Genetics Drills

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					GT Genetics Drills
   What is genetics?      Genetics is the branch
                            of biology that deals
                            with the study of
GT Genetics Drills
   What happens when a      Two identical daughter
    cell goes through         cells are created; the
    mitosis?                  daughter cell has
                              genes identical to the
                              mother cell it was
                              made from.
GT Genetics Drills
   What happens to the         The chromosome
    number of                    number is reduced by
    chromosomes in a             half after meiosis and
    eukaryotic cell after        then doubled back to
    meiosis and then after       the original number
    fertilization?               after fertilization.
GT Genetics Drills
   What happens to        The chromosome
    chromosome number       number stays the
    after mitosis?          same after mitosis.
GT Genetics Drills
   What happens during      The chromosomes,
    interphase?               genes, and organelles
                              are duplicated.
GT Genetics Drills
   What is the result of      Sexual reproduction
    sexual reproduction?        results in new
                                combinations of
                                genetic traits.
GT Genetics Drills
   What happens during      Genes are shuffled,
    meiosis?                  parental DNA is
                              divided into gametes,
                              diploid chromosome
                              number is reduced to
                              haploid, and offspring
                              are therefore provided
                              with new gene
GT Genetics Drills
   What is an allele?      An alternate form of a
GT Genetics Drills
   Where does meiosis       In sex organs, such as
    usually take place?       plant ovary, human
                              ovary, human testis,
                              and plant anther.
GT Genetics Drills
   What is the difference      Asexual reproduction
    between sexual and           is when the parents
    asexual reproduction?        pass a complete set of
                                 genes onto its
                                 offspring; it makes a
GT Genetics Drills
   What are some           Homologous
    characteristics of       chromosomes have
    homologous               alleles for the same
    chromosomes?             characteristics even
                             though the gene
                             expression may not be
                             the same; occur in
                             pairs, one from the
                             father, one from the
GT Genetics Drills
   What is the purpose of      Crossing over
    crossing over in             increases variability in
    meiosis?                     gametes.
GT Genetics Drills
   What is the human       Humans have a
    chromosome number?       diploid number of 46
                             Human gametes end
                             up with one of each
                             type of 23
                             resulting in a haploid
                             number of 23.
GT Genetics Drills
   Give an example of a      HHrr
    dihybrid homozygous
GT Genetics Drills
   Cross a homozygous          The offspring will
    red female flower with       display the same
    a homozygous                 phenotype as the RR
    recessive white male         parent.
    flower where R=red.
GT Genetics Drills
   In Mendel’s               The recessive gene
    experiment, which          for white flowers
    type of gene did not       disappeared.
    appear in the F1
    generation of pea
GT Genetics Drills
   What did Mendel           That the genotype was
    mean by true or pure       homozygous.
GT Genetics Drills
   What do the inside of      Possible offspring
    the Punnett squares         genotypes.
GT Genetics Drills
   What does it mean           The parents are
    when the results of a        homozygous.
    testcross reveal that
    all offspring resemble
    the parents?
GT Genetics Drills
   What is Mendel’s           States that each
    theory of independent       hereditary unit is
    assortment?                 inherited separately
                                from other hereditary
GT Genetics Drills
   What offspring blood      The baby could be
    types are possible         type A, B, O, or AB.
    when the father has
    blood type A and the
    mother is type B?
GT Genetics Drills
   What happens to the      They have 47
    number of                 chromosomes
    chromosomes in an         because their sex
    individual with           chromosomes are xxy.
GT Genetics Drills
   If cytosine made up         20%
    30% of the nucleotides
    in a sample of DNA
    from an organism,
    then adenine would
    make up what percent
    of the bases?
GT Genetics Drills
   How many different        4
    types of gametes can
    be produced by an
    individual Dd Ee FF?
GT Genetics Drills
   In pea plants, purple           DD Rr x Dd Rr
    flower color (D) is
    dominant over white (d),
    and smooth (R) seeds are
    dominant over wrinkled. If
    two purple smooth plants
    were crossed several
    times and the total
    offspring were 18 purple
    smooth and five purple
    wrinkled, what are the
    most likely genotypes of
    the parents?
GT Genetics Drills
   Coat color in one breed of      Equal number of red and
    parrots is controlled by         blue parrots with twice as
    incompletely dominant            many purples as other two
    alleles so that red and          colors.
    blue are homozygous,
    while purple is
    heterozygous. The cross
    of two purple individuals
    will produce what type of
GT Genetics Drills
   If one parent has type      A or B
    O blood and the other
    parent has type AB
    blood, what could the
    offspring have?
GT Genetics Drills
   Humans have two sex        Autosomes
    chromosomes and 44
    of another type. What
    is that type called?
GT Genetics Drills
   What is a karyotype      Shows a person’s
    analysis?                 chromosome shape
                              and number. It can be
                              used to detec
                              mutations and
                              metabolic disorders in
GT Genetics Drills
   What are the              A chromosome
    similarities between       contains hundreds of
    the terms DNA, gene,       genes which are
    and chromosome?            composed of DNA.
GT Genetics Drills
   What is the genotype       Heterozygous female
    of a carrier of an x-
    linked trait?
GT Genetics Drills
   If a parent cell has 18      36
    chromosomes, how
    many sister
    chromatids will be
    present after
    duplication of the
GT Genetics Drills
   When will an              It will appear only in
    autosomal recessive        children of parents
    disorder appear in a       who both carry the
    pedigree?                  recessive gene.
GT Genetics Drills
   What is the probability       75%
    of passing on a
    genetic disorder that is
    autosomal dominant if
    both parents are
GT Genetics Drills
   Red-green                      25%
    colorblindness is an x-
    linked recessive trait in
    humans. What is the
    probability that a color-
    blind man and a
    carrier woman with
    normal vision will have
    a colorblind son?
GT Genetics Drills
   What is the definition      A non-disjunction is
    of non-disjunction and       the failure of
    an example?                  chromosomes to
                                 separate during
                                 meiosis and causes
                                 disorders such as
                                 Down Syndrome.
GT Genetics Drills
   What types of factors      Viruses, radiation,
    can change                  various chemicals.
    chromosomes in one
    individual in one
GT Genetics Drills
   What is the purpose of      Modify cells to correct
    genetic engineering?         a defect or produce a
                                 desired product.
GT Genetics Drills
   If the DNA triplets      UAA-GCU
    were ATT-CGA, what
    would the mRNA
    codons be?
GT Genetics Drills
   What type of bonds      Hydrogen bonds
    hold together the
    bases in DNA?
GT Genetics Drills
   What is a gene?      A linear stretch of
                          DNA hat specifies the
                          sequence of amino
                          acids in polypeptide.
GT Genetics Drills
   What affects the          The size and charge
    movement of                of molecules.
    molecules in an
    electrophoretic What
    affects the movement
    of molecules in an
GT Genetics Drills
   What is the function of      The form of RNA that
    messenger RNA                 carries the code from
    (mRNA)?                       the DNA to the site
                                  where the protein is
GT Genetics Drills
   Interpret this pedigree
    listing genotypes and

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