Genocide-definition roots genos (Greek for family, tribe or race) and -cide (Latin - occidere or cideo - to massacre). "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. Definition we will use: a mass killing of an ethnic, racial, or religious group Genocide in Rwanda A Case Study Background Ethnic groups Hutu’s and Tutsi’s 1950’s Hutu’s overthrow the Belgium and Tutsi leaders 1962 Rwanda and Burundi are formed Background, continued Hutu’s gain control of Rwanda in 1973 and persecute the Tutsi’s forcing many to flee 1990 Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front invade Rwanda sending the country into chaos in an attempt to take back control Thousands leave the country as refugees and go to Zaire (modern day D. R. Congo) Peace plan for sharing power between Tutsi’s and Hutu’s is set in 1993 The Beginning April 6, 1994 Rwandan President Habyarimana is killed after a still-mysterious missile shoots down his plane. Hutu extremists quickly seize control of the government. Over the next 100 days, on average, 8,000 Rwandans a day will be butchered. It is the fastest rate of mass killings in the twentieth century. Some 800,000 people - roughly 10% of the population - are murdered. Ninety percent of the victims are Tutsis. April 9, 10, 11 Evidence mounts of massacres targeting ordinary Tutsis. Front page newspaper stories cite reports of "tens of thousands" dead and "a pile of corpses six feet high" outside a main hospital. Day 4 Estimated Death Toll: 32,000 April 16 The New York Times reports the shooting and hacking to death of some 1000 men, women and children in a church where they sought refuge. Day 9 Estimated Death Toll: 72,000 April 21, 22 The U.S. and the entire U.N. Security Council vote to withdraw 90% of the peacekeepers in Rwanda. At the urging of Human Rights Watch, the White House issues a statement calling on four Rwandan military leaders to "end the violence." Day 14 Estimated Death Toll: 112,000 April 27 Pope John Paul II uses the word "genocide" for the first time in describing the situation in Rwanda. This same day, Czechoslovakia and Argentina introduce a draft resolution to the U.N. Security Council that includes the word "genocide.” In the United States: the term “genocide” would force American military involvement in Rwanda Day 20 Estimated Death Toll: 160,000 May 5 A Pentagon memo rejects a proposal from Gen. Dallaire and State Department officials to diminish the killings by using Pentagon technology to jam the extremists' hate radio transmissions. "We have … concluded jamming is an ineffective and expensive mechanism.… International legal conventions complicate airborne or ground based jamming and the mountainous terrain reduces the effectiveness of either option. … It costs approximately $8500 per flight hour … it would be wiser to use air to assist in the [food] relief effort." Day 29 Estimated Death Toll: 232,000 June 22 Eleven weeks into the genocide, with still no sign of a U.N. deployment to Rwanda, the U.N. Security Council authorizes France to unilaterally intervene in southwest Rwanda. French forces create a safe area in territory controlled by the Rwanda Hutu government. But killings of Tutsis continue in the safe area. Day 77 Estimated Death Toll: 616,000 July 17 By this date, Tutsi RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) forces have captured Kigali (The Rwandan capital). The Hutu government flees to Zaire, followed by a tide of refugees. The French end their mission in Rwanda and are replaced by Ethiopian U.N. troops. The RPF sets up an interim government in Kigali. Although disease and more killings claim additional lives in the refugee camps, the genocide is over. US Involvement US never gets involved because the US takes a stance that it will only personally get involved in any situation if it effects their country’s interest 100 days of killing An estimated 800,000 Rwandans would be killed during the genocide. Review Questions What does genocide mean? What were the names of the two ethnic groups fighting in Rwanda? Which group was killing the other? What was U.S. response in Rwanda?
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