Strategy for Sustainable Use of Water Resources by ZRZ5Mezo



        World Bank / Liping Jiang
          In Cairns 23/10/2009

1. Challenges in Hai Basin and Bohai Sea

2. Project Approach to Face the Challenges

3. Major Project Results or Outcomes
   1. Main Challenges in Hai Basin and Bohai Sea

Water Shortage Groundwater abstraction exceeds recharge by 7.2 billion
m3/yr, surface water is overused by 2.4 billion m3/yr;
Water Pollution: About 5.0 billion m3 to rivers without treatment, which
     makes 80% of surface water and 50% of groundwater polluted; and
Ecosystem Degradation: Many rivers , lakes and wetlands dried up and
     ecosystems have been seriously damaged.
    The water demand for social and economic
    development in a river basin is approaching to the
    red line of water demand for ecosystems

       Total Water Resources

       Water Demand

       Water Demands

       Water Supply

    With the rapid social and economic development,
    water demand for ecosystems was seized. As a
    result, environment and groundwater situation is
    getting worse.


                               Seized Environmental

    There is a conflict between water demand for social
    and economic development and water demand for
    ecosystem protection.


                 No Risks but with    Environment   Ineffective
                 big water shortage   damaged       Investment

There is a need to increase water supply or to
reduce water demand, particularly to reduce the
water demand from the irrigated agriculture.

      Water Transfer            Reducing Water Demand

                                 Increasing Water Supply

3. Project Approach to Face the Challenges
 Top-down /bottom-up and horizontal and vertical integration;
 Remote-Sensing based ET monitoring and evaluation;
  The actual consumptive use of water should be less than
 the target consumptive use of water at both river basin
 and field levels;
 The total pollution loads should be less than environment
  carrying capacity of the rivers, lakes and sub-basins;
 Establish consumption (ET)-based water rights system to
  really control consumptive use of water;
 Integrated three measures to reduce consumptive use of
  irrigated water including engineering, agricultural and
  management improvements;
 Stakeholder participation including WUAs in the whole
  process of project design, construction and O&M and
  control of consumptive use of water.
Free Remote Sensing Data
           Remote Sensing based ET Management

The key for controlling the consumptive use of water is to find
out the actual water consumption (ET) for irrigated areas and
ecosystem areas. The technology now can measure the actual
ET within a pixel of 30x30 meter or 1x1 km and provided the
technical basis for the analysis on consumptive use of water at
both river basin and field levels;
             How to increase crop yield or value
               per unit of consumed water?

                                     CROP PRODUCTION
Yield 1                              Yield = ƒ (ET)
Yield 2

                       ET 1   ET 2
                                                       ET 耗水量

   To increase water productivity with agricultural measures
   and irrigation scheduling including deficit irrigation.
        Analysis of consumptive use of water
               at the river basin level
   It refers to water balance between actual consumptive
    use and target consumptive use of water;
   The actual consumptive use includes the actual uses for
    urban, agricultural and ecosystems;
   The target water consumption for agricultural =
    precipitation + inflow + allowed groundwater overdraft –
    urban water consumption – ecosystem water
    consumption – outflow;
   The total Actual water consumption for agriculture at the
    subproject level should be less than the target water
    consumption at the river basin level through the
    subproject design at the filed level.
        Analysis of consumptive use of water
               at the crop field level
   It refers to the balance between actual consumptive
    use with project and the target consumptive use at the
    field level;

   The target consumptive use with project at the field
    level could be find out proportionally with the actual
    water consumption at the field level;

   The subproject design with three water-saving
    measures should make the actual water consumption
    with project less than the target water consumption
    at the field level.
 New Water Rights System based on Consumption Control

  Given the same amount of water withdrawal, the water
   users with higher irrigation efficiency would normally
   consume more water than the water users with lower
   irrigation efficiency;
  The conventional water rights system controls only
   withdrawal, not consumption, hence it can not control
   overuse of water;
  The new water rights system would control consumption,
   which tries to solve the issue on how to control overuse of
   water. It includes three elements:
    1. Water withdrawal (updated once a year);
    2. Target water consumption;
    3. Water release (with water quality stipulated).
 The relationship on the three elements is:
    Water Withdrawal = Target Water Consumption + Water
3. Major Project Outputs or Outcomes
• Outputs include (a) 8 strategic studies at river basin level;
  (b)16 integrated water and environment plans at the county
  level; (c) 4 demonstration projects at field level; (d)
  knowledge management system; and (e) 2 ET production
  and application centers as well as (f) 2 strategic action
  plans at the river basin levels;

• Outcomes include (a) the reduced pollution loads to Bohai
  Sea; (b) reduced total consumptive use (ET) for
  agricultural uese in Hai River Basin; (c) increased
  institutional capacity of government agencies for water
  resources management and environment protection; and
  (d) government decided to scale up the project to other
  river basins around the Bohai Sea to increase the outflow
  and reduce the pollution loads to the Sea
   ET in Tongzhou District of Beijing

Before Project               After Project
Zhang-Jia-Wan Township of Tongzhou District of Being

                              Before Project

      After Project
               Farmers are learning about
how to control water consumption and non-point pollution
     Thanks !
Welcome Questions !

To top