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Geological Carbon Storage _GCS_

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Geological Carbon Storage _GCS_ Powered By Docstoc
					    Addressing Climate Change through
Carbon Capture and Geological Sequestration
                in Michigan


We Can Do It Here!
              Dave Barnes




                       2009 Mid-America Regulatory Conference
                                  June 15, 2009
   The Dance of the 3 E’s
(with a nod to Scott Tinker, TBEG)




                                     2
         From:
         US – Energy Information Agency
         (EIA)




                                          2007

 US Energy Flow, 2007
(Quadrillion BTU’s, Quads)
                                                 3
            Efforts To Cap Near-term
  (<100 Years) Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations
                   @ 550 ppmv




                                    }
Green House Gas Emissions and Energy-Technology Enabling Systems
                                                            4
                     The Silver Buckshot
 Governor Jennifer Granholm’s State
  of the State Address, Feb 3, 2009
• “So here’s our next aggressive goal: By the year 2020,
  Michigan will reduce our reliance on fossil fuels for
  generating electricity by 45 percent. We will do it through
  increased renewable energy, gains in energy efficiency and
  other new technologies. You heard me right: a 45 percent
  reduction by 2020.”
• “How will we reach this 45-by-20 goal and get the jobs
  that come with it? Instead of spending nearly $2 billion a
  year importing coal or natural gas from other states we’ll
  be spending our energy dollars on Michigan wind turbines,
  Michigan solar panels, Michigan energy-efficiency devices,
  all designed, manufactured and installed by. . .Michigan
  workers.”
       The New Energy Economy – US Energy Systems




                                                       2007 EIA

• The goal of rapidly transforming US Fossil Fuel Intensive energy
  infrastructure to a low/no GHG emissions infrastructure is a
  formidable challenge
Electric Power Consumption of Coal by Region, 2008
            U.S. Total = 1,041.6 (-0.3%)




                   Million Short Tons (Percent Change from 2007)
Michigan Electric Power
  Generation, by fuel




               Wind Power
               in Michigan
        Carbon Capture and Storage, CCS
  • CCS is various methods for capturing and permanently
    storing anthropogenic CO2 that would otherwise
    contribute to global climate change.




Global Carbon Cycle (Billion
Metric Tons, Gt, Carbon)

                                                     9
     Geological Sequestration (GS)
• Geological media suitable for storage of CO2 in Michigan
   – depleted oil reservoirs (+/- CO2/EOR) and
   – deep, saline (brine-filled) reservoir formations




                                            `



                           `



                                                                 10
                                                        CO2CRC
                                  As much as 16,000ft of bedrock
Michigan’s Deep GS                sedimentary strata (below glacial drift)
 Injection Zones



              }
                     MI Storage
                      Potential
                          ~40Gt
                  MI Emissions
                       ~93Mt/yr




                                                                 11
  Michigan Pilot Injection Test Project
•MRCSP is one of seven U.S. DOE/NETL RCSP’s.
•Eight-state region of IN, KY, MD, MI, NY, OH, PA, and WV.
•Phase I Launched, fall 2003; Phase II commenced October 2005.
•Michigan Basin site is one of three small scale CO2 injection test sites.




                                                                        12
                                Northern Michigan - MRCSP CO2 Pilot
                                Injection Test Well, Otsego Co., MI




                                                         “Shallow” Injection and
                                                         Confinement Zone




                                  State Charlton #4-30

~55,000 permitted Oil & Gas wells in MI
Northern Michigan Pilot Injection Test
       Project; Otsego Co, MI
   Results of Pilot CO2 Injection Test
• Initial ~20 days of CO2 injection:
  >10,000 mt
• Variable injection rates to pipeline capacity:
  @600mt/day
• Annualized injection rates:
  ~220,000 mt/yr
• Data extrapolation suggest maximum injection rates:
  440-660,000 mt/year
• Additional CO2 of are being injected into the reservoir
  zone:
  50,000 metric tons

                          Analysis and interpretations of injection data by:
                          Joel Sminchak, Battelle Memorial                     15
“Deep” Sandstone
  Injection and
Confinement Zones
   In Michigan




                    16
Mount Simon Sandstone in Michigan
“Deep” Injection and Confinement Zones;
          Ottawa Co. Michigan




                                          18
Mount Simon Sandstone in Michigan
       CO2 Injection Simulation Modeling for a
       Large Stationary Point Source (~80Mw)
    20 yr Active Injection; 280 year Recovery Model Parameters
• Injection Rate =                   MMT/year Gradient:
                                 0.6 • Hydrostaticfor 20 yrs
                                       0.49 psi/ft
•    Recovery Period =          280 years
                                     • Temperature:
•    Target Formation Interval:           1504-1799 m
                                       50°C
•    Injection Interval:     1707-1765 m
                                     • Brine:
•    Well Diameter:                    300,000 ppm TDS
                                   8 5/8” casing
                                   • Maximum Entrapped CO2
                                     Saturation =
                                     0.2



                                                        Diana H Bacon
                                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Active Injection Period




                                            Diana H Bacon
                                      Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
CO2 Injection
   Well         Recovery Period




                                        Diana H Bacon
                                  Battelle Pacific Northwest
     CO2 Injection Simulation Modeling
      Summary of Preliminary Results
• ½ space 2D Plume Dimensions after 300 years (20 years
  active injection, 280 years recovery) =
  ~3.8 km (2.3 mi)
• Active injection period lateral flow rate (~1.8 km/20yr) =
  ~90 m/yr
• Recovery period lateral flow rate (~2.0 km/280yr) =
  ~7.1 m/yr
                                                  Diana H Bacon
                                                              86
                                            Battelle Pacific Northwest
 CO2 Injection Simulation Modeling
  Summary of Preliminary Results
• Little dissolved CO2
  – Due to high formation fluid salinity
  – Minimal perturbation of formation fluid
    reactivity

• Minimal formation pressure perturbation;
  rapid re-equilibration

                                             Diana H Bacon
                                                         87
                                       Battelle Pacific Northwest
 Non-technical Challenges to Implementation of
  Carbon Capture and Geological Storage
   for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction

• Public understanding and acceptance
• Clear legal and regulatory framework to
  stimulate investor confidence
• Sufficient cost for GHG emissions (that exceed
  cost of CC&GS) through regulation
  – Regional, National, and International Cap and Trade
    Programs/Carbon Tax

				
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