robotic history by N310vAQ

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									Robotics History


               1920
               The idea of a robot is not new.
               For thousands of years man
               has been imagining intelligent
               mechanized devices that
               perform human-like tasks. He
               has built automatic toys and
               mechanisms and imagined
               robots in drawings, books,
               plays and science fiction
               movies.
 Robotics History
                        What is the definition of a 'robot'?
                           "A reprogrammable, multifunctional
                           manipulator designed to move material,
                           parts, tools, or specialized devices
                           through various programmed motions for
                           the performance of a variety of tasks"
                           Robot Institute of America, 1979


Where did the word 'robot' come
from?
    In fact, the term "robot" was first used in 1920 in a play
   called "R.U.R." Or "Rossum's universal robots" by the
   Czech writer Karel Capek. The plot was simple: man makes
   robot then robot kills man! Many movies that followed
   continued to show robots as harmful, menacing machines.
Robotics History
                  Robotics Terminology

                         The term 'robotics' refers to the study and
                         use of robots. The term was coined and
                         first used by the Russian-born American
                         scientist and writer Isaac Asimov (born
                         Jan. 2, 1920, died Apr. 6, 1992). Asimov
                         wrote prodigiously on a wide variety of
                         subjects. He was best known for his
                         many works of science fiction.


     The most famous include I Robot (1950), The Foundation Trilogy
     (1951-52), Foundation's Edge (1982), and The Gods Themselves
     (1972), which won both the Hugo and Nebula awards. He also wrote
     the three “Laws of Robotics for which he is also famous.
Robotics History

         More recent movies, however, like
         the 1977 "star wars", portray
         robots such as "C3PO" and
         "R2D2" as man's helpers.
         "Number five" in the movie "short
         circuit" and C3PO actually take on
         a human appearance. These
         robots,
         which are made to look.
         human are called "androids".
Robotics History
  However, robots of today are not exactly the
  walking, talking intelligent machines of of movies,
  stories and our dreams. Today, we find most robots
  working for people in factories, warehouses, and
  laboratories. In the future, robots may show up in
  other places: our schools, our homes, even our
  bodies.
 Robotics History
Today fully functioning
androids are many years away
due to the many problems that
must be solved. However, real,
working, sophisticated robots
are in use today and they are
revolutionizing the workplace.
These robots do not resemble
the romantic android concept
of robots. They are industrial
manipulators and are really
computer controlled "arms
and hands".
 Robotics History
Robots have the potential to change our economy, our
health, our standard of living, our knowledge and the world
in which we live. As the technology progresses, we are
finding new ways to use robots.


      Each new use
      brings new hope
      and possibilities,
      but also potential
      dangers and risks.
     Robotics History
                           Benefits of Robots

   Robots offer specific
    benefits to workers,
    industries and countries.
    If introduced correctly,
    industrial robots can
    improve the quality of
    life by freeing workers
    from dirty, boring,
    dangerous and heavy
    labor.
Robotics History
              •Robotics for bio-production

Many robots for bio-production
have been developed in the world
and it is predicted that they will be
commercialized in the 21st century,
since some of them were already
commercialized by some
companies in Japan and European
countries. A tomato and cherry
tomato harvesting robot, a
cucumber harvesting robot,
strawberry harvesting robots, a
multi-operation robot to work in
grapevine yard, and a
chrysanthemum cutting sticking
robot.
Robotics History                         EMT
 HAZBOT III is part of JPL's Emergency Response
 Robotics Project, a five-year effort begun in 1991 to apply
 robotics technology to the safe handling of hazardous
 materials. Robots such as HAZBOT also hold potential
 for use in mining and law enforcement. "It's almost
 standard now to have robots on bomb squads in major
 cities, but it took several years for the idea to catch on,"
 said Richard Welch, task manager of Emergency
 Response Robotics at JPL.
Robotics History
  And Future


  Future missions to
  space will include
  many robotic vehicles
  designed to perform
  specific tasks both
  autonomous and
  remote controlled.
Robotics History
                           And Future
The Mars 2003 Rover
Project is designed to
  have two scientific
 rovers going to Mars
  in 2003. Each rover
     will search for
   evidence of liquid
 water that may have
 been present in Mars
 past. The rovers will
  be identical to each
 other, but will land at
  different regions of
          Mars.
Robotics History
                          •The planet Saturn, with its
                          famous icy rings, and its
                          enigmatic moon, Titan, are
                          the prime scientific targets
                          of the international Cassini
                          mission, the most ambitious
                          and far-reaching planetary
                          exploration ever mounted.

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft successfully
    launched on October 15, 1997. It’s robotic rover
    is expected to land on Saturn in October of 2004.
Robotics History
                          Jobs


  Enter the exciting
  world of robotics
  here! Learn here how
  NASA is using
  robotics and
  telerobotics to learn
  more about Earth and
  other planets.
Robotics History
                         Jobs
NASA Programs:
 JPL's Robotics Program

 Intelligent Mechanisms Group (IMG)

 NASA Space Telerobotics Program

Other Careers
 Automation

 Animatronics

 Bioscience

 Mechanical Engineer
Robotics History
        Robotic Terminology
     Articulated - Jointed arm.
     End Effector - Device at the end of a robot arm
       that is used to grasp or engage objects.
     Degrees of freedom - Each plane in which a robot
       can maneuver.
     Robot - Mechanical device that performs human
       tasks, either automatically or by remote control.
       (From the Czech word robota.)
     Robotics - Study and application of robot
       technology.
     Telerobotics - Robot that is operated remotely.
Robotics Glossary
      Au-ton-o-mous          adj.
           1.    Not controlled by others or by outside
                forces; independent: an autonomous
                judiciary; an autonomous division of a
                corporate conglomerate.
           2.   Independent in mind or judgment; self-
                directed.
                a.    Independent of the laws of another
                     state or government; self-governing.
                1.   Of or relating to a self-governing
                     entity: an autonomous legislature.
                2.    Self-governing with respect to local
                     or internal affairs: an autonomous
                     region of a country.
                                     •Click here to return to Slide 10
Robotics Glossary

       android \An"droid\ ([a^]n"droid),
       A machine or automaton in the form of a
       human being.

          Possessing human features. n.

         An automaton that is created from
         biological materials and resembles a
         human being. Also called humanoid.
                         •Click here to return to Slide 4

								
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