Essay Outlining

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					Essay Outlining
• An essay is longer and more complex than
  a paragraph
• Making an outline might help you to
  organize your thoughts and to plan your
  essay before you begin to write.

• For an example, please see p. (84 & 85)
Essay outline (p. 85)

• Look at the examples and answer the
   following questions:
1. How many paragraphs will essay (2)
   include?
2. How many paragraphs are in the body of
   the essay?
Transitional Signals Between Paragraphs

 • Transition signals are used not only within a
   single paragraph, but also between paragraphs.

 • Transition signals help to show the relationship
   between the different parts of an essay.

 • They function as the ‘links of a chain’ because
   they hold the paragraphs of one essay together
   and link all the ideas together.
Transition Signals- continued
• Notice!
- you link the first and second paragraphs by
  adding a transition signal to the …(second
  paragraph)

* The transition signal could be:
- A single word
- A phrase
- A dependent clause that repeats or summarizes
  the main idea in the first paragraph.
    Types of Transition Signals (p.87 & 88)
    • Introduction: Topic Sentence
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
B   • Transition word: The first advantage is…
    • Transition word: The second advantage is..
O   • Transition phrase:
    - In addition to increased output and worker satisfaction,
D      factory managers report that …
    • Transition clause:
Y   - Although flextime has produced these three positive results
       in some industries, it is not as a advantageous in all types of
       businesses.
    - -------------------------------------------------------------------
    • Conclusion: To summarize, to conclude, to sum- up,. etc.
Practice 6     (p. 87& 88)

• A. Connect the ideas in the following
 paragraphs by adding a transition word,
 phrase, or clause to the topic sentences of
 the second, third, fourth, and fifth
 paragraphs.

*Try to vary the linking expressions that you
use
Essay Writing Process (Continued)

• Writing a good essay takes time and
  effort.
• See p. (89-92) for a model on how one
  student worked through the process of
  writing and revising drafts of a multi-
  paragraphs essay before arriving at the
  final copy.
Essay so far!          (Review of main points)

• 1. An essay has three main parts: an introduction, a
    body, and a conclusion.
•   2. The introductory paragraph: attracts the reader’s
    attention and informs the reader what your main topic of
    discussion will be. (General statements+ Thesis)
•   3. The body: discusses your subdivided topics one by
    one.
•   4. The concluding paragraph (a concluding transition
    signal + a summary or restatement)
•   _________________
•   Transitional signals …to show the relationships
    between the paragraphs.
•   Outlining an essay …to organize your ideas before you
    start writing l.

• P.S. : See essay checklist p. 94
                             General Statements
           Introductory P.

                             Thesis Statement

                             Topic sentence
                             Supporting sentence
               P1
An Essay                     Concluding sentences

                             Topic sentence
                P2
                             Supporting sentences
                             Concluding sentence
                             Topic sentence
                P3
                             Supporting sentences
                             Concluding sentence
           Concluding P.
                             Restatement
Quiz!!!

Write an essay on one of the following
topics:
- Television
- Arab Culture
- Creative thinking
- Technology
- Poverty
Steps…
• You are highly advised to follow these steps:
• Step (1) Narrow the topic and brainstorm to develop ideas by
   listing, free-writing or clustering.

• Step (2) Develop an outline, including a topic sentence and a
   concluding sentence.

• Step (3) Decide where transition signals would be appropriate and
   write them in the margin of your outline.

• Step (4) Write a rough draft, and check it for ideas.

• Step (5) write a second draft and check it for grammar and
   mechanics.

• Step (6) Write your final copy and hand it in.
Revision Sheet
PART ONE: General Questions
• Read the following questions and give an answer for each.
• Discuss your answers in groups
• You will be asked to discuss your answers in front of the
  class.
• ****************************************************
• What is the importance of the introductory paragraph in an
  essay?
• What is the function of the concluding paragraph in an
  essay?
• Give examples of some transition signals?
• Mention some of the patterns of essay organization?
• Mention some types of essays in which using chronological
  order as a form of essay organization will be more effective.
Revision Sheet
General Questions            (continued)

• Read the following questions and give an answer for each.
• Discuss your answers in groups
• You will be asked to discuss your answers in front of the
    class.
•   ***********************************************
•   Writing is an active process of discovery? Discuss
•   What is the importance of brainstorming activities?
•   What are the three types of brainstorming that you have studied?
    Which type do you prefer?
•   What is a paragraph?
•   What do we mean by the topic sentence?
•   What is the difference between a paragraph and an essay?
PART TWO: Write an essay:
• Write an essay about the following topic:
•                         The Holy Month of Ramadan

• You are highly advised to follow these steps:

• Step (1) Narrow the topic and brainstorm to develop ideas by
    listing, free-writing or clustering.
•   Step (2) Develop an outline, including a topic sentence and a
    concluding sentence.
•   Step (3) Decide where transition signals would be appropriate and
    write them in the margin of your outline.
•   Step (4) Write a rough draft, and check it for ideas.
•   Step (5) write a second draft and check it for grammar and
    mechanics.
•   Step (6) Write your final copy and hand it in.
Essay Organization

Essay Organization is: the Arrangement of an
 essay’s parts to form an effective whole which
communicates your thoughts more clearly, more
 effectively, and more interestingly.

* (You simply decide what information belongs in
  each paragraph, and then in what order you
  should arrange the paragraphs.)
Patterns of Essay Organization

You can organize your essay by using one of
four patterns:
1. Chronological Order
2. Logical Division
3. Cause and Effect
4. Comparison and Contrast
Patterns of Essay Organization

You can organize your essay by using one of
four patterns:
1. Chronological Order
Essay Organization
      by Chronological Order
• Chronological order: List of events in order
  of their occurrence          order by time
Usage:
- Technical process essays
- Instructive (How to) essays
- History, biography, auto-biography, etc.
- (List of events over a period of time)
Essay Organization
      by Chronological Order
• See p. 97 for a model essay based on
     chronological order organization and answer
     the following questions:

1. Underline the thesis statement twice.
2. Underline the topic sentence of each
     paragraph.
3.   Underline the passive verb forms.
4.   Circle the transition signals.
• Why do you think there are a lot
    of passive verb forms in this
    essay?
•   Ex. The hot water is circulated…
• A General Outline to Write an
 Organized Process Essay
         (p. 98)
Organization
• 1. Introduction: (an overview on the process)
• A. Give a definition of the process.
•      Explain why the process is performed
•      By whom it is performed
•      In what way it is performed
• B. List the equipment, supplies, etc., needed
      in the process.

•   C. List the main steps of the process in the
       order they are performed.
• 2. Body
• A. Write a topic sentence to introduce the
     first step.
   1. Define the step and state its purpose.
   2. Describe the apparatus or equipment
       used.
   3. Divide the main step into as many details as
      necessary.
 B. For all subsequent steps, follow the same
  general procedure outlined above until you have
  explained all of the steps.
• 3. Conclusion
  Summarize the essay by:
- Restating what the steps of the process
- How it operates
- Why it is important.
* The conclusion repeats the information
  given in the body of the essay, without
  going into specific details.
• Process essay: passive form
• How to essays:
         - imperatives (fold) +
         - second-singular verb forms (you should….)
• Events over a time (biography, history,
  .etc.):
• You will write about events in the order that they happen.
• Your paragraphs will be blocks of time: morning, afternoon,
  and night/ before…, and after…
• Time expressions are needed in all types!
Practice! (p. 99)

• Write a thesis statement for one of the
  topics in each group:
• 1. Scientific/technical processes
• 2. Instructions/directions
• 3. Chronologies
Writing Practice!
•    Choose one of the topics from practice 7 above and write an
     essay using chronological order as a method of organization.
     Please follow these steps to success:

1. Brainstrom by freewriting, listing, or clustering all the steps in your
      process or events in your chronology.

2. Draw a simple diagram or flow chart which shows the steps and
     substeps in the process of chronology.

3. Develop an outline from your flow chart. Use the outline on page 89
    as a guide.

4. Write your first draft from your outline. Be sure to use chronological
     transition signals.

5. Revise your rough draft as you have learned in Chapter 7. Check
     your final copy against the essay Checklist on p. 94
Essay Organization:
      2. (Logical Division)
• Grouping related items according to some quality they
  have in common.

• A broad subject can be subdivided into several
  categories or groups that will narrow the topics for
  discussion. Then, each subdivided topic can be
  discussed in order. (e.g. Civil engineering/ electrical
  engineering/ Space engineering/ mechanical
  engineering, etc.)

• By dividing the field into subclasses, you can discuss
  each one separately, which simplifies the task of
  explaining a broad subject.
( Model: Essay, p. 101)
• Step1: Locate and underline the thesis statement twice.
  How many subtopics does it list?

• Step2: Locate the main sentence in the concluding
  paragraph and underline it twice. Is it a paraphrase of
  the thesis statement or a summary of the main points?

• Step3: Underline the topic sentence in each paragraph.
• Step4: Notice the transition expressions between
  paragraphs. Do all of the paragraphs contain one?
Practice 9, p. 102

• Transition between paragraphs:
• Copy the words, phrases or clauses that
  serve as links between the six paragraphs
  or the model essay.
Logical Division:
(Transition Signals and Thesis Statements)

- See p. 102 for transition signals.
- Example thesis statements:
• A college education is a necessary in today’s competitive world for
   two main reasons. (subtopics not named)

• A college education is a necessary in today’s competitive world not
   only because of the knowledge you gain but also because of the
   personal contacts you make. (subtopics are named)

• To many men, an automobile symbolizes three things: money,
   power, and success. (subtopics named)
Writing Practice:                            (p. 103)

• A. Write an essay in which you explain the influence of one culture
   on another.

  (Choose two cultures with which you are familiar.)
- You might discuss things such as: language, food, clothing, music,
    family customs, business methods, educational methods, etc.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- B. Write an essay in which you discuss some of the customs or
   traditions of your culture you wish to preserve as a part of your
   lifestyle, such as food, religion, holidays, etc.
Essay Organization:
3. Cause and Effect
• In cause and effect essay, you discuss the
  reasons of something, and then you
  discuss the results.




• Examples for cause and effect essay examination (see p.
  104)
Essay Organization:
3. Cause and Effect
• There are two ways of organizing a cause and effect essay: (1)
  Block organization
•        (2) Chain organization.
• 1. Block organization: you discuss all of the effects together as a
  block.
•                                 Causes                   Cause

                                  Effects                  Effect

• 2. Chain organization: You discuss a                      Causes
• first cause and its effect, a second cause
• and its effect, and a third cause and its effect, in a chain.
                                                            Effect
Block or Chain?
• It depends on the topic!
• If complex and interrelated (not easy to divide
    into cause and effect blocks), use chain cause
    organization.
•   In larger essays and when there is no direct
    cause and effect relationship, use block style.
•   In block organization, there is often a short
    paragraph that separates the ‘causes’ part from
    the ‘effects’ part. This is called a transition
    paragraph.
Cause and effect
(Block Organization)
• The transition sentence can be placed at
 the beginning of the next paragraph or at
 the end of the previous one.

• See, p. 105 (step 1, 2 & 3)
Chain Organization

• - One event causes a second event, which
  in turn causes a third event, which in turn
  causes a fourth event, and so ,on.
• See model example p. 107.
Cause and Effect Structure Words
•  Cause structure word:
-  The first cause………………..
-  The next reason…………………
-  Because of……………………….
Effect structure words:
- The first effect……………………
- As a result…………………
- Therefore…………………………..
* Learn to use different ones so that you don’t always use
   because or as a result in your sentence. See p. 108 &
   109
•   Cause structure word:
•   For
•   Because
•   AS
•   Resulted from
•   Because of
•   The effect of
•   Consequence of
•   The effect of
•    As a result of
•   As a consequence of
Effect structure words:

• As a result
• As a consequence
• Therefore,
• Thus,
• Consequently,
• Hence, etc.
• See Writing practice p. 113
Essay Organization
4. Comparison and Contrast
• - This form of organization is used frequently in college
  work, and in business and the professions as well.

• - You can compare and contrast different things, but you
  should observe that you compare and contrast things of
  like nature. Or the compare and contrast will not be
  valid: e.g (apples with bananas, not with pencils)

• A comparison answers the question:
‘What features do X and Y have in common?’ or
‘How X and Z are similar?’

• A contrast answers the question, ‘What are the
  differences between X and Y’? Or,
‘How are X and Y different?’
Essay Organization
4. Comparison and Contrast

• Specific techniques to write good
   comparison and contrast essays:
1. Appropriate use of comparison and
   contrast structure words.
2. Logical organization of the points of
   comparison and contrast.
3. See Model essay, p. 114 and answer the
   questions
Essay Organization
4. Comparison and Contrast

There are words that introduce points of
 comparison and points of contrast.
Comparison Structure Words:
•   (table, p. 116)+ Examples+
•   Practice 15 (Recognize Comparison Structure words.)
•   Practice 16 ( Use Comparison Structure words)
Contrast Structure Vocabulary
•   Contrast (Concessive) Structure Words)
•   (table, p. 119) + Examples
•   Contrast (Strong Opposition) Structure Words.
•   (table + Examples
•   Practice 17 (Recognizing Contrast Structure Words)
•   Practice 18 (Using Contrast Structure Words)
•
Comparison and Contrast
Organization
• There are at least two ways to organize a
   comparison and contrast essay:
- Block organization: (All the similarities in one block (can be in more than
   one paragraph, and all the paragraphs in another block (which can be one
   or more paragraphs) – You need a transitional paragraph here!
- Point by point organization
With this type of organization, as you discuss each feature of Y, refer back to
the same feature of X and use comparison and contrast structure vocabulary
to show whether they are the same of different.


• To compare two jobs for example, you might need to discuss points
  such as: salary, fringe, opportunities for advancement, workplace
  atmosphere.
• See model (1), p. 123
• See model (2), p. 123.
Comparison and Contrast
Organization

Summary so far!
1. Arrange your points of comparison and contrast in
   logical order. Use either point- by- point or block
   organization.

2. Use enough comparison and contrast strucutre
   vocabulary to make points of comparison and contrast
   very clear.
Essay Organization
(Comparison and Contrast)
• Choose one topic and discuss it in terms of comparison and
    contrast. Use either point-by- point or block organization
•   1. Write your thesis statement at the top of your paper.
•   2. Brainstorm by using one of the prewriting techniques that you
    prefer. (Use pre-writing activity)
•   3. Then, brainstorm for ideas to support each comparison and
    contrast in the second column.
•   4. Write an outline from your brainstorming activity.
•   5. Write your first rought draft from your outline. Be sure to use a
    variety of comparison and contrast structure words, and begin each
    paragraph with transition expression.
•   6. Revise your rough draft as you have learned in Chapter 7. Check
    your final essay against the Essay Checklist on page 124.

• See topic suggestions, p. 124
Review
•    - There are four common patterns of essay organization in English
     you should have learned:
•
1.   Chronological order
2.   Logical division of ideas
3.   Cause and effect
4.   Comparison and contrast.

•     With each pattern you use special transition
     signals and structure words.
•    There are still other ways of essay organization.
•    For long essay or term papers , you may need to use a
     combination of patterns.
Quiz
• Write an essay on one of the following topics using a suitable


•    Generation Gap
•   University of Palestine
•   Learning English as a Foreign Language
•   Communication Revolution
•   How to write an essay
•   Internet in the 21st Century


• You are required to show all steps on paper.
-
• Punctuation
Punctuation
(p. 253- p. 261)



• 1. Commas
• 2. Semicolons
• 3. Colons
• 4. Quotation marks
Punctuation
1. Commas

• Commas functions as:
• 1. Introducers
• 2. Co-ordinators
• 3. inserters
• 4. linkers
Punctuation
1. Commas

• Commas functions as:
• 1. Introducers:
• e.g. Recently, the legislature banned smoking in public places.
•       _______, (main clause).

• 2. Coordinator
• Many people opposed the new law, but it finally passed.
• Main clause___ (coordinating conjunction)__ Main clause
•
Punctuation
1. Commas

• Commas functions as:
• 3. Inserter:
       Smallpox, once a widespread disease, is under control.
       Main ----------------------------------------clause
• 4. Linkers:
• e.g. (1): The word color is spelled colour in British English, for
   example.
•           Main Clause-----------------------------, ----------------.
• e.g. (2): Cecile speaks English, French, Spanish, and Italian.
•                      -----------, ---------, ---------,
Punctuation
1. Commas

See p. 254 & 256 for words used for different kinds of commas
See practice I, p. 255
Punctuation
semi - colons
• The semi-colon is more like a period than a comma.
• It is used between:

• 1. Between two sentences that are closely
  connected in idea.

e.g. Alice is going to Harvard; she isn’t going to M. I. T.
Punctuation
semi - colons
• It is used between:

• 2. Before conjunctive adverbs and some
  traditional phrases.

• Skiing is dangerous; nevertheless, hundreds of people
  ski.
Punctuation
semi - colons
• 3. Between items in a series if the items
  already contain commas.
• See p. 257
Colons:

• 1. Lists
• 2. Long quotations
• 3. Subtitles
• 4. Time
• 5. Formal salutations
Quotation marks
Parallelism
(p. 168)


• Using similar grammatical structures to
    balance your writing.

•    If the first structure is a noun, make all the others nouns; if it is
    an infinitive verb phrase, make all of the others infinitive verb
    phrases; if it is a dependent clause, make all of the others
    dependent clauses.
•   with conjunctions (And, Or, But)
•   Correlative conjunctions
Sentence Problems

• 1. Sentence Fragments
• 2. Choppy Sentences
• 3. Run-On sentences and Comma Splices
• 4. Stringy Sentences
Sentence Problems:
Sentence fragments (p. 171)

• Sentence fragments are incomplete
  sentences or parts of sentences.
• (A complete sentence must contain at
  least one main or independent clause)
• See p. 171
Sentence Problems:
Choppy Sentence




• Choppy sentences are sentences that are
    too short. They are the result for using too
    many simple sentences.
•
• Although simple sentences are quite effective sometimes, overuse of
    them is considered poor style in academic writing.

• See, p. 173.
Sentence Problems:
Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices (p, 175)


• A run-on sentence is a sentence in which two or more
  independent clauses are written one after another with
  no punctuation.

• A similar error happens when two independent clauses are
  incorrectly joined by a comma without a coordinating conjunction


• N.B This kind of error is also called a comma splice.
• Comma Splice means                    joining end to end.

				
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