Judaism � Sacred Story by NuH5HDM

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 37

									History of Humanity

 Canaanites, Assyrians, Ethiopians,


 Babylonians, Persians, Ishmaelites,

 Greeks, Pagan Romans, Christian

 Romans, Muslim Empires.
                                       1
Who is Jewish?

 Religious Judaism
 Ethnic Judaism


 Sephardic
 Ashkenazi



                      2
Judaism – Sacred Story


 Three elements of Judaism
 ◦ One God: Shema
 ◦ Torah as word of God
 ◦ Future Salvation


                              3
Terminology

 Avoiding Christian-centric
 terminology
 ◦ BC-AD vs BCE-CE
    1432 AH (since Dec 7)
    5772 (Sept 28)
 ◦ Old Testament vs Hebrew
   Bible/Tanakh
                               4
Biblical Myth

   Genesis 1-11

   Adam and Eve;
    Garden of Eden;
    Creation

   The Flood

   Tower of Babel
                      5
                  20th century BCE
Biblical Legend
   Starts at
    Genesis 12

 Abram /
  Abraham and
  Sarah
 Ur
 c. 1900-1700
  BCE
 1st Patriarch
                               6
Biblical Legend


 Canaan
 Hagar


 Ishmael   and Isaac


                        7
Biblical Legend

   Isaac

 Jacob / Israel
 “God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob”
    ◦ The three patriarchs


 The Israelites in Egypt
 Moses
                                      8
       Biblical History



   Moses in Egypt

   “I am who I am”

   YHWH =
    
                          9
                            13th century BCE


Biblical History

 Mt. Sinai
 Torah  = law
 Mitzvah = commandment (pl. =
  mitzvot)
 Mosaic Covenant
  ◦ treaty

                                         10
                               11th century BCE


Biblical History

 Canaanite  gods: Ba’al and Asherah
  ◦ Henotheism vs Monotheism
 Joshua
 12 Tribes ruled over by “judges”




                                            11
                      10th century BCE


Monarchy

 Saul
 David(ruled c.
    1000-960 BCE)
 ◦ Most famous king
 ◦ Most loved king


                                   12
                             10th century BCE


Monarchy

 David  (ruled c. 1000-960 BCE)
 ◦ Model king
    Consolidation of the kingdom -
     Israel
    Peace and prosperity
    Jerusalem

                                          13
                         10th century BCE


    Monarchy
 Solomon
    (ruled 960-21 BCE)
 Builds first Temple
   (completed c. 931
  BCE)
 Solomon renowned
      for his wealth,
      wisdom, and
      international
  power
                                      14
                               8th century BCE


Monarchy Breaks Down

 12 tribes – united monarchy –
 divided into two kingdoms
 ◦ Judah in the south
 ◦ Israel in the north (north of the
   Dead Sea)


                                             15
                              8th century BCE


Monarchy Breaks Down

 Changing political power
 internationally means Israel suddenly
 has enemies

 Assyrians   sack northern Kingdom
 721   BCE

                                           16
                         6th century BCE
    New Enemies
 Babylonians sack
  Judah (587 BCE)
 King
  Nebuchadnezzar
  ◦ levels Jerusalem
  ◦ destroys the First
    Temple
  ◦ scatters the
    aristocracy and
    land owners
                                       17
New Possibilities

 Three features of this new Judaism
 ◦ The Diaspora Jew
 ◦ The Prophet
 ◦ The Septuagint (LXX)



                                       18
                     6th century BCE

 The Second Temple


 Persians
 KingCyrus
 of Persia




                                   19
                                      6th century BCE


The Second Temple

 Israelites invited to return (c. 538 BCE)
 Temple rebuilt – completed in 515 BCE
 Ezra: starts collection of scriptures


   Judaism vs “the religion of the Israelites”

 Hellenism, Hellenization
 Greco-Roman

                                                    20
                   2nd century BCE


The Joy of Sects

 Sects
 ◦ Sadducees
 ◦ Pharisees
 ◦ Sicarii
 ◦ Zealots
 ◦ Christians

                                21
                                    1st century CE


Wars of Independence I
   1) 66-73 CE
    ◦ Jewish War
    ◦ Rome destroys Second Temple in 70 CE
       Second Temple Judaism = 515 BCE –
        70 CE

   2) 132-35 CE
    ◦ Bar Kochba Revolt
    ◦ squashed by Rome
                                                22
                          1st – 6th
                          century CE

Rabbinic Judaism


 70 - 500 CE
 New Religion?
  ◦ Synagogue vs Temple
  ◦ Prayer vs Sacrifice
  ◦ Talmud vs Torah


                                       23
                         6th – 17th
                         century CE

Medieval Judaism


 500-1600 CE
 Encounter with Islam
 Philosophy




                                      24
                           12th century CE
Medieval Judaism

 Saadia (12th c.)
 Judah Halevi (12th c.)
 Moses Maimonides
  (12th c.)
  ◦ Rabbi Moses ben
    Maimon = RMBM =
    Rambam
  ◦ Guide for the
    Perplexed
                                        25
Responses to Persecution

 Mysticism
 Hasidism
 Modern Scepticism
 Zionism




                           26
                                        13th century CE


 Responses to Persecution
1) Mysticism
 Kabbalah
 ◦ The Zohar
 ◦ Rabbi Simeon bar Yochai (3rd c.), aka Moses ben
   Shemtov of Leon (13th c.)

 ◦ Shabbatai Zvi (17th c.)
     (1666 CE)


                                                     27
                             18th century CE

Responses to Persecution
2) Hasidism
 Israel ben Eliezer (18th
  c.)
     aka: The Baal Shem
      Tov
     = the master of the
      good name
    aka: The Baal Shem
    aka: Besht
 Lubavitch
                                          28
                          18th century CE

Responses to Persecution

3) Modern
  Sectarianism:
  Reform
     Moses
      Mendelssohn
      (18th c.)
     Acculturation
     Liberal
      interpretation of
      Torah                            29
                            19th century CE


   Responses to Persecution
3) Modern Sectarianism:
  Conservative
    Zecharias Frankel in
     Germany
    Solomon Schechter
     in the US
    both in the 19th c.
    Stricter
     interpretation of
     Torah                               30
                             19th century CE


  Responses to Persecution
3) Modern Sectarianism:
  Orthodox
    Samson Raphael
     Hirsch (19th c.)
    Strict interpretation
     of Torah
    As God’s word,
     Torah is not to be
     negotiated with
                                          31
                           19th century CE


Responses to Persecution
4) Zionism
    ◦ Independence,
      security, language
 Theodor Herzl
  (1860-1904)
 Mixed reception
  among Jews (still)


                                        32
                                      20th century CE


Holocaust

 Shoah – burnt offering
 1933 – Adolf Hitler is appointed
  Chancellor of Germany
 Increasing persecution and public
  harassment of German Jews




                                                   33
                                 20th century CE


Holocaust

 Nov 9/10 1938 – Kristallnacht = The
  Night of Broken Glass
 Judenfrage
 Final Solution




                                              34
                                           20th century CE


Holocaust

   Total European Jewry before the war
    ◦ 9,508,340
   Total killed
    ◦   5,962,129 (63%).
    ◦   ~ 4 million in the extermination camps
    ◦   ~ 1.5 million in mass executions over the war
    ◦   others of starvation and disease in Ghettos
        and throughout the war.


                                                        35
                                         20th century CE


The Complicity of the West

 1938 – League of Nations conference of
  32 countries
 1939 – The St. Louis
    ◦ turned away by Cuba, the United States,
      Canada
    ◦ Had to return to Europe.



                                                      36
                            20th century CE


Zionism


 State of Israel – 1948
 Palestinians
 Jewish Muslim Relations




                                         37

								
To top