gk brainstem by tmKjH0O

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									Gross anatomy and development
of the brain stem and cerebellum.
        Fourth ventricle
         Dr GallatzKatalin
             The brain
   Telencephalon

   Diencephalon

   Cerebellum

   Brain stem
           Parts of the brain stem
   Mesencephalon

   Pons

   Medulla
Ventral surface of the hypothalamus and brainstem

 1. cerebral peduncle
                                                4
 2. interpeduncular fossa

 3. oculomotor nerve
                            5                   5

 4. optic tract

 5. pons                                    3
                                    1
                                        2
                                4


                                        5
Dorsal surface of the diencephalon and brainstem

sc – superior colliculus, ic – inferior colliculus, scp – sup. cerebellar peduncle




          th


                sc
                      ic

                           scp
                 pons


               medulla
Brain Stem
      Midbrain
        Cranial Nerve III., IV.
            pupillary reflex
            eye movements
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from the Greek mesos –
middle, and enkephalos)


       - is associated with vision, hearing, motor control, pain control
        sleep/wake, and temperature regulation
Parts of the mesencephalon
    - tectum
          inferior colliculi
          superior colliculi


    - cerebral peduncle
          tegmentum
          crus cerebri
                       Midbrain
Ventral surface

   Crus cerebri (1)                         3
                                     1   2

   Interpeduncular fossa (2)
        oculomotor nerves (3)

   Posterior perforated substance
                      Midbrain               MGB

Dorsal surface
                                                      LGB
   Superior colliculus (1)              1
       constitute centers for            2         trochlear n.
       visual reflexes

   Inferior colliculus (2)
        associated with auditory
        pathway
                                   scp
   Brachium of superior
    colliculus     LGB


   Brachium of inferior
    colliculus      MGB
                      Brain Stem
Pons
 Cranial Nerves V., VI., VII.
  
Parts of the pons
          tegmentum – dorsal surface
          base –venral surface
       pontine tegmentum




base
                                    Pons
Ventral surface

   Basilar sulcus

   Pontomedullary junction:

    from medial to lateral, abducent,
    facial and vestibulocochlear
    nerves

    Middle cerebellar peduncle

   Trigeminal nerve

   Pontocerebellar trigone:

    the junction of medulla, pons   and
    cerebellum
                      Pons
Dorsal surface

   Medial eminence (1)
                             1
                                 3
   Facial colliculus (2)    2


   Locus ceruleus (3)
Brain Stem
    Medulla
     Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, XII
          Pharyngeal (Gag) Reflex
          Tracheal (Cough) Reflex
    Cardiovascular, respiratory centers
Parts of the medulla
             opened part – rostral part
             closed part – caudal part

  dorsal surface                         ventral surface
                 Medulla oblongata
   Pyramid:                           ventral surface
        contain pyramidal tract
        (corticospinal tract)


   Decussation of pyramid:
        formed by crossing fibers of
        corticospinal tract


   Olive:
        inferior olivary nucleus


   Medial parolivary sulcus
        hypoglossal nerve

    Lat. parolivary sulcus:
        glossopharyngeal, vagus
        accessory nerves
             Medulla oblongata
Dorsal surface
   Caudal portion
    • Gracile tubercle:
      produced by underlying gracile
      nucleus
    • Cuneate tubercle: marks the site
      of cuneate nucleus
    • Inferior cerebellar peduncle
    • Obex


   Rostral portion:
    • forms the caudal half of
      rhomboid fossa
            Fourth ventricle

Position

   Situated ventral to
    the cerebellum,
    and dorsal to the
    pons and cranial
    half of medulla
Borders of the rhomboid fossa – floor of the fourth
                    ventricle



   Inferolateral:
       inferior cerebellar peduncle

   Superolateral:
       superior cerebellar peduncle

   Lateral recess
    Rhomboid fossa – floor of the fourth ventricle



   Facial colliculus, medial eminence



   Hypoglossal triangle
       hypoglossal nucleus

   Vagal triangle:
       dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve

   Funiculus separans

   Area postrema

   Locus ceruleus
Roof of the fourth ventricle

   Anterior part:
       formed by superior cerebellar peduncle
       and superior medullary velum


   Posterior part:
       formed by inferior medullary
       velum, tela choroidea and
       choroid plexus of fourth ventricle


   Three apertures
      Median aperture (Magendi)
      Two lateral apertures (Luschka)
    Position of the cerebellum
   It lies in the posterior
    cranial fossa


   The tentorium
    cerebelli separates it
    from the occipital lobe
    of the cerebrum
             Cerebellar peduncles


- Inferior cerebellar peduncle (1)
                                         1
     connects it with medulla

                                         2

- Middle cerebellar peduncle (3)
     connects it with pons,


- Superior cerebellar peduncle (2)
  -connects it with midbrain,
                                     3
         External features
Consists of two cerebellar hemispheres
united in the midline by the vermis
                             Lobes and fissures of the cerebellum
   Two deep fissures

    • Primary fissure

    • Posterolateral fissure

    • Horizontal fissure

   Three lobes

    • Flocculonodular lobe
             flocculus and nodule

    • Anterior lobe
    • Posterior lobe
                         Lobs   Anterior lobe


Primary fissure
                                Posterior lobe




                                Flocculonodular lobe
Posterolateral fissure
                  Internal structures
 Cerebellar nuclei


                                     Fastigial nucleus

                                       Globose nucleus
Dentate nucleus                             Emboliform nucleus




                              Cerebellar cortex
          Functional divisions
   Vestibulocerebellum
    • Archicerebellum
    • Flocculonodular
      lobe




                                    Intermediate zone
                                     Vermis



                                                        Lateral zone
   Spinocerebellum
     • Paleocerebellum
     • Vermis and
       intermediate zone
                           Flocculonodular lobe

   Cerebrocerebellum
     • Neocerebellum
     • Lateral zone
Development of the brain
Thank you for your attention!

								
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