Essay Outlining • An essay is longer and more complex than a paragraph • Making an outline might help you to organize your thoughts and to plan your essay before you begin to write. • For an example, please see p. (84 & 85) Essay outline (p. 85) • Look at the examples and answer the following questions: 1. How many paragraphs will essay (2) include? 2. How many paragraphs are in the body of the essay? Transitional Signals Between Paragraphs • Transition signals are used not only within a single paragraph, but also between paragraphs. • Transition signals help to show the relationship between the different parts of an essay. • They function as the ‘links of a chain’ because they hold the paragraphs of one essay together and link all the ideas together. Transition Signals- continued • Notice! - you link the first and second paragraphs by adding a transition signal to the …(second paragraph) * The transition signal could be: - A single word - A phrase - A dependent clause that repeats or summarizes the main idea in the first paragraph. Types of Transition Signals (p.87 & 88) • Introduction: Topic Sentence --------------------------------------------------------------------- B • Transition word: The first advantage is… • Transition word: The second advantage is.. O • Transition phrase: - In addition to increased output and worker satisfaction, D factory managers report that … • Transition clause: Y - Although flextime has produced these three positive results in some industries, it is not as a advantageous in all types of businesses. - ------------------------------------------------------------------- • Conclusion: To summarize, to conclude, to sum- up,. etc. Practice 6 (p. 87& 88) • A. Connect the ideas in the following paragraphs by adding a transition word, phrase, or clause to the topic sentences of the second, third, fourth, and fifth paragraphs. *Try to vary the linking expressions that you use Essay Writing Process (Continued) • Writing a good essay takes time and effort. • See p. (89-92) for a model on how one student worked through the process of writing and revising drafts of a multi- paragraphs essay before arriving at the final copy. Essay so far! (Review of main points) • 1. An essay has three main parts: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. • 2. The introductory paragraph: attracts the reader’s attention and informs the reader what your main topic of discussion will be. (General statements+ Thesis) • 3. The body: discusses your subdivided topics one by one. • 4. The concluding paragraph (a concluding transition signal + a summary or restatement) • _________________ • Transitional signals …to show the relationships between the paragraphs. • Outlining an essay …to organize your ideas before you start writing l. • P.S. : See essay checklist p. 94 General Statements Introductory P. Thesis Statement Topic sentence Supporting sentence P1 An Essay Concluding sentences Topic sentence P2 Supporting sentences Concluding sentence Topic sentence P3 Supporting sentences Concluding sentence Concluding P. Restatement Quiz!!! Write an essay on one of the following topics: - Television - Arab Culture - Creative thinking - Technology - Poverty Steps… • You are highly advised to follow these steps: • Step (1) Narrow the topic and brainstorm to develop ideas by listing, free-writing or clustering. • Step (2) Develop an outline, including a topic sentence and a concluding sentence. • Step (3) Decide where transition signals would be appropriate and write them in the margin of your outline. • Step (4) Write a rough draft, and check it for ideas. • Step (5) write a second draft and check it for grammar and mechanics. • Step (6) Write your final copy and hand it in. Revision Sheet PART ONE: General Questions • Read the following questions and give an answer for each. • Discuss your answers in groups • You will be asked to discuss your answers in front of the class. • **************************************************** • What is the importance of the introductory paragraph in an essay? • What is the function of the concluding paragraph in an essay? • Give examples of some transition signals? • Mention some of the patterns of essay organization? • Mention some types of essays in which using chronological order as a form of essay organization will be more effective. Revision Sheet General Questions (continued) • Read the following questions and give an answer for each. • Discuss your answers in groups • You will be asked to discuss your answers in front of the class. • *********************************************** • Writing is an active process of discovery? Discuss • What is the importance of brainstorming activities? • What are the three types of brainstorming that you have studied? Which type do you prefer? • What is a paragraph? • What do we mean by the topic sentence? • What is the difference between a paragraph and an essay? PART TWO: Write an essay: • Write an essay about the following topic: • The Holy Month of Ramadan • You are highly advised to follow these steps: • Step (1) Narrow the topic and brainstorm to develop ideas by listing, free-writing or clustering. • Step (2) Develop an outline, including a topic sentence and a concluding sentence. • Step (3) Decide where transition signals would be appropriate and write them in the margin of your outline. • Step (4) Write a rough draft, and check it for ideas. • Step (5) write a second draft and check it for grammar and mechanics. • Step (6) Write your final copy and hand it in. Essay Organization Essay Organization is: the Arrangement of an essay’s parts to form an effective whole which communicates your thoughts more clearly, more effectively, and more interestingly. * (You simply decide what information belongs in each paragraph, and then in what order you should arrange the paragraphs.) Patterns of Essay Organization You can organize your essay by using one of four patterns: 1. Chronological Order 2. Logical Division 3. Cause and Effect 4. Comparison and Contrast Patterns of Essay Organization You can organize your essay by using one of four patterns: 1. Chronological Order Essay Organization by Chronological Order • Chronological order: List of events in order of their occurrence order by time Usage: - Technical process essays - Instructive (How to) essays - History, biography, auto-biography, etc. - (List of events over a period of time) Essay Organization by Chronological Order • See p. 97 for a model essay based on chronological order organization and answer the following questions: 1. Underline the thesis statement twice. 2. Underline the topic sentence of each paragraph. 3. Underline the passive verb forms. 4. Circle the transition signals. • Why do you think there are a lot of passive verb forms in this essay? • Ex. The hot water is circulated… • A General Outline to Write an Organized Process Essay (p. 98) Organization • 1. Introduction: (an overview on the process) • A. Give a definition of the process. • Explain why the process is performed • By whom it is performed • In what way it is performed • B. List the equipment, supplies, etc., needed in the process. • C. List the main steps of the process in the order they are performed. • 2. Body • A. Write a topic sentence to introduce the first step. 1. Define the step and state its purpose. 2. Describe the apparatus or equipment used. 3. Divide the main step into as many details as necessary. B. For all subsequent steps, follow the same general procedure outlined above until you have explained all of the steps. • 3. Conclusion Summarize the essay by: - Restating what the steps of the process - How it operates - Why it is important. * The conclusion repeats the information given in the body of the essay, without going into specific details. • Process essay: passive form • How to essays: - imperatives (fold) + - second-singular verb forms (you should….) • Events over a time (biography, history, .etc.): • You will write about events in the order that they happen. • Your paragraphs will be blocks of time: morning, afternoon, and night/ before…, and after… • Time expressions are needed in all types! Practice! (p. 99) • Write a thesis statement for one of the topics in each group: • 1. Scientific/technical processes • 2. Instructions/directions • 3. Chronologies Writing Practice! • Choose one of the topics from practice 7 above and write an essay using chronological order as a method of organization. Please follow these steps to success: 1. Brainstrom by freewriting, listing, or clustering all the steps in your process or events in your chronology. 2. Draw a simple diagram or flow chart which shows the steps and substeps in the process of chronology. 3. Develop an outline from your flow chart. Use the outline on page 89 as a guide. 4. Write your first draft from your outline. Be sure to use chronological transition signals. 5. Revise your rough draft as you have learned in Chapter 7. Check your final copy against the essay Checklist on p. 94 Essay Organization: 2. (Logical Division) • Grouping related items according to some quality they have in common. • A broad subject can be subdivided into several categories or groups that will narrow the topics for discussion. Then, each subdivided topic can be discussed in order. (e.g. Civil engineering/ electrical engineering/ Space engineering/ mechanical engineering, etc.) • By dividing the field into subclasses, you can discuss each one separately, which simplifies the task of explaining a broad subject. ( Model: Essay, p. 101) • Step1: Locate and underline the thesis statement twice. How many subtopics does it list? • Step2: Locate the main sentence in the concluding paragraph and underline it twice. Is it a paraphrase of the thesis statement or a summary of the main points? • Step3: Underline the topic sentence in each paragraph. • Step4: Notice the transition expressions between paragraphs. Do all of the paragraphs contain one? Practice 9, p. 102 • Transition between paragraphs: • Copy the words, phrases or clauses that serve as links between the six paragraphs or the model essay. Logical Division: (Transition Signals and Thesis Statements) - See p. 102 for transition signals. - Example thesis statements: • A college education is a necessary in today’s competitive world for two main reasons. (subtopics not named) • A college education is a necessary in today’s competitive world not only because of the knowledge you gain but also because of the personal contacts you make. (subtopics are named) • To many men, an automobile symbolizes three things: money, power, and success. (subtopics named) Writing Practice: (p. 103) • A. Write an essay in which you explain the influence of one culture on another. (Choose two cultures with which you are familiar.) - You might discuss things such as: language, food, clothing, music, family customs, business methods, educational methods, etc. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ - B. Write an essay in which you discuss some of the customs or traditions of your culture you wish to preserve as a part of your lifestyle, such as food, religion, holidays, etc. Essay Organization: 3. Cause and Effect • In cause and effect essay, you discuss the reasons of something, and then you discuss the results. • Examples for cause and effect essay examination (see p. 104) Essay Organization: 3. Cause and Effect • There are two ways of organizing a cause and effect essay: (1) Block organization • (2) Chain organization. • 1. Block organization: you discuss all of the effects together as a block. • Causes Cause Effects Effect • 2. Chain organization: You discuss a Causes • first cause and its effect, a second cause • and its effect, and a third cause and its effect, in a chain. Effect Block or Chain? • It depends on the topic! • If complex and interrelated (not easy to divide into cause and effect blocks), use chain cause organization. • In larger essays and when there is no direct cause and effect relationship, use block style. • In block organization, there is often a short paragraph that separates the ‘causes’ part from the ‘effects’ part. This is called a transition paragraph. Cause and effect (Block Organization) • The transition sentence can be placed at the beginning of the next paragraph or at the end of the previous one. • See, p. 105 (step 1, 2 & 3) Chain Organization • - One event causes a second event, which in turn causes a third event, which in turn causes a fourth event, and so ,on. • See model example p. 107. Cause and Effect Structure Words • Cause structure word: - The first cause……………….. - The next reason………………… - Because of………………………. Effect structure words: - The first effect…………………… - As a result………………… - Therefore………………………….. * Learn to use different ones so that you don’t always use because or as a result in your sentence. See p. 108 & 109 • Cause structure word: • For • Because • AS • Resulted from • Because of • The effect of • Consequence of • The effect of • As a result of • As a consequence of Effect structure words: • As a result • As a consequence • Therefore, • Thus, • Consequently, • Hence, etc. • See Writing practice p. 113 Essay Organization 4. Comparison and Contrast • - This form of organization is used frequently in college work, and in business and the professions as well. • - You can compare and contrast different things, but you should observe that you compare and contrast things of like nature. Or the compare and contrast will not be valid: e.g (apples with bananas, not with pencils) • A comparison answers the question: ‘What features do X and Y have in common?’ or ‘How X and Z are similar?’ • A contrast answers the question, ‘What are the differences between X and Y’? Or, ‘How are X and Y different?’ Essay Organization 4. Comparison and Contrast • Specific techniques to write good comparison and contrast essays: 1. Appropriate use of comparison and contrast structure words. 2. Logical organization of the points of comparison and contrast. 3. See Model essay, p. 114 and answer the questions Essay Organization 4. Comparison and Contrast There are words that introduce points of comparison and points of contrast. Comparison Structure Words: • (table, p. 116)+ Examples+ • Practice 15 (Recognize Comparison Structure words.) • Practice 16 ( Use Comparison Structure words) Contrast Structure Vocabulary • Contrast (Concessive) Structure Words) • (table, p. 119) + Examples • Contrast (Strong Opposition) Structure Words. • (table + Examples • Practice 17 (Recognizing Contrast Structure Words) • Practice 18 (Using Contrast Structure Words) • Comparison and Contrast Organization • There are at least two ways to organize a comparison and contrast essay: - Block organization: (All the similarities in one block (can be in more than one paragraph, and all the paragraphs in another block (which can be one or more paragraphs) – You need a transitional paragraph here! - Point by point organization With this type of organization, as you discuss each feature of Y, refer back to the same feature of X and use comparison and contrast structure vocabulary to show whether they are the same of different. • To compare two jobs for example, you might need to discuss points such as: salary, fringe, opportunities for advancement, workplace atmosphere. • See model (1), p. 123 • See model (2), p. 123. Comparison and Contrast Organization Summary so far! 1. Arrange your points of comparison and contrast in logical order. Use either point- by- point or block organization. 2. Use enough comparison and contrast strucutre vocabulary to make points of comparison and contrast very clear. Essay Organization (Comparison and Contrast) • Choose one topic and discuss it in terms of comparison and contrast. Use either point-by- point or block organization • 1. Write your thesis statement at the top of your paper. • 2. Brainstorm by using one of the prewriting techniques that you prefer. (Use pre-writing activity) • 3. Then, brainstorm for ideas to support each comparison and contrast in the second column. • 4. Write an outline from your brainstorming activity. • 5. Write your first rought draft from your outline. Be sure to use a variety of comparison and contrast structure words, and begin each paragraph with transition expression. • 6. Revise your rough draft as you have learned in Chapter 7. Check your final essay against the Essay Checklist on page 124. • See topic suggestions, p. 124 Review • - There are four common patterns of essay organization in English you should have learned: • 1. Chronological order 2. Logical division of ideas 3. Cause and effect 4. Comparison and contrast. • With each pattern you use special transition signals and structure words. • There are still other ways of essay organization. • For long essay or term papers , you may need to use a combination of patterns. Quiz • Write an essay on one of the following topics using a suitable • Generation Gap • University of Palestine • Learning English as a Foreign Language • Communication Revolution • How to write an essay • Internet in the 21st Century • You are required to show all steps on paper. - • Punctuation Punctuation (p. 253- p. 261) • 1. Commas • 2. Semicolons • 3. Colons • 4. Quotation marks Punctuation 1. Commas • Commas functions as: • 1. Introducers • 2. Co-ordinators • 3. inserters • 4. linkers Punctuation 1. Commas • Commas functions as: • 1. Introducers: • e.g. Recently, the legislature banned smoking in public places. • _______, (main clause). • 2. Coordinator • Many people opposed the new law, but it finally passed. • Main clause___ (coordinating conjunction)__ Main clause • Punctuation 1. Commas • Commas functions as: • 3. Inserter: Smallpox, once a widespread disease, is under control. Main ----------------------------------------clause • 4. Linkers: • e.g. (1): The word color is spelled colour in British English, for example. • Main Clause-----------------------------, ----------------. • e.g. (2): Cecile speaks English, French, Spanish, and Italian. • -----------, ---------, ---------, Punctuation 1. Commas See p. 254 & 256 for words used for different kinds of commas See practice I, p. 255 Punctuation semi - colons • The semi-colon is more like a period than a comma. • It is used between: • 1. Between two sentences that are closely connected in idea. e.g. Alice is going to Harvard; she isn’t going to M. I. T. Punctuation semi - colons • It is used between: • 2. Before conjunctive adverbs and some traditional phrases. • Skiing is dangerous; nevertheless, hundreds of people ski. Punctuation semi - colons • 3. Between items in a series if the items already contain commas. • See p. 257 Colons: • 1. Lists • 2. Long quotations • 3. Subtitles • 4. Time • 5. Formal salutations Quotation marks Parallelism (p. 168) • Using similar grammatical structures to balance your writing. • If the first structure is a noun, make all the others nouns; if it is an infinitive verb phrase, make all of the others infinitive verb phrases; if it is a dependent clause, make all of the others dependent clauses. • with conjunctions (And, Or, But) • Correlative conjunctions Sentence Problems • 1. Sentence Fragments • 2. Choppy Sentences • 3. Run-On sentences and Comma Splices • 4. Stringy Sentences Sentence Problems: Sentence fragments (p. 171) • Sentence fragments are incomplete sentences or parts of sentences. • (A complete sentence must contain at least one main or independent clause) • See p. 171 Sentence Problems: Choppy Sentence • Choppy sentences are sentences that are too short. They are the result for using too many simple sentences. • • Although simple sentences are quite effective sometimes, overuse of them is considered poor style in academic writing. • See, p. 173. Sentence Problems: Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices (p, 175) • A run-on sentence is a sentence in which two or more independent clauses are written one after another with no punctuation. • A similar error happens when two independent clauses are incorrectly joined by a comma without a coordinating conjunction • N.B This kind of error is also called a comma splice. • Comma Splice means joining end to end.
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