PRACTICE FROM CHINA GEF HAI BASIN INTEGRATED WATER AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PROJECT World Bank / Liping Jiang In Cairns 23/10/2009 Topics 1. Challenges in Hai Basin and Bohai Sea 2. Project Approach to Face the Challenges 3. Major Project Results or Outcomes 1. Main Challenges in Hai Basin and Bohai Sea Water Shortage Groundwater abstraction exceeds recharge by 7.2 billion m3/yr, surface water is overused by 2.4 billion m3/yr; Water Pollution: About 5.0 billion m3 to rivers without treatment, which makes 80% of surface water and 50% of groundwater polluted; and Ecosystem Degradation: Many rivers , lakes and wetlands dried up and ecosystems have been seriously damaged. The water demand for social and economic development in a river basin is approaching to the red line of water demand for ecosystems Q Total Water Resources Availability Environmental Water Demand Social-economic Water Demands Water Supply T With the rapid social and economic development, water demand for ecosystems was seized. As a result, environment and groundwater situation is getting worse. Q Seized Environmental Demand T There is a conflict between water demand for social and economic development and water demand for ecosystem protection. Q No Risks but with Environment Ineffective big water shortage damaged Investment T There is a need to increase water supply or to reduce water demand, particularly to reduce the water demand from the irrigated agriculture. Inter-basin Water Transfer Reducing Water Demand Q Increasing Water Supply T 3. Project Approach to Face the Challenges Top-down /bottom-up and horizontal and vertical integration; Remote-Sensing based ET monitoring and evaluation; The actual consumptive use of water should be less than the target consumptive use of water at both river basin and field levels; The total pollution loads should be less than environment carrying capacity of the rivers, lakes and sub-basins; Establish consumption (ET)-based water rights system to really control consumptive use of water; Integrated three measures to reduce consumptive use of irrigated water including engineering, agricultural and management improvements; Stakeholder participation including WUAs in the whole process of project design, construction and O&M and control of consumptive use of water. Free Remote Sensing Data Remote Sensing based ET Management The key for controlling the consumptive use of water is to find out the actual water consumption (ET) for irrigated areas and ecosystem areas. The technology now can measure the actual ET within a pixel of 30x30 meter or 1x1 km and provided the technical basis for the analysis on consumptive use of water at both river basin and field levels; How to increase crop yield or value per unit of consumed water? Yield CROP PRODUCTION FUNCTION Yield 1 Yield = ƒ (ET) Yield 2 ET 1 ET 2 ET 耗水量 To increase water productivity with agricultural measures and irrigation scheduling including deficit irrigation. Analysis of consumptive use of water at the river basin level It refers to water balance between actual consumptive use and target consumptive use of water; The actual consumptive use includes the actual uses for urban, agricultural and ecosystems; The target water consumption for agricultural = precipitation + inflow + allowed groundwater overdraft – urban water consumption – ecosystem water consumption – outflow; The total Actual water consumption for agriculture at the subproject level should be less than the target water consumption at the river basin level through the subproject design at the filed level. Analysis of consumptive use of water at the crop field level It refers to the balance between actual consumptive use with project and the target consumptive use at the field level; The target consumptive use with project at the field level could be find out proportionally with the actual water consumption at the field level; The subproject design with three water-saving measures should make the actual water consumption with project less than the target water consumption at the field level. New Water Rights System based on Consumption Control Given the same amount of water withdrawal, the water users with higher irrigation efficiency would normally consume more water than the water users with lower irrigation efficiency; The conventional water rights system controls only withdrawal, not consumption, hence it can not control overuse of water; The new water rights system would control consumption, which tries to solve the issue on how to control overuse of water. It includes three elements: 1. Water withdrawal (updated once a year); 2. Target water consumption; 3. Water release (with water quality stipulated). The relationship on the three elements is: Water Withdrawal = Target Water Consumption + Water Release 3. Major Project Outputs or Outcomes • Outputs include (a) 8 strategic studies at river basin level; (b)16 integrated water and environment plans at the county level; (c) 4 demonstration projects at field level; (d) knowledge management system; and (e) 2 ET production and application centers as well as (f) 2 strategic action plans at the river basin levels; • Outcomes include (a) the reduced pollution loads to Bohai Sea; (b) reduced total consumptive use (ET) for agricultural uese in Hai River Basin; (c) increased institutional capacity of government agencies for water resources management and environment protection; and (d) government decided to scale up the project to other river basins around the Bohai Sea to increase the outflow and reduce the pollution loads to the Sea ET in Tongzhou District of Beijing Before Project After Project Zhang-Jia-Wan Township of Tongzhou District of Being Before Project After Project Farmers are learning about how to control water consumption and non-point pollution Thanks ! 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