
    – This project will determine the thermo mechanical characteristics of common
      Pb-free solders that remain undocumented in the public domain. This project
      will generate the required data using lap joints of solder with volumes on the
      order of those used in solder joints. The stress and strain will be applied in
      shear to best replicate the solder joint application.

                                Pb-Free Is Not Free!                           35
                      US DoD Mantech

• Solder Free Electronics
   – Broad Agency Announcement: 08-08-PKM
      • Recent improvements in novel deposition processes have suggested the
        possibility of fabricating electronic subsystems with a much reduced or
        even eliminated level of leaded solder and related printed wiring board
        finishes. The development and deployment of non-leaded electronic
        subsystems would likely result in 1) increased reliability (through
        elimination of main failure modes, 2) reduced size and weight due to
        novel packaging techniques, 3) enhanced system performance due to
        greater individual device tolerances, and 4) reduced hazardous material
        waste streams. The objective of this program is to eliminate the use of
        leaded solder in the manufacture, assembly of electronic systems and to
        demonstrate applicable repair and rework techniques to support the
        sustainment portion of the system life cycle.
• Support of Lead-free Manhattan Project Phase 1 and 2
   – Develop Gaps analysis
   – Develop Road map to close gaps

                             Pb-Free Is Not Free!                         36
US DoD Lead-free Risk Reduction Project
               Phase 3

                                            ROM Cost in 2010 $ (M)
WBS    Risk Reduction Project Area   Year 1   Year 2     Year 3    TOTAL
 A    Tin Whiskers                  $    6.3 $    6.8 $      6.5 $ 19.7
 B    Assembly                      $    3.2 $    4.0 $      3.0 $ 10.2
 C    Solder Joints                 $ 13.9 $ 19.4 $ 13.3 $ 46.6
 D    Components                    $    1.2 $    2.6 $      2.1 $    5.9
 E    Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) $    3.9 $    5.2 $      3.5 $ 12.6
                              TOTAL $ 28.5 $ 38.0 $ 28.5 $ 95.0

                          Pb-Free Is Not Free!                      37
     CALCE – Univ. of Maryland Consortium
 C10-02   Physics of Failure Models for Multi-Axial Vibration Fatigue in Electronic Assemblies
 C10-03   Viscoplastic Behavior and Fatigue Constants for SAC105 Solder
 C10-04   Tin Whisker Growth on Conformally Coated SnPb Assemblies. Continuation of C09-04
 C10-05   Assessment of Tin Whisker Arcing Potential
 C10-06   Long Term Reliability Evaluation of Conformal Coats for Tin Whisker Migration. Continuation of C09-06
 C10-07   Power Cycling on Lead-free Solder Interconnects
          Impact of Electric Current and Thermal Aging on Lead-free Solder Interconnection formed on ENIG finished
 C10-08   Printed Wiring Boards
 C10-09   Long-term Vibration Fatigue Life of Pb-free Interconnects. Continuation of C09-09
 C10-10   Non-Destructive Test Methods for Detection of Cracked Capacitors on PCBs
          Maintenance Data Analysis and its Use in Supporting the Lead-Free Repair Simulation and Decision Making.
 C10-11   Continuation of C09-11
 C10-12   Physics-of-Failure PoF Qualification of Complex Electronic Systems. Continuation of C09-12
 C10-14   Electronic Component Failure Categorization under Extreme G Loading. Continuation of C09-14.
 C10-15   Physics-of-Failure PoF Qualification of Optical Disk Drives
 C10-16   Monitoring and Simulation of Interconnect Degradation Using RF Impedance. Continuation of C09-16.
 C10-17   Impact of Extended Dwell on Solder Interconnect Reliability
 C10-18   Reliability test and analysis of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems MEMS sensors
 C10-19   Reliability of Embedded Planar Capacitors. Continuation of C09-19.
 C10-21   Modeling Enhancement for calcePWA: Acceleration Factors
 C10-23   Predictive Reliability Assessment of FBGA Multi-Chip Stacked Memory Module
 C10-24   Throwaway Electronics Phase I – Product-Level Analysis
 C10-26   Qualification of Telecommunication Equipment for Free Cooling
 C10-27   Degradation Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries. Continuation of C09-27.
 C10-28   Evaluation of Conductive Filament Formation in RoHS Environments
 C10-36   Shock & Drop Qualification of MEMS Structures for Hand-held Products. Continuation of C09-36.
 C10-37   Building in Reliability in Thermal Management Strategies in Remote Power Generation Application
 C10-38   High Temperature Solder System for Improved Reliability
 C10-47   Mitigation Measures for Electrochemical Migration on Printed Circuit Board Assemblies. Continuation of C09-47

                                                 Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                                     38
                  CAVE Auburn Univ. Consortium
•   Lead-free:
•   News letter:
•   Also provides list of selected published articles:
         P09-201: PCR Based Development of Norris- Landzberg Acceleration Factors and Goldmann’s Constants for Lead free Electronics
         P09-202: Condition Monitoring of Hi-Rel Leadfree Systems under Dynamic Loads
         P09-203: Prognostication of Latent Damage and Residual Life in Lead free Electronics Subjected to Multiple Thermal-Environments
         P09-204: Thermo-Mechanical Models and Reliability Data for High I/O Leadfree Area-Array Packages
         P09-205: Thermo-mechanical Reliability of Low-Silver Leadfree Alloys
         P09-206: Thermo-mechanical Reliability of Advanced Interconnects: Micro-pearl SOL?, SAC305, Copper Columns.
         P09-207: Cohesive Zone Models for Leadfree Area-Array Packages
         P09-208: Shock Models for Advanced Interconnect Area-Array Leadfree Ceramic Packages
         P09-210: Thermo-mechanical Reliability Models for Leadfree 1206 Resistor Solder Joints
         P09-211: Health Monitoring Schemes for Leadfree Electronics Subjected to Drop and Shock
         P09-405: Modeling and Analysis of a Connector System for Vibration-induced Fretting Corrosion
         P09-406: Sn Growth on Ag Substrates
         P09-407: Sn Whisker Growth vs Film Thickness
         P09-408: Development of an Environmental System to Study Whiskering
         P09-301: Pb-Free Wetting for Cookson Exotic Alloys
         P09-302: Toward Flux-Free Wetting in Pb-Free Systems
         P09-303: Temperature-Cycling SEM Failure Analysis Tool: Development of New Experimental Equipment
         P09-306: Aging Behavior of Next Generation Pb-Free Alloys
         P09-304: Extreme Low Temperature Behavior of Solders
         P09-305: Creep Behavior and Microstructure of Mixed Formulation Solder Joints
         P09-305: Composition, Microstructure, and Reliability of Mixed Formulation Solder Joints
                                                     Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                                            39
     Universal Instruments AREA Consortium
•   Universal Instruments' Advanced Process Laboratory has been conducting
    focused research with the goal of generating applicable knowledge for
    specific product development and manufacturing processes. This research
    is funded by a consortium of companies that share the results.
•   2009/2010 Projects
       PCB Damage in Lead Free Processes
       Pad Cratering Mechanisms, Test Methods & Life Assessment
       Sporadic Solder Pad Finish Issues (Cu3Sn voiding, brittle Cu-Ni-Sn IMCs, ENIG/black pad)
       Thermal Cycling Data & Assessment of Life
       Drop, Vibration, and Cyclic Bending & Assessment of Life
       Acceleration of Lead Free Solder Aging
       Combined Loading of Lead Free (Vibration, Bending, Thermal Cycling, Shear, Drop)
       Lead Free Assembly and Rework/Repair
       Component Underfilling & Edge/Corner Bonding
       Mixed SnPb/SAC reliability
       Lead Free Solder Microstructure & Damage Mechanisms
       Low-Ag Solder Assembly

                                     Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                  40
                    University Lead-free centers


 NSF Center for Advanced Vehicle and Extreme Environment Electronics (CAVE3) - Auburn University
- Packaging Research Center - Georgia Institute of Technology
- Reliable Microelectronics Packaging Program - University of California at Berkeley
- Center for Welding, Joining and Coatings Research - Colorado School of Mines
- Integrated Electronics Engineering Center - State University of New York at Binghamton
- Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University
- CALCE Electronic Products and Systems Center - University of Maryland
- Centre for Microelectronics Assembly and Packaging - University of Toronto
- Purdue Materials Science

                                        Pb-Free Is Not Free!                               41
                Other University Publications

Dwayne Shirley, Creep and Crack Initiation in SnPb and Pb-Free Solder Alloys, "Primary Creep in Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder, Part 1
Dwayne Shirley, Creep and Crack Initiation in SnPb and Pb-Free Solder Alloys, "Primary Creep in Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder, Part 2
L. Snugovsky, P. Snugovsky, D.D. Perovic, J.W. Rutter, “'Spaling' of SAC Pb-Free Solder When Used with
Nickel Substrates”,
 L. Snugovsky, P. Snugovsky, D. D. Perovic and J. W. Rutter, ”Formation of Intermetallic Compounds with Sn-Zn-
Al Solder on Copper and
 L. Snugovsky, P. Snugovsky, D.D. Perovic and J.W. Rutter, “Formation of Microstructure in Ag-In-Sn Solder
L. Snugovsky, P. Snugovsky, D.D. Perovic and J.W. Rutter, “Phase Equilibria in the Sn-rich Corner of the Cu-Ni-
Sn System”,
Y. Qi, R. Lam, H. R. Ghorbani, P. Snugovsky, J. K. Spelt, “Temperature Profile Effects in Accelerated Thermal
Cycling of SnPb and Pb-free Solder Joints”,
L. Snugovsky, P. Snugovsky, D.D. Perovic, J.W. Rutter, “Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure of Ag-Cu-
Sn Solder Alloys”,
 L. Snugovsky, T. Sack, P. Snugovsky, D.D. Perovic, T. Sack, J.W. Rutter, “Some Aspects of Nucleation and
Growth in the Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu Solder”,
 L. Snugovsky, P. Snugovsky, D.D. Perovic and J.W. Rutter, “Solidification and Aging Behavior of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder alloys”, CMAP
Y. Qi, A. R. Zbrzezny, M. Agia, R. Lam, H. Ghorbani, P. Snugovsky, D. D. Perovic, J. K. Spelt, “Accelerated
Thermal Fatigue of Lead-Free Solder Joints as a Function of Reflow Cooling Rate”,
A. R. Zbrzezny, P. Snugovsky, D.D. Perovic, “Reliability of Lead-Free Chip Resistor Solder Joints Assembled on
Boards with Different Finishes Using Different Reflow Cooling Rates”,
Y. Qi, H.R. Ghorbani, J.K. Spelt, P. Snugovsky, P. Arrowsmith, “Accelerated Thermal Cycling of Tin-Lead and
Lead-Free Solder Joints”,

                                           Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                                  42
                           Other University Projects

Organization Principle              Citation/Description
             Investigator Project One (2009): Specific Design and Quantitative Analysis of SAC+X Solders
Ames Lab/ Iver            and a High Temperature Pb-free Solder Concept for High Performance Electronic
Iowa State   Anderson     Assembly (Iowa State University Research Foundation) - Prof. Iver Anderson will
University                study a limited number of Pb-free solder alloys, especially Sn-Ag-Cu with
                          additions of Mn, Zn, and Al to establish minimum concentrations for both thermal
                          aging resistance and nucleation control as a primary focus. The second focus is a
                          new high temperature Pb-free solder concept, responding to a further research
                          challenge for environmentally friendly electronic assembly.
                           Project two (2009): Development of Pb-Free Solder Systems for a Wide Range of
Ames Lab/    Iver          Assembly Parameters (Nihon Superior, Inc., Ames Lab WFO) - Prof. Iver Anderson
Iowa State   Anderson      is performing this study to verify the alloy design parameters and heterogeneous
University                 nucleation mechanisms for Sn-Ag-Cu-X solder joint solidification control and to use
                           the findings for analysis of Sn-Cu-X solder joint solidification. He also will develop
                           and demonstrate a Pb-free replacement for Pb-5Sn and Pb-10Sn, current high
                           temperature solders for multi-chip module assembly.

Binghamton      Nik         2009 Void Formation associated with aging of solder/copper plated structures
University-IEEC Dimitrov

                                            Pb-Free Is Not Free!                                         43
         Company Publications
– Aerospace Corp (1)
– BAE Systems (3)
– Boeing Company (7)
– Celestica (20)
– IBM (19)
– iNEMI Consortia (10)
– Lockheed Martin (1)
– Rockwell Collins (25)

                 Pb-Free Is Not Free!   44
• IPC 9701A
  – Performance Test Methods and Qualification Requirements for
    Surface Mount Solder Attachments
  – Issued Feb. 2006
  – Appendix B provides additional recommendations to existing
    IPC-9701 section requirements when utilizing a Pb-free
    soldering process.
• IPC 6012
  – Qualification and Performance Specification for Rigid Printed
  – Being sent out for balloting January 2010. Updates to
    document include Lead-free considerations

                         Pb-Free Is Not Free!                       45

• Lead-free solder 2009
  – C. Hunt, "Implementation and reliability issues with
    lead-free solders," SMTAI San Diego CA 2009
  – Year 1 report of current lead-free project: Copper
    Dissolution; Conformal coating and mitigation of tin
    whiskers; Reliability of electronic substrates after
    processing at lead-free soldering temperatures;
    Conformal coating reliability performance;
    Condensaiotn performance of conformal coatings;
    Low cycle fatigue of solders; Electromigration of

                      Pb-Free Is Not Free!                 46
• Green Electronics in Aeronautical and Military Communication
   – Poster : O. Maire « Forward Compatibility Assessment For
     Aeronautical and Military Communication Systems (GEAMCOS
     project) » EMPC 2007, Oulu (Finland), June 2007
   – Oral communication: O. Maire “Reliability of components with Pb
     soldered in a lead-free process” MicroNanoReliability 2007, Berlin, 3-
     5th September, 2007
   – Poster EADS IW Marc Grieu « Durability modelling of Ball Grid Array
     Components under random vibration » Symposium EuroSIME 2008
     Freiburg (G) 21-23/04/2008
   – Communication ESTC (2nd Electronics System Integration
     Technology Conference) EADS IW Marc Grieu “Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu
     Solder Joints Lifetime Estimation for Electronic Assemblies under
     Random Vibration” Symposium ESTC 2008 Greenwich (GB) 01-
   – EADS IW Agnès Chaillot: “Fatigue life prediction model developed for
     Green Electronics in Aeronautical and Military Communication
     Systems” Symposium EuroSIME 2009 Delft 28-30/04/2009

                             Pb-Free Is Not Free!                             47
Tin whiskers: Some snapshots

         Pb-Free Is Not Free!   48
Some snapshots

   Pb-Free Is Not Free!   49
Some snapshots

   Pb-Free Is Not Free!   50
Some snapshots

   Pb-Free Is Not Free!   51
Assembly and Soldering: snapshot

           Pb-Free Is Not Free!    52

From PERM Meeting 2

     Pb-Free Is Not Free!   53
        Research Coordination Task Team
•   Object/Goal
     – Provide an open forum to define, develop, and support coordination of research across
       consortia members activities that address the critical needs of the military/aerospace
       industry with regard to the global transition to lead-free electronics.
•   Scope/Expected Results
     – This is the top-level research coordination activity for the A&D community with respect
       to lead- free electronics. The task team serves as the Technology Review Board for
       the PERM Consortium and will:
          • Provide peer review and vetting of relevant research and inform members of that research
          • Define research gaps and recommend projects to fill those gaps, including maintenance of a
            research roadmap and funding needs. The specific research projects on the roadmap may
            include projects in the proposed “Manhattan Project,” as well as other related research.
          • Encourage communication and collaboration between consortia members on current research
            to reduce duplication of effort and to allow corroboration of results
          • Provide assessment of relevant research to A&D applications and provide recommendations to
            the Standards & Handbooks and other PERM task teams as needed.
     – The focus of the team is to provide “actionable deliverables”; however, it is recognized
       that some key technical questions exist for which the current knowledge is insufficient
       for implementation on A&D programs. In such cases, it may be necessary to provide
       in-work research knowledge which can be used provisionally, in lieu of “final published
       results.” It is also expected that the team will provide a set of solutions and applicability
       considerations, rather than a specific single answer.

    9/10/2009 update                                                                            54
                                        Pb-Free Is Not Free!
     Notional Approach for Assessment of
                                     High TC/Vibe/Shock
• Is it credible?
• Is it complete?                         TC/Vibe/Shock
    – Work continuing?
    – Degree of impact to current design?
•   Has it been corroborated?                         T/C
                                                            1-3 4-10 10-20 20+
•   Category of applicability
•   Funding required/Schedule
•   Originator / POC                                      Example:
                                                    Category of applicability
•   Required Action?
    – Output

                             Pb-Free Is Not Free!                         55
        Notional Approach for Assessment of
    • Impact Area

    L   Design
P   i
r   f   Manufacturing
o   e   Sustainment
d   c
u   y   Testing
c   c   Repair
t   l
    e   Reliability




                                                      Research Area

                                     Pb-Free Is Not Free!                              56
                              Data Repository
•   Released area – public
      – White papers
      – Meeting minutes
      – Tech presentations from meetings
      – Model Briefings (Tech piece contribution and review)
•   In review – members side
      – Active review and applicability to gaps (to decide what to post)
•   These are the standards upon which to post data
      – Publicly published – required
           • ITAR Cleared
      – Applicability to gaps
      – Key words: gaps, life cycle
      – Is all the data disclosed (full, partial)?
•   Tech presentations at PERM meetings
      – Abstract
      – Presentation

                                       Pb-Free Is Not Free!                57
               Sources and Communication of
                      Research Items
Sources / Resourses:                                       Communication
•  Consortia:
     –   CAVE3                                             • Objective of communication
     –   CALCE                                                   –   Inform
     –   NASA / DoD projects
     –   AREA (Universal Instruments)                            –   Alert
•   Companies / Groups with Skill Areas:                         –   Status
•   Funding Agencies
     –   MANTECH
                                                                 –   Handbook/Standard update
     –   NSF                                                     –   Training update
                                                                 –   Create project
•   National Labs                                                –   Bundle with other project
                                                           • Type of communication:
     –   Y12                                                     – Intended audience / To Whom
     –   Sandia                                                         • Message to consortia members
•   Critical Cousins:
     –   IPC                                                     – Sound bites / Message
     –   HDPUG                                                   – Alert
     –   iNEMI
                                                                        • GIDEP
•   Journals
     –   SMTA, Journal of Electronic Materials             • Advocate journal publication
     –   Etc.
                                                           • Applicability
                                                           • Source / References / POC
                                                 Pb-Free Is Not Free!                               58
                 Other items
• Periodic Newsletter / Rollup
   –   Who’s Who, Doing What
   –   Good news
   –   Bad news
   –   Status of alloys
   –   Guest articles
• Road-map
   – The roadmap for proofing out an alloy is captured in
     Manhattan project Ph1 and 2.
   – Need to include current SBIR, SERDP, Mantech
• We will need:
   – A share point to facilitate communication amongst
     the group
   – A repository for physical samples (Assemblies,
     boards, coupons, sections)

                    Pb-Free Is Not Free!                    59

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