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Companies are faced with increasing levels of costs associated with quality control1. Using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a quality control method can help reduce such costs. But what is NIR, how does it work in practice, and most importantly, how do companies employ NIR to help their quality control processes?
Digital Re-print - May | June 2012 NIR in practice Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872 www.gfmt.co.uk NIR FEATURE Companies are faced with increasing levels of costs associated with quality control1. Using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a quality control method can help reduce such costs. But what is NIR, how does it work in practice, and most importantly, how do IN PRACTICE companies employ NIR to help their quality control processes? by Chris Piotrowski, Director, Aunir, UK N IR spectroscopy is an analyti- on the reading pane of an NIR spectrometer, Who uses NIR? cal technique that allows a which will then take the measurement and Sample analysis can be carried out in the rapid, non-destructive determi- produce a spectra file. following three ways. Firstly, by an agreed nation of a sample’s properties. It is NIR analysis is very quick and simple, standard method such as protein analysis used in various industries for identify- meaning that individuals operating the equip- (Dumas or kjeldahl). Secondly, by empirical ing compounds and chemical structures ment do not need any special qualifications. methods such as those employed for oil or which can then be accurately related to Another benefit to NIR analysis is that crude fibre analysis. Finally, there are subjec- the nutritional, chemical and physical there are no hazardous chemicals involved, tive methods based on experience such as properties of the material. allowing analysis to be carried out at vari- taste or smell, but these subjective methods ous stages of production. And since NIR is are not an accurate measure for quality con- non-destructive, it is perfect for use in plant trol purposes. Traditionally, quality control is How does it work? breeding and raw material quality control carried out through wet chemistry analysis, Traditional ‘wet chemistry’ facilitates a since the sample can be used again. but since this method is slow and expensive, greater level of understanding about the alternatives such as NIR spectroscopy have make-up of different materials. However, this Understanding NIR been sought out. technique requires heavy investment of time Analysis of chemical compounds has rap- NIR can be used across a wide range of and money. idly evolved over the last century, but there industries. Animal feed and ingredients, flour are still many parameters measured which and milling, wet and dried forage, animal pro- are not true compounds. For example, crude teins, pet food, aqua feed and plant breeding fibre is the material which remains after companies all utilise NIR analysis. the action of acid and alkali on a sample of feed. There is no such compound in nature. NIR in the pet food industry Whereas reference chemistry on such com- NIR is a proven technique used by pet pounds is not reliable, alternative techniques food manufacturers for the rapid, on-site such as NIR remain pure. multi-component analysis of raw materials Scanning a sample using NIR will only and pet foods. Samples of pet food require produce a spectra file. This then needs to be little or no preparation, making NIR a quick, compared to a database of other spectra files clean and chemical-free way of analysing of known substances in order to correctly for key quality parameters such as protein, determine the components in the material. oil, fibre, ash, moisture and even starch Calibration databases are expensive to create gelatinisation. in terms of both time and financial invest- An NIR system is ideal for rapid analysis ment. Thus, a market in which the licensing of and it lowers the cost of achieving quality spectra databases for reference purposes has because it allows increased testing frequency Organic molecules absorb infrared radia- developed. at no extra cost. Analysis using NIR technol- tion at an energy that is characteristic of their Licensing a set of calibrations cuts out ogy is employed by 90 percent of UK-based composition. Every chemical compound the need for massive financial investment pet food manufacturers. is characterised by one of six types of and eliminates any time delay in obtaining As part of the Premier Pet Nutrition molecular vibration; symmetrical stretching, results since the predicted data is imme- complete pet nutrition package, pet food asymmetrical stretching, scissoring, rocking, diately available. Once an NIR machine is and raw material NIR calibration factors wagging or twisting. Each of these types of set up with calibrations, the technique for are provided. The NIR calibration factors vibration absorbs light energy at a different carrying out analysis is relatively simple and help pet food brands to constantly improve frequency. thus can be carried out by any member of standards for product quality, conformity, NIR spectroscopy measures the absorp- staff, not necessarily a highly skilled techni- assurance and safety. tion of light energy shone at a material in cian. The results of NIR analysis are available The impact NIR can have on a pet food order to produce a spectra. The resulting instantly, allowing important decisions about manufacturers business is illustrated by one spectra can then be compared to other quality control to be taken immediately. of Premier Nutrition’s clients who saved spectra of known materials to identify it. The future of NIR capability will allow fur- €100,000 in one year by using NIR as part of In practice, a sample of material is placed ther flexibility for analysis. a complete pet nutrition package. 14 | may - June 2012 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy wITh SIMPLE no oPERAToR CoST SAvIng InfLUEnCE fAST ACCURATE infraneo_GB_190x132mm.indd 1 18/06/2012 09:41:26 Flour Milling Training Internationally recognised distance learning programme Seven Steps to Success Developed for millers by industry professionals Hygiene, Health and Safety Studied every year by hundreds of millers worldwide Wheat and the Screenroom An indispensable tool for developing the knowledge and competence of flour millers and their colleagues. Mill Processes and Performance A clear presentation of the industry and process, in 7 modules. Product Handling, Storage and Distribution Dedicated tutor support given to every student, providing professional guidance throughout the course year. Flour Course Fees 2011-12 The cost per module is: £310 (+ VAT at 20% where applicable) Power and Automation includes postage, textbook and exam registration nabim Members: £210 per module (a discount of £100) Flour Milling Management Non-UK Companies: £260 per module (a discount of £50) To enrol or find out more, contact: nabim 21 Arlington Street London SW1A 1RN UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7493 2521 Fax: +44 (0)20 7493 6785 email: email@example.com www.nabim.org.uk Grain &feed millinG technoloGy may - June 2012 | 15 FEATURE Premier Pet Nutrition also uses NIR solubility. The service allows monitoring innovatively at its own factory to test of cereal quality, anticipating any variation, every incoming micro-ingredient (for and assisting with decisions on dosing of example, vitamins, minerals, and nutraceu- additives such as feed enzymes. Adding ticals) to ensure identity and conformity. an enzyme to the feed, for example, This adds another level of assurance in will maximise productivity and uniform- the final premix product. ity even when the cereal quality var- ies between batches and seasons. NIR NIR in determining corn quality spectroscopy is used by over 50 percent Feed represents around 70 percent of animal feed manufacturers worldwide, of the cost of production of monogas- confirming the value that can be gained tric animals globally. Sourcing low cost from NIR in commercial applications. ingredients is important for the economic 1 If you are not profiting from Quality Control, success of companies involved in animal Sampling and Analysis, why do any of it? production, as is the quality of these Steven Tayfield, May 2012. Published in Feed ingredients. Ingredient quality will impact Compounder, May 2012, p. 28-29. animal performance and consequently production costs. Cereals such as corn, sorghum and wheat are generally the major ingredients in animal feed formula- tions and so their quality will have a direct effect on animal performance. The Corn Quality Service is a service provided by AB Vista, in association with Aunir. The service allows customers to automatically predict the quality of corn used in their feeds by determining the cereal composition and quality param- eters such as vitreousness and protein 16 | may - June 2012 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy behind Italian company SEA to aimed at strengthening the “With more than 40 years’ member of the Cimbria group, acquire one hundred percent of company’s product and market experience in the market, SEA is for the benefit of both customers the shares in the company. SEA posi t ion vi a org anic and recognised today for its excellent and suppliers,” says Antonio N May - June 2012 of optical ews is a leader in the development acquisitivefirst acquisitionissince quality in the field electronic Uzzo, managing director of“We initiatives. It the NEWS SEA NEW! and manufacture of sorting company’s sorting and other and the company’s founder. ® AgraStrip + AgraVisionTM equipment for sorting grain, Axcel became the majority sorting technologies, and the now have the potential to grow seeds and other industrial shareholder at Cimbria in company represents a good fit and attract new customers by EU compound feed production down by 0.3percent in 2011 products by means of colour or August 2011. in relation to Cimbria’s aim to means of the strong market resonance. SEA market trend expected 2012 despite supply high-quality for major position of the no significantprimarily sells its In 2011 SEAinhad a turnover high quotationsproducts and feed materials combined I equipment in Europe. of approximately DKK 70 full-line solutions within seed company,” he adds. n the wake of the 55th FEFAC to a lesser extent, Italy, managed Outlook for 2012 and seasonal drought in million and a profit ratio of corn plants and other industrial Annual General Meeting on to buck the general market trend FEFAC experts identified the South America, will further With the acquisition of SEA, approximately 20 percent. The products,” says Karsten Larsen, More inforMation: ‘EU CAP reform impact on with positive growth around following key drivers for the affect the profitability of Cimbria’s range of mechanical company expects to see growth managing director of Cimbria. Lars Nørgaard, Sales EU livestock and feed sector / EU three percent, supported by a compound feed market in 2012: the livestock industry, in sor ting equipment will be in both sales and earnings “At the same time, we’re Director, Cimbra Quantitative to • On the supply side, farmers; supplemented by optical colour this year. SEA has around 35 convinced that in years Strip +45 72 422420for Tel: Tests food waste strategy’ on June 15, surprisingly quick recovery of pig • On the livestock sector side, particular the pig 2012 in Brussels, FEFAC members farming activity. the entry into application of the persisting sorting and other electronic employees at its factory in come SEA’s products will meet Email: firstname.lastname@example.org have provided final estimates for The high cereal prices over the the new cages standard for problems on the trade of solutions, thus completing Imola in northern Italy. SEA’s a growing demand driven by Website: www.cimbria.com the compound feed production last two years contributed to for the EU-271 in 2011. The total improve the competitive market 2012 Aflatoxins laying hens from 1 January ß and the new group- maize co-products (DDGs, Corn gluten feed) linked to production estimate is now set at position of industrial compound ß Deoxynivalenol (DON) of not housing requirements for sows asynchronous approval 151 mio. t, i.e. 0.3 percent below feed production vs. home mixing. which may lead to a significant yet authorised GM events, Supplier Focus: Wuxi General Corp the figure for 2010. Cattle and pig However, this gain was offset to a feed have seen their production certain extent by the development ß Fumonisins &despite the adoption of the reduction in young sows replacement in certain producer technical solution last year. ß GMOs of the Australia and NewFEFAC experts W fall, respectively by -2.1 and -0.6 of alternative pig feeding strategies regions; the development As a consequence, uxi General Corp Supply and Marketing has finished several projects in Zealand and percent, whereas poultry feed based on roughly grinded feed and Schmallenberg virus in ruminant foresee a stabilisation in cattle feed taken the lead in serving the fields of flour, now working on a project in the Philippines for a famous increased by 1.1percent, thereby liquid feeding. populations may also weigh on production, a slight increase in rice, feed milling processing for more than flour mill. confirming its position of leading As a result, Germany’s position the demand; poultry feed demand (+1 percent) 20 years. The corporation offers complete solutions We have just launched a new generation roller mill made segment of compound feed as leading EU country in terms of • On the feed demand side, the offset by a reduction in the demand The AgraVision™ is a new robust handheld reader with printer! to the industries, including engineering of turn-key of cast iron, which is stronger than a welded structure. slightly above pig feed. total compound feed production high quotations for all feed for layer feeds (-5 percent) and projects as well as single machine and spare parts Some parts, such as the feed plate and discharge hopper, before France was strengthened, materials, whether energy a further setback in pig feed supply. are made of stainless steel which is better for food hygiene. The most important factors which with Spain scoring third. sources like cereals or protein production (-0.5percent). Overall, As food hygiene has become more and more important, Our company is always ready to supply you good Chinese weighed on theTelfeed demand in6153310 (AT) and Luxembourg EU +43 2272 1 Greece, Malta sources like soybean meal, compound feed production is a lot of stainless steel parts are now used in grain process- grain processing machinery, spare parts and service. Tel +44we have undertaken many projects to ing mills. Recently, 845 5192010 (UK) 2011 were the still fragile economic excluded due to high Chinese demand expected to remain stable vs. 2011. situation of the pig email@example.com E-Mailspouting and fittings to stainless steel More inforMation: change mild steel sector and the high www.romerlabs.com PRODUCTION INDUSTRIAL COMPOUND spouting and fittings for many old flour mills. We have www.miltec.cn feed material costs. As estimates (1 000 t ) regards ruminants, the CATTLE PIGS POULTRY MILKREPLACERS OTHERS TOTAL 2010 2011 %TAV 2010 2011 %TAV 2010 2011 %TAV 2010 2011 %TAV 2010 2011 %TAV 2010 2011 %TAV severe drought on the Grain&feed millinG technoloGy may - June 2012 | 11 first months led to a DE 6.120 6.342 3,6 9.405 9.934 5,6 5.581 5.711 2,3 150 152 1,3 763 723 -5,2 22.019 22.862 3,8 lower forage harvest FR 5.144 5.170 0,5 5.771 5.643 -2,2 8.626 8.624 0,0 385 357 -7,3 1.552 1.517 -2,3 21.478 21.311 -0,8 IT 3.683 3.720 1,0 3.241 3.400 4,9 5.730 5.800 1,2 155 155 0,0 1.456 1.475 1,3 14.265 14.550 2,0 during the spring cut NL 3.433 3.451 0,5 5.863 5.734 -2,2 3.793 3.801 0,2 703 652 -7,3 527 496 -5,9 14.319 14.134 -1,3 but this was offset by GFMT12.03.indd 11 BE 1.182 1.244 5,2 3.666 3.653 -0,4 1.408 1.365 -3,1 42 39 -7,1 148 159 7,4 6.446 6.460 22/06/2012 0,2 08:48 the good autumnal UK 4.982 4.855 -2,5 1.617 1.647 1,9 6.600 6.460 -2,1 1 1 1.427 1.334 -6,5 14.627 14.297 -2,3 weather conditions that IE 2.305 2.102 -8,8 580 650 12,1 448 513 14,5 6 6 0,0 398 353 -11,3 3.737 3.624 -3,0 DK 905 860 -5,0 2.887 2.648 -8,3 535 545 1,9 0 0 198 174 -12,1 4.525 4.227 -6,6 favoured grass growth. ES 6.800 6.000 -11,8 8.884 8.550 -3,8 4.483 4.800 7,1 0 0 716 764 6,7 20.883 20.114 -3,7 EU Member PT 750 720 -4,0 920 890 -3,3 1.420 1.420 0,0 0 0 278 255 -8,3 3.368 3.285 -2,5 countries recorded AT 438 444 1,4 256 275 7,4 471 476 1,1 0 0 230 307 33,5 1.395 1.502 7,7 SE 872 850 -2,5 385 350 -9,1 554 550 -0,7 1 1 0,0 149 145 -2,7 1.961 1.896 -3,3 very heterogeneous FI 616 610 -1,0 342 310 -9,4 291 300 3,1 0 0 101 100 -1,0 1.350 1.320 -2,2 performances, with CY 110 120 9,1 13 50 284,6 64 54 -15,6 1 1 0,0 108 103 -4,6 296 328 10,8 some experiencing CZ 469 448 -4,5 935 795 -15,0 993 887 -10,7 4 4 0,0 360 229 -36,4 2.761 2.363 -14,4 dramatic falls of their EE 40 40 0,0 140 140 0,0 48 48 0,0 0 0 2 2 0,0 230 230 0,0 HU 505 530 5,0 1.490 1.410 -5,4 1.680 1.660 -1,2 : : 195 630 223,1 3.870 4.230 9,3 compound feed LV 52 52 0,0 90 90 0,0 169 169 0,0 0 0 30 30 0,0 341 341 0,0 production such as LT 45 48 6,7 70 78 11,4 284 288 1,4 2 2 0,0 11 14 27,3 412 430 4,4 Czech Republic (-14 %) PL 767 780 1,7 1.693 1.700 0,4 5.118 5.330 4,1 0 0 328 340 3,7 7.906 8.150 3,1 or Denmark (-6.6%), SK 196 198 1,0 224 204 -8,9 231 226 -2,2 0 0 10 12 20,0 661 640 -3,2 SI 91 91 0,0 65 65 0,0 255 255 0,0 0 0 12 11 -8,3 423 422 -0,2 whereas sever al BU 93 94 1,1 234 240 2,6 553 590 6,7 0 0 24 24 0,0 904 948 4,9 countries such as RO 150 155 3,3 1.475 1.500 1,7 1.620 1.650 1,9 0 0 15 20 33,3 3.260 3.325 2,0 Germany, Poland and, EUR27* 39.748 38.924 -2,1 50.246 49.956 -0,6 50.955 51.522 1,1 1.450 1.370 -5,5 9.038 9.217 2,0 151.437 150.989 -0,3 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy may - June 2012 | 9 GFMT12.03.indd 9 22/06/2012 08:48 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy may - June 2012 | 7 This digital Re-print is part of the May | June 2012 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. 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"NIR in practice"