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An Introduction

   Lecture Module
   FK Unsri
    “Stretch of the Measuring”
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1779

What is Anthropometry?
 Greek
   Anthro- : man
   -pometry: measurements
   Literal meaning: “measurement of humans”
 The study of measurements or proportions
  of the human body according to sex, age,
  etc. for identification purposes
   Dimensions of bones, muscles, and adipose (fat)
History of Anthropometry
  1883- Alphonse Bertillon: system of
   identification depending on the
   unchanging character of certain
   measurements of parts of the human
  1884: 241 multiple offenders were
  “Bertillonage”- first adapted by the French
  1887: introduced in the United States by
   Major McClaughry, the translator of
   Bertillon's book, when he was the warden
   of the Illinois State Penitentiary at Joliet.
Alphonse Bertillon: Forensic
History of Anthropometry
 1888: Francis Galton starts research
  on “Finger Prints” to further
 1892: Francis Galton publishes Finger
 1894: England adopted the system.
 1903: Will West & William West
Galton’s Discovery because of
        “My attention was first drawn to the ridges in 1888 when
   preparing a lecture on Personal Identification for the Royal
   Institution, which had for its principal object an account of the
   anthropometric method of Bertillon, then newly introduced into
   the prison administration of France. Wishing to treat the subject
   generally, and having a vague knowledge of the value
   sometimes assigned to finger marks, I made inquiries, and
   was surprised to find, both how much had been done, and how
   much there remained to do, before establishing their theoretical
   value and practical utility.
        Enough was then seen to show that the subject was of real
   importance, and I resolved to investigate it; all the more so,
   as the modern processes of photographic printing would enable
   the evidence of such results as might be arrived at, to be
   presented to the reader on an enlarged and easily legible form,
   and in a trustworthy shape. Those that are put forward in the
   following pages, admit of considerable extension and
   improvement, and it is only the fact that an account of them
   seems useful, which causes me to delay no further before
   submitting what has thus far been attained, to the criticism of

                                      Excerpt from Galton’s Finger Prints
Applications of Anthropometry
 Identification of repeated criminals
   Cesare Lombroso's Criminal Anthropology (1895):
      “murderers have prominent jaws and pickpockets
      have long hands and scanty beards”.
   Eugene Vidocq: identification of criminals by facial
 Prevention of impersonation
 Differentiation between the races
   Eugenics in Europe
       Aryans from Jews: The Bureau for Enlightenment on
        Population Policy and Racial Welfare recommended the
        classification of Aryans and non-Aryans on the basis of
        measurements of the skull and other physical features,
        “craniometric” certification, required by law. The
        consequences for not meeting requirements included
        denial of permission to marry or work, and for many it
        meant the death camps
       Intelligence tests became associated with
Debate over Anthropometry
 General Problems with
   Cost and error of the instruments used
   Education needed to be able to take the
   Error in calculation and measurements
   Slow
 Will West Case
Body Identification using
   Bertillon used 5 basic measurements:
       head length
       head breadth
       length of middle finger
       Length of left foot
       length from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger
   Today that list is more extensive:
       Gender
       Height
       Weight
       Age
       Bicep circumference, buttock depth, chest breadth, elbow
        circumference, eye height, forearm to hand, ear breadth, head
        circumference, head length, hip breadth sitting, hip breadth
        standing, sitting height, waist depth, wrist breadth, wrist
        circumference to name a few…there are currently 107
               Anthropometric Measuring Tools
                          Anthropometer   Goniometer                           Tape
Sliding Calipers: large

                                           Medical scale
       and small

                                                           Spreading Caliper
Anthropometric Measuring
   Weight
   Stature
   Posture:
       Standing
       Frankfort
       Sitting
   Arm Span
   Head Length
   Head Breadth
   Ear-to-Head Height
   Nasal Length
   Nasal Breadth
   Skeletal Index = Sitting Height x 100/Stature
   Cephalic Index = Head Breadth x 100/Head Length
   Nasal Index = Nasal Breadth x 100/Nasal Length
   Span/Stature Index = Arm Span x 100/ Stature
   Cranial Capacity
Anthropometric Measuring
Basic Chart of What is
Basic Areas of Where
     to Measure
Basic Anthropometric Measuring
                                                        Anthropometric Measurements



                       60                                                                                               Male 1
                                                                                                                        Male 2
                                                                                                                        Male 3
                                                                                                                        Male 4
 Measurement (in cm)

                                                                                                                        Male 5
                                                                                                                        Male 6
                                                                                                                        Female 1
                                                                                                                        Female 2

                       30                                                                                               Female 3
                                                                                                                        Female 4
                                                                                                                        Female 5
                       20                                                                                               Female 6


                            1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11    12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20
Basic Anthropometric Measuring
                                    Anthropometric Measurements (cont.)



                                                                               Male 1
                                                                               Male 2
                         150                                                   Male 3
  Measurements (in cm)

                                                                               Male 4
                                                                               Male 5
                                                                               Male 6
                                                                               Female 1
                                                                               Female 2
                                                                               Female 3

                         100                                                   Female 4
                                                                               Female 5
                                                                               Female 6


                               21                 22                      23
Anthropometry Today
 Biometrics
 Nutrition and wellness
   Weight Training
 Ergonomics
   dynamic anthropometry: Measurements taken
    on and around the figure when it is in any
    position other than the fixed ones.
   Everyday life
 Evolutionary Significance
   Changes in humans overtime
 Monitor growth in children
   Cranial Anthropometry
 the automatic identification of a
  person based on his/her physiological
  or behavioral characteristics
 Verification vs. identification
   Verification: Am I whom I claim I am?
    involves confirming or denying a
    person's claimed identity
   Identification: Who am I?
Biometrics Applications
 Forensics: criminal identification and
  prison security
 Prevention of unauthorized access to
  ATMs, cellular phones, smart cards,
  desktop PCs, workstations, and
  computer networks
 Automobiles: replace keys with key-
  less entry and key-less ignition
 Border control and national ID cards
Biometrics Programs
 Fingerprint Identification
 Hand Geometry: geometric shape of the
  hand for authenticating a user's identity
 Face Location: an arbitrary black and white,
  still image, find the location and size of
  every human face
 Multibiometrics: integrates face recognition,
  fingerprint verification, and speaker
  verification in making a personal
   Biometrics in Use

                                              Heathrow Airport- Iris
BenGurion Airport:    FacePass: Face
 Hand Geometry          Verification

                     Grocery Store Payment:
                          Fingerprint           US- Visit Program
    INSPASS: Hand
Cranial Anthropometry
  Also known as Craniometry
  measurement of the skull and face
  3 ways to categorize the skull
    dolichocephalic: long and thin
    brachycephalic: short and broad
    mesocephalic: intermediate length
     and breadth
 Frankfort Horizontal (FH)
  1. A plane passing through three points of the right
     and left porion and the left orbitale.
  2. First proposed at the Craniometric Congress held
     in Munich, Germany, 1877.
  3. An orientation of skull in a consistent and
     reproducible position.
  4. Comparisons: natural head position; horizontal
     visual axis; and horizontal plane.
Frankfort Horizontal
Cranial Anthropometry: 16 Facial
    en
                          g (glabella)

                          gn (gnathion)
    eu (eurion)

                          obi (otobasion
    ex (exocanthion)

    ft
                          op

    fz
     (frontozygomatic     po (porion)
Cranial Anthropometry: 16 Facial
Zones (cont.)
   n (nasion)

   sn (subnasale)

   t (tragion)

   tr (trichion)

   v (vertex)

   zy (zygion)
Cranial Anthropometry Facial Zones
     Maximal cranial

                       Maximal cranial
   Basion: the midpoint of the anterior margin of the foramen
   Gnathion: the most anterior and lowest median point on the
    border of the mandible.
   Glabella: the most forward projecting point in the midline of the
    forehead at the level of the supra-orbital ridges and above the
    nasofrontal suture.
   Opisthocranion: the most posterior point on the skull not on the
    external occipital protuberance. It is the posterior end point of
    maximum cranial length measured from glabella. It is determined
   Euryon: the two points on the opposite sides of the skull that
    form termini of the lines of greatest breadth. The two points are
    determined instrumentally.
   Zygion: the most lateral point of the zygomatic arch. It is
    determined instrumentally.
   Orbitale: the lowest point in the margin of the orbit; one of the
    points used in defining Frankfort Horizontal.
   Porion: the uppermost lateral point in the margin of the
    external auditory meatus. The right and left porion with the
    left orbitale define the Frankfort Horizontal
   Mastoidale: the lowest point of the mastoid process
   Gonion: the midpoint of the angel of the mandible between
    body and ramus.
   Bregma: the intersection of the coronal and sagittal
    sutures in the midline.
   Lambda: the intersection of the sagittal and lambdoidal
    sutures in the midline.
   Nasion: the intersection of the nasofrontal suture with the
    midsagittal plane. Nasion is the uppermost landmark for the
    measure of facial height.
   Menton: the lowest median point of the chin.
   Pogonion: the most anterior point in the midline of the
3- D Anthropometry
  3D anthropometry, the measure of humans, can be
   greatly aided by the use of accurate digital humans.
   We'll take a look at how to create these types of
   accurate digital humans and how they can be used for
   the measurement of entire populations
  Programs:
    Cyberware
           DigiSize
           CySlice
           Ear Impression 3-D Scanner
     SizeUSA: 3D measurement system, a body scanner
        feeding data into measurement extraction software.
       CAESAR: generate a database of human physical
        dimensions for men and women of various weights,
        between the ages of 18 and 65
     Virtual Models: virtually try on clothes, makeup etc.
Future Endeavors of
Standing Height
Sitting Height
Upper Leg
Knee Height
Arm Length

Skin Fold

Thank you for your time!

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