HORTICULTURE 101: STUDY GUIDE � EXAM 2

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					HORTICULTURE 101: STUDY GUIDE – EXAM 2

Vegetative Propagation:

Learning Goals:

1) Basic techniques of plant vegetative propagation
2) Humidity control during vegetative propagation (cuttings and micropropagation)

Terminology: cutting types (softwood, greenwood, hardwood), humidity tent, mist
propagation, fog propagation, air layering, mound layering, grafting, budding, scion,
rootstock, interstock, acclimization.


Photosynthesis:

Learning Goals

1) Chloroplast pigment types and their specific functions in photosynthesis
2) Light specificity and photosynthesis; evaluation of absorption spectra and
determination of “photosynthetically-active regions” of the visible spectrum
3) Photolysis products and their functions in the net photosynthetic process
4) Basis for improved water use efficiency in CAM photosynthesis

Terminology: chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenes, xanthophylls, oxidation, reduction,
photooxidation, pigment, ‘electron transport chain’, ‘excited state’, fluorescence,
photosynthetically active radiation, photolysis, ATP, NADPH, Calvin Cycle, ribulose
1,5-bisphophate (RuBP), CAM, Phosphoenolpyruvic acid (PEP), CAM, light
compensation point, light saturation point, LAI (leaf area index)


Light and Plant Growth:

Learning Goals:

1) Etiolated phenotype; horticultural uses of etiolation and blanching
2) Phytochrome, alternate conformations (Pr and Pfr) and effects of dark incubation and
red or far red light exposure on the intervconversion between both phytochrome forms.
Synthesized vs. biologically active forms of phytochrome.
3) Photoperiod and flower induction

Terminology: etiolation, blanching, carotenes, xanthophylls, phytochrome,
conformation, photoreversibility, photoperiod, long-day, short-day, day-neutral
Temperature and Plant Growth:

Learning Goals:

1) Use of temperature coefficients and degree day concepts to quantify temperature
effects on the rate of plant growth and development. Be familiar with the equations used
to calculate both parameters.
2) Thermoperiod and plant growth, effects of changes in night temperature on elongation
rate, optimal DIF on cloudy vs. sunny days.
3) Temperature effects on starch-sugar interconversion and effects on horticultural crop
quality (know the specific examples we discussed in class)
4) Dormancy vs. quiescence

Terminology: temperature coefficient, degree days, thermoperiod, DIF (difference
between daytime and nighttime temperatures), vernalization, devernalization, biennials,
dormant, quiescent


Temperature Regulation and Injuries:

Learning Goals:

1) Aspirated thermostats, factors affecting accuracy
2) Greenhouse cooling systems, types and ‘mechanisms’
3) Winter sunscald, postulated mechanism and basis for southwest position on trunks
4) Comparison on freeze tolerance and freeze avoidance (supercooling) responses of
plant tissues to low-temperature stress
5) Environmental factors affecting the induction of cold hardiness

Terminology: temperature inversion, radiational cooling, aspirated thermostats, ridge
venting, fan and pad cooling (excelsior), shade clothe and water films, chilling injury,
freezing injury, winter/summer sunscald, extracellular/intracellular freezing, osmosis,
dehydration, freeze avoidance, supercooling, freeze tolerance, nucleation sites,
Pseudomonas, cold hardening


Water and Plant Growth

Learning Goals:

1) Polarity of water (at the molecular level) and its contribution to the water’s solvent
qualities and its adhesive and cohesive properties including the phenomenon of surface
tension.
2) Transpiration’s cooling effect and its physical basis (heat of vaporization)
3) Cation exchange characteristics of the cell walls of conducting elements in the xylem
Terminology: polarity, hydration shells, transpiration, heat of vaporization, endodermis,
suberin, Casparian strips, apoplast, symplast, xylem, tracheids, vessel elements, cohesion,
adhesion, hydrogen bonding, tensile strength, surface tension.


Regulation of Plant Water Status:

Learning Goals:

1) Leaf anatomical features affecting transpiration rate
2) Irrigation types, characteristics and advantages/disadvantages
3) Soil water measurement, relationships between the tension or conductivity of the soil
water and water availability
4) Plasmolysis, basic phenomenon and possible adverse effects

Terminology: transpiration, epidermis, stomata, cuticle (waxes, cutin), trichomes,
boundary layer, ‘sunken’ stomata, anti-transpirants, furrow irrigation, flood irrigation,
sprinkler irrigation drip irrigation, subirrigation, tensiometers, conductivity, electrodes,
path length, Bouyoucos blocks, gypsum, soluble salt injury, plasmolysis


Soils and Growth Media:

Learning Goals:

1) Soil texture and associated physical characteristics (aeration, drainage, temperature
stability, cation exchange capacity, etc)
2) Soil texture transitions and hydraulic disjunction; i.e., perched water tables, water
stress during transplanting, etc.
3) pH concept, definition and relationship to proton (H+) and hydroxyl (OH-) ion
concentration, pH and acidity vs. alkalinity
4) Soil acidification effects on nutrient availability and plant health
5) Components of artificial planting media, contributions to overall media characteristics

Terminology: clay, silt, sand, gravel, cation exchange capacity, perched water table, pH,
hydrogen ion/proton, hydroxyl ion, acid, alkaline, no-tillage, windbreaks, cover crops,
water table, raised beds, drainage tiles, artificial media, sphagnum moss, vermiculite,
sand, perlite

				
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