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Intrusion Detection and Prevention System: Classification and Quick Review

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					                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                         Vol. 10, No. 5, May 2012



         DECENTRALIZED INFRASTRUCTURE FOR INFORMATION

                    SHARING USING PEER-TO-PEER TECHNOLOGY.


                   G. RAMESH KUMAR                                                Dr. UJWAL A. LANJEWAR
   Research Scholar, Dept. of Computer                                     Research Supervisor, HOD, Dept. of
  Science, Dravidian University, Kuppam,                                 Computer Science, Centre Point College,
             Andhra Pradesh.                                              Samarth Nagar, Wardha Road, Nagpur.



         Abstract— Peer-to-Peer technology, also known as               infrastructure for information sharing.         Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

peer computing, is an emerging paradigm that is now                     has become one of the most widely discussed terms in

viewed as a potential technology that could provide a                   information technology. The term peer-to-peer refers to the

decentralized infrastructure for information sharing.     The           concept that in a network of equals (peers) using appropriate

term peer-to-peer refers to the concept that in a network of            information and communication systems, two or more

equals   (peers)    using    appropriate   information    and           individuals are able to spontaneously collaborate without

communication systems, two or more individuals are able to              necessarily needing central coordination.             P2P originally

spontaneously collaborate without necessarily needing                   designed      exclusively     for     pragmatic       (and         legally

central coordination.     This paper defines P2P concepts,              controversial)     file   sharing     applications,      peer-to-peer

specifies how P2P is different from Client-Server Model,                mechanisms can be used access any kind of distributed

Distributed Systems and a Grid, and discusses various                   resources and may offer new possibilities for internet-based

applications of P2P systems. The main aim of this paper is              applications.

to review P2P concepts and to highlight its importance                             Many systems have been developed and deployed;

through its advantages.                                                 e.g.,    Freenet(6),      Gnutella(7),       Napster(8),       IC!(9),

                                                                        Seti@home(10), LOCKSS(11) and many other.                           Such
   Keywords-component; formatting; style; styling; insert (key          architectures are generally characterized by the direct
words)

              I.     INTRODUCTION (HEADING 1)                           sharing of computer resources (CPU cycles, storage,

                                                                        content) rather than requiring the intermediation of a
         Peer-to-Peer technology, also known as peer
                                                                        centralized server. (12)
computing, is an emerging paradigm that is now viewed as a

potential technology that could provide a decentralized




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                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                          Vol. 10, No. 5, May 2012


        2. DEFINING PEER-TO-PEER CONCEPTS                                         Structured P2P networks : Maintains a distributed

2.1 PEER-TO-PEER                                                                   hash table and each peer is responsible for a

         Peer-to-Peer is a class of applications that takes the                    specific part of the content in the network e.g

advantage of resources storage, cycles, content, human                             Chord, Pastry, Tapestry, CAN, Tulip.

presence available at the edges of the Internet. A peer-to-                       Unstructured P2P network : The overlay links are

peer (P2P) architecture is a type of network in which each                         established arbitrarily.      There is no correlation

device has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. The                       between a peer and the content manage by it e.g

shared provision of distributed resources and services,                            Gnutella, Fast Track.

decentralization and autonomy are characteristics of P2P
                                                                         2.3 P2P SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS
networks.
                                                                         2.3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF P2P SOFTWARE
                                                                         APPLICATIONS
2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF P2P NETWORKS

    The classification of the P2P networks according to
                                                                         The P2P software applications include these seven
their degree of centralization
                                                                         characteristics:
        Pure Peer-to-peer: There is no concept of central
                                                                                  The user interface runs outsides of a web browser.
         sever and central router.      Peers act as equals
                                                                                  Computers in the system can act as both clients and
         merging both the roles of clients and servers.
                                                                                   servers.
        Hybrid Peer – to – Peer: The central server exists
                                                                                  The software is easy to use and well-integrated.
         to keep information on peers and responds to
                                                                                  The application includes tools to support users
         requests for that information e.g. Gnutella, Free
                                                                                   wanting to create content or add functionality.
         net.
                                                                                  The application makes connections with other

                                                                                   users.
    The classification of the P2P networks according to
                                                                                  The application does something new or exciting.
their structure (overlay network links). The P2P network
                                                                                  The software supports : cross-network protocols
consists of set of peers as network nodes. There are links
                                                                                   like SOAP or XML - RPC (19).
(directed edge) between the nodes that know the location of

each other. Those which have links are structured otherwise

unstructured.




                                                                   79                                http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                        Vol. 10, No. 5, May 2012


2.3.2 CLASSIFICATION OF P2P APPLICATIONS                                      3.COMPARING CLIENT-SERVER, GRIDS,
                                                                                  DISTRIBUTEDSYSTEMS WITH P2P
P2P architectures have been employed for a variety of
                                                                       3.1. CLIENT-SERVER AND P2P
different application categories, which include the following
                                                                                 In client – Server architecture (fig.1), the client
        Communication and Collaboration: Systems that
                                                                       communicates with the server directly and the server
         provide the infrastructure for facilitating direct,
                                                                       maintains client connectivity. By contrast a server does not
         usually real-time, communication and collaboration
                                                                       exist in a peer-to-peer network, because all the devices have
         between peer computers, e.g chat and instant
                                                                       the same capabilities and responsibilities (Fig 2), each of
         messaging applications. Chat/Irc, Aol, Icq, Jabber.
                                                                       them must be able to find other devices and maintain that
        Distributed Computation: System whose aim is
                                                                       connectivity within the same network.
         to take advantage of the available peer computer

         processing power (CPU cycles). e.g Seti@home,                                           SERVER

         genome@home

        Internet Service, Support: Systems supporting a
                                                                           CLIENT                    CLIENT                      CLIENT
         variety of Internet services e.g peer-to-peer

         multicast systems, security applications, virus
                                                                                      Fig. 1 Client – Server Architecture
         attacks ect.
                                                                       Per-to-Peer, is the movement away from the more
        Database Systems: Distributed database systems
                                                                       traditional client-server model to a network where each
         based on peer – to – peer infrastructures e.g LRM,
                                                                       participating device is acting as both client and server
         PIER, The Piazza system.

                                                                                                 PEER
Content Distribution:         Systems and infrastructures

designed for the sharing of digital media and other data

between users. e.g Napster, Gnutella, Freenet.
                                                                                    PEER                PEER
.
                                                                                      Fig. 2 A Peer-to-Peer Architecture




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                                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                        Vol. 10, No. 5, May 2012


3.2. DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS AND P2P                                                         4. ADVANTAGES OF P2P

                                                                                Unlike the traditional client – server model, where
         The P2P approach is by no means just a technology
                                                                                 is typically a single or small cluster of server many
for file sharing.   Rather, it forms a fundamental design
                                                                                 clients, each node is treated as a peer P2P system
principle for Distributed Systems.     It clearly reflects the
                                                                                 and each peer can both consume as provide data
paradigm shift from coordination to cooperation, from
                                                                                 and / or services. In addition, each may join and
centralization to decentralization, and from control to
                                                                                 leave the P2P network at any resulting in a truly
incentives.
                                                                                 dynamic and ad-hoc environment.
         Peer-to-Peer systems are distributed systems
                                                                                P2P applications are categorized into in messaging,
consisting of interconnected nodes able to self organize into
                                                                                 file sharing, grid computing collaboration.
network topologies with the purpose of sharing resources
                                                                                P2P peers provide resources, incl. bandwidth,
such as content, CPU cycles, storage and bandwidth,
                                                                                 storage space and computing power.
capable of adapting to failures and accommodating transient
                                                                                P2P networks increase robustness in case of
populations    of   nodes   while    maintaining   acceptable
                                                                                 replicating data over multiple users and also
connectivity    and    performance,      without    requiring
                                                                                 enabling peers to find data without relying
intermediation or support of a global centralized ser
                                                                                 centralized index server.
authority.
                                                                                P2P application has the ability to discover, query

3.3. GRID AND P2P                                                                share content with other peers.

         Grid and P2P both are new emerging approach                            Peer Reliability : peers in the cluster are distributed
Distributed computing to address the problem organizing                          and take role accordingly to capabilities.

large scale computational.    Current Grids provide many                        P2P is widely used for online multiplayer games.
service moderate – sized communities and emphasis                               P2P can be used for Information sharing and
integration of substantial resources to deliver non qualities                    retrieved
of service within an environment of a limited trust e.g.
                                                                                P2P deals with sharing of data files or textual
NASA’s information power Grid.         Contrast current P2P
                                                                                 content process data which is continuously created
systems deal with many participants e.g Limewire but offer
                                                                                 and     essential       in    supporting        long-running
limited specialized services, have been less concerned
                                                                                 applications.
qualities of service, and have made few if any assume about
                                                                                The use of authentication, authorization, encryption
trust.
                                                                                 establishes trust P2P applications.



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                                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                                         (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                         Vol. 10, No. 5, May 2012


          P2P Networking enables or enhances the following             content distribution, desktop collaboration, and network

           scenarios.                                                   computation, it is expected that there will be a strong

Real time communications (RTC): For RTC, peer-to-peer                   convergence between peer-to-peer and Grid computing.

networking enables serverless instant messaging and real-

time matchmaking and game playing.                                                             6. CONCLUSION

Collaboration: For collaboration, peer-to-peer networking                         In this paper, P2P concepts and its comparison with

allows the sharing of workspace, files, and experiences.                Client Server Model, Distributed Systems, and a Grid have

Content distribution: Peer-to-peer networking allows the                been specified and in the end discuss its importance through

distribution of text, audio, and video and software product             its advantages.

updates.
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                                                                  82                                http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                                 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                 Vol. 10, No. 5, May 2012


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