NIR in practice

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					Digital Re-print - May | June 2012
                                      NIR in practice



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NIR
     FEATURE


                                                                                             Companies are faced with
                                                                                             increasing levels of costs associated
                                                                                             with quality control1. Using near
                                                                                             infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a
                                                                                             quality control method can help
                                                                                             reduce such costs. But what is
                                                                                             NIR, how does it work in practice,
                                                                                             and most importantly, how do


IN PRACTICE                                                                                  companies employ NIR to help
                                                                                             their quality control processes?

                                                                                  by Chris Piotrowski, Director, Aunir, UK




N
        IR spectroscopy is an analyti-              on the reading pane of an NIR spectrometer,       Who uses NIR?
        cal technique that allows a                 which will then take the measurement and              Sample analysis can be carried out in the
        rapid, non-destructive determi-             produce a spectra file.                           following three ways. Firstly, by an agreed
nation of a sample’s properties. It is                  NIR analysis is very quick and simple,        standard method such as protein analysis
used in various industries for identify-            meaning that individuals operating the equip-     (Dumas or kjeldahl). Secondly, by empirical
ing compounds and chemical structures               ment do not need any special qualifications.      methods such as those employed for oil or
which can then be accurately related to             Another benefit to NIR analysis is that           crude fibre analysis. Finally, there are subjec-
the nutritional, chemical and physical              there are no hazardous chemicals involved,        tive methods based on experience such as
properties of the material.                         allowing analysis to be carried out at vari-      taste or smell, but these subjective methods
                                                    ous stages of production. And since NIR is        are not an accurate measure for quality con-
                                                    non-destructive, it is perfect for use in plant   trol purposes. Traditionally, quality control is
How does it work?                                   breeding and raw material quality control         carried out through wet chemistry analysis,
   Traditional ‘wet chemistry’ facilitates a        since the sample can be used again.               but since this method is slow and expensive,
greater level of understanding about the                                                              alternatives such as NIR spectroscopy have
make-up of different materials. However, this       Understanding NIR                                 been sought out.
technique requires heavy investment of time             Analysis of chemical compounds has rap-           NIR can be used across a wide range of
and money.                                          idly evolved over the last century, but there     industries. Animal feed and ingredients, flour
                                                    are still many parameters measured which          and milling, wet and dried forage, animal pro-
                                                    are not true compounds. For example, crude        teins, pet food, aqua feed and plant breeding
                                                    fibre is the material which remains after         companies all utilise NIR analysis.
                                                    the action of acid and alkali on a sample of
                                                    feed. There is no such compound in nature.        NIR in the pet food industry
                                                    Whereas reference chemistry on such com-               NIR is a proven technique used by pet
                                                    pounds is not reliable, alternative techniques    food manufacturers for the rapid, on-site
                                                    such as NIR remain pure.                          multi-component analysis of raw materials
                                                        Scanning a sample using NIR will only         and pet foods. Samples of pet food require
                                                    produce a spectra file. This then needs to be     little or no preparation, making NIR a quick,
                                                    compared to a database of other spectra files     clean and chemical-free way of analysing
                                                    of known substances in order to correctly         for key quality parameters such as protein,
                                                    determine the components in the material.         oil, fibre, ash, moisture and even starch
                                                    Calibration databases are expensive to create     gelatinisation.
                                                    in terms of both time and financial invest-            An NIR system is ideal for rapid analysis
                                                    ment. Thus, a market in which the licensing of    and it lowers the cost of achieving quality
                                                    spectra databases for reference purposes has      because it allows increased testing frequency
   Organic molecules absorb infrared radia-         developed.                                        at no extra cost. Analysis using NIR technol-
tion at an energy that is characteristic of their       Licensing a set of calibrations cuts out      ogy is employed by 90 percent of UK-based
composition. Every chemical compound                the need for massive financial investment         pet food manufacturers.
is characterised by one of six types of             and eliminates any time delay in obtaining             As part of the Premier Pet Nutrition
molecular vibration; symmetrical stretching,        results since the predicted data is imme-         complete pet nutrition package, pet food
asymmetrical stretching, scissoring, rocking,       diately available. Once an NIR machine is         and raw material NIR calibration factors
wagging or twisting. Each of these types of         set up with calibrations, the technique for       are provided. The NIR calibration factors
vibration absorbs light energy at a different       carrying out analysis is relatively simple and    help pet food brands to constantly improve
frequency.                                          thus can be carried out by any member of          standards for product quality, conformity,
   NIR spectroscopy measures the absorp-            staff, not necessarily a highly skilled techni-   assurance and safety.
tion of light energy shone at a material in         cian. The results of NIR analysis are available        The impact NIR can have on a pet food
order to produce a spectra. The resulting           instantly, allowing important decisions about     manufacturers business is illustrated by one
spectra can then be compared to other               quality control to be taken immediately.          of Premier Nutrition’s clients who saved
spectra of known materials to identify it.          The future of NIR capability will allow fur-      €100,000 in one year by using NIR as part of
   In practice, a sample of material is placed      ther flexibility for analysis.                    a complete pet nutrition package.

14 | may - June 2012                                                                                            Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
                                                                  wITh
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       Grain  &feed millinG technoloGy                                                                                   may - June 2012 | 15
     FEATURE


                           Premier Pet Nutrition also uses NIR         solubility. The service allows monitoring
                       innovatively at its own factory to test         of cereal quality, anticipating any variation,
                       every incoming micro-ingredient (for            and assisting with decisions on dosing of
                       example, vitamins, minerals, and nutraceu-      additives such as feed enzymes. Adding
                       ticals) to ensure identity and conformity.      an enzyme to the feed, for example,
                       This adds another level of assurance in         will maximise productivity and uniform-
                       the final premix product.                       ity even when the cereal quality var-
                                                                       ies between batches and seasons. NIR
                       NIR in determining corn quality                 spectroscopy is used by over 50 percent
                           Feed represents around 70 percent           of animal feed manufacturers worldwide,
                       of the cost of production of monogas-           confirming the value that can be gained
                       tric animals globally. Sourcing low cost        from NIR in commercial applications.
                       ingredients is important for the economic       1
                                                                           If you are not profiting from Quality Control,
                       success of companies involved in animal             Sampling and Analysis, why do any of it?
                       production, as is the quality of these              Steven Tayfield, May 2012. Published in Feed
                       ingredients. Ingredient quality will impact         Compounder, May 2012, p. 28-29.
                       animal performance and consequently
                       production costs. Cereals such as corn,
                       sorghum and wheat are generally the
                       major ingredients in animal feed formula-
                       tions and so their quality will have a direct
                       effect on animal performance.
                           The Corn Quality Service is a service
                       provided by AB Vista, in association with
                       Aunir. The service allows customers to
                       automatically predict the quality of corn
                       used in their feeds by determining the
                       cereal composition and quality param-
                       eters such as vitreousness and protein




16 | may - June 2012                                                                  Grain  &feed millinG technoloGy
              behind Italian company SEA to aimed at strengthening the “With more than 40 years’ member of the Cimbria group,
              acquire one hundred percent of company’s product and market experience in the market, SEA is for the benefit of both customers
              the shares in the company. SEA posi t ion vi a org anic and recognised today for its excellent and suppliers,” says Antonio
  N                 May - June 2012                                                                                                of optical
    ews is a leader in the development acquisitivefirst acquisitionissince quality in the field electronic Uzzo, managing director of“We
                                                                            initiatives. It the                                                                           NEWS          SEA



                   NEW!
              and manufacture of sorting company’s                                                      sorting and other                           and the company’s founder.
                                                     ®
                                                                 AgraStrip + AgraVisionTM
              equipment for sorting grain, Axcel became the majority sorting technologies, and the now have the potential to grow
              seeds and other industrial shareholder at Cimbria in company represents a good fit and attract new customers by
              EU compound feed production down by 0.3percent in 2011
              products by means of colour or August 2011.                                               in relation to Cimbria’s aim to means of the strong market
              resonance. SEA market trend expected                                2012 despite supply high-quality for major position of the
             no significantprimarily sells its In 2011 SEAinhad a turnover high quotationsproducts and feed materials combined


              I
              equipment in Europe.                          of approximately DKK 70 full-line solutions within seed company,” he adds.
                 n the wake of the 55th FEFAC to a lesser extent, Italy, managed Outlook for 2012                                                     and seasonal drought in
                                                            million and a profit ratio of corn plants and other industrial
                 Annual General Meeting on to buck the general market trend FEFAC experts identified the                                              South America, will further
              With the acquisition of SEA, approximately 20 percent. The products,” says Karsten Larsen, More inforMation:
                 ‘EU CAP reform impact on with positive growth around following key drivers for the                                                   affect the profitability of
              Cimbria’s range of mechanical company expects to see growth managing director of Cimbria. Lars Nørgaard, Sales
             EU livestock and feed sector / EU three percent, supported by a compound feed market in 2012:                                            the livestock industry, in
              sor ting equipment will be in both sales and earnings “At the same time, we’re Director, Cimbra
                                                                                                         Quantitative to • On the supply side, farmers;
              supplemented by optical colour this year. SEA has around 35 convinced that in years Strip +45 72 422420for                               Tel: Tests
             food waste strategy’ on June 15, surprisingly quick recovery of pig • On the livestock sector side,                                      particular the pig
             2012 in Brussels, FEFAC members farming activity.                                            the entry into application of                                      the persisting
              sorting and other electronic employees at its factory in come SEA’s products will meet                                                   Email: lno@cimbria.com
             have provided final estimates for The high cereal prices over the                            the new cages standard for                  problems on the trade of
              solutions, thus completing Imola in northern Italy. SEA’s a growing demand driven by                                                     Website: www.cimbria.com
             the compound feed production last two years contributed to
             for the EU-271 in 2011. The total improve the competitive market                             2012
                                                                                                                  Aflatoxins
                                                                                                          laying hens from 1 January
                                                                                                         ß	 and the new group-                        maize co-products (DDGs,
                                                                                                                                                      Corn gluten feed) linked to
             production estimate is now set at position of industrial compound                           ß		 Deoxynivalenol (DON) of not
                                                                                                          housing requirements for sows               asynchronous approval
             151 mio. t, i.e. 0.3 percent below feed production vs. home mixing.                          which may lead to a significant             yet authorised GM events,
              Supplier Focus: Wuxi General Corp
             the figure for 2010. Cattle and pig However, this gain was offset to a
             feed have seen their production certain extent by the development
                                                                                                         ß		 Fumonisins &despite the adoption of the
                                                                                                          reduction in young sows
                                                                                                          replacement in certain producer             technical solution last year.
                                                                                                         ß		 GMOs of the Australia and NewFEFAC experts
              W
             fall, respectively by -2.1 and -0.6 of alternative pig feeding strategies                    regions; the development                 As a consequence,
                          uxi General Corp Supply and Marketing has finished several projects in                                                                             Zealand and
             percent, whereas poultry feed based on roughly grinded feed and                              Schmallenberg virus in ruminant          foresee a stabilisation in cattle feed
                          taken the lead in serving the fields of flour, now working on a project in the Philippines for a famous
             increased by 1.1percent, thereby liquid feeding.                                             populations may also weigh on            production, a slight increase in
                          rice, feed milling processing for more than flour mill.
             confirming its position of leading As a result, Germany’s position                           the demand;                              poultry feed demand (+1 percent)
             20 years. The corporation offers complete solutions                                            We have just launched a new generation roller mill made
             segment of compound feed as leading EU country in terms of • On the feed demand side, the                                             offset by a reduction in the demand
                                                                                            The AgraVision™ is a new robust handheld reader with printer!
             to the industries, including engineering of turn-key                                       of cast iron, which is stronger than a welded structure.
             slightly above pig feed.                     total compound feed production                  high quotations for all feed             for layer feeds (-5 percent) and
             projects as well as single machine and spare parts                                         Some parts, such as the feed plate and discharge hopper,
                                                          before France was strengthened,                 materials, whether energy                a further setback in pig feed
             supply.                                                                                    are made of stainless steel which is better for food hygiene.
             The most important factors which with Spain scoring third.                                   sources like cereals or protein production (-0.5percent). Overall,
                  As food hygiene has become more and more important,                                       Our company is always ready to supply you good Chinese
             weighed on theTelfeed demand in6153310 (AT) and Luxembourg
                              EU +43 2272                 1
                                                           Greece, Malta                                  sources like soybean meal,               compound feed production is
             a lot of stainless steel parts are now used in grain process- grain processing machinery, spare parts and service.
                              Tel +44we have undertaken many projects to
             ing mills. Recently,
                                           845 5192010 (UK)
             2011 were the still fragile economic            excluded                                     due to high Chinese demand               expected to remain stable vs. 2011.
             situation of the pig office-europe@romerlabs.com
                              E-Mailspouting and fittings to stainless steel More inforMation:
             change mild steel
             sector and the high
                              www.romerlabs.com PRODUCTION
                                            INDUSTRIAL COMPOUND
             spouting and fittings for many old flour mills. We have                                       www.miltec.cn
             feed material costs. As        estimates (1 000 t )
             regards ruminants, the                                  CATTLE                   PIGS                POULTRY       MILKREPLACERS                  OTHERS                   TOTAL
                                                     2010     2011 %TAV 2010         2011 %TAV      2010     2011   %TAV 2010 2011 %TAV 2010            2011    %TAV    2010    2011    %TAV
             severe drought on the
                 Grain&feed millinG technoloGy                                                                                                                         may - June 2012 | 11
             first months led to a             DE     6.120    6.342     3,6   9.405  9.934     5,6  5.581    5.711    2,3   150    152    1,3   763       723    -5,2  22.019   22.862     3,8
             lower forage harvest               FR    5.144    5.170     0,5   5.771  5.643    -2,2  8.626    8.624    0,0   385    357   -7,3 1.552     1.517    -2,3  21.478   21.311    -0,8
                                                 IT   3.683    3.720     1,0   3.241  3.400     4,9  5.730    5.800    1,2   155    155    0,0 1.456     1.475     1,3  14.265   14.550     2,0
             during the spring cut
                                               NL     3.433    3.451     0,5   5.863  5.734    -2,2  3.793    3.801    0,2   703    652   -7,3   527       496    -5,9  14.319   14.134    -1,3
             but this was offset by
 GFMT12.03.indd 11                              BE    1.182    1.244     5,2   3.666  3.653    -0,4  1.408    1.365   -3,1    42     39   -7,1   148       159     7,4   6.446    6.460    22/06/2012
                                                                                                                                                                                            0,2         08:48
             the good autumnal                 UK     4.982    4.855    -2,5   1.617  1.647     1,9  6.600    6.460   -2,1     1      1        1.427     1.334    -6,5  14.627   14.297    -2,3
             weather conditions that             IE   2.305    2.102    -8,8     580    650    12,1    448      513   14,5     6      6    0,0   398       353   -11,3   3.737    3.624    -3,0
                                              DK        905      860    -5,0   2.887  2.648    -8,3    535      545    1,9     0      0          198       174   -12,1   4.525    4.227    -6,6
             favoured grass growth.             ES    6.800    6.000   -11,8   8.884  8.550    -3,8  4.483    4.800    7,1     0      0          716       764     6,7  20.883   20.114    -3,7
             EU         Member                 PT       750      720    -4,0     920    890    -3,3  1.420    1.420    0,0     0      0          278       255    -8,3   3.368    3.285    -2,5
             countries recorded                AT       438      444     1,4     256    275     7,4    471      476    1,1     0      0          230       307    33,5   1.395    1.502     7,7
                                                SE      872      850    -2,5     385    350    -9,1    554      550   -0,7     1      1    0,0   149       145    -2,7   1.961    1.896    -3,3
             very heterogeneous
                                                  FI    616      610    -1,0     342    310    -9,4    291      300    3,1     0      0          101       100    -1,0   1.350    1.320    -2,2
             performances, with               CY        110      120     9,1      13     50 284,6       64       54  -15,6     1      1    0,0   108       103    -4,6     296      328    10,8
             some experiencing                CZ        469      448    -4,5     935    795   -15,0    993      887  -10,7     4      4    0,0   360       229   -36,4   2.761    2.363   -14,4
             dramatic falls of their            EE       40       40     0,0     140    140     0,0     48       48    0,0     0      0             2        2     0,0     230      230     0,0
                                              HU        505      530     5,0   1.490  1.410    -5,4  1.680    1.660   -1,2      :      :         195       630 223,1     3.870    4.230     9,3
             compound feed                      LV       52       52     0,0      90     90     0,0    169      169    0,0     0      0           30        30     0,0     341      341     0,0
             production such as                 LT       45       48     6,7      70     78    11,4    284      288    1,4     2      2    0,0    11        14    27,3     412      430     4,4
             Czech Republic (-14 %)             PL      767      780     1,7   1.693  1.700     0,4  5.118    5.330    4,1     0      0          328       340     3,7   7.906    8.150     3,1
             or Denmark (-6.6%),                SK      196      198     1,0     224    204    -8,9    231      226   -2,2     0      0           10        12    20,0     661      640    -3,2
                                                  SI     91       91     0,0      65     65     0,0    255      255    0,0     0      0           12        11    -8,3     423      422    -0,2
             whereas sever al                  BU        93       94     1,1     234    240     2,6    553      590    6,7     0      0           24        24     0,0     904      948     4,9
             countries such as                RO        150      155     3,3   1.475  1.500     1,7  1.620    1.650    1,9     0      0           15        20    33,3   3.260    3.325     2,0
             Germany, Poland and, EUR27* 39.748 38.924 -2,1 50.246 49.956 -0,6 50.955 51.522                           1,1 1.450 1.370    -5,5 9.038     9.217     2,0 151.437 150.989     -0,3


               Grain   &feed millinG technoloGy                                                                                                                       may - June 2012 | 9




GFMT12.03.indd 9                                                                                                                                                                        22/06/2012 08:48




              Grain   &feed millinG technoloGy                                                                                                                       may - June 2012 | 7
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DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Companies are faced with increasing levels of costs associated with quality control1. Using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a quality control method can help reduce such costs. But what is NIR, how does it work in practice, and most importantly, how do companies employ NIR to help their quality control processes?