; Confucius
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  • pg 1
• 551?- 479 ? B.C.
• Concerned with opening up education to all,
  emphasis on character building rather than
  vocational training.
• Public teacher at 22
• In his fifties he became a magistrate and a minister
  of justice.
• At 56 he sought to spread his doctrines by traveling
  extensively with some of his students.
• He urged the practice of gravity, generosity of soul,
  sincerity, earnestness, and kindness.
• Impact- beliefs developed into a
  philosophy -unparalleled impact on
  Chinese life and many other Eastern
  Asian countries
• Official state doctrine of most Chinese
  emperors from 2nd Century B.C. until
  overthrow in 1911.
• Major part of elementary and intermediate
• Basis for civil service exams for
  government positions
              The Analects
• Deals with all social units: family- state
• Lays out the central ideas of government in
  Confucian thought.
  • Use of rhetoric, analogies and aphorisms
                   The Analects
“The Master said, To learn and at due times to
repeat what one has learnt, is that not after all a
pleasure? That friends should come to one from
afar, is this not after all delightful? To remain un-
soured even though one’s merits are unrecognized
by others, is that not after all what is expected of a

• Master = Confucius
• Emphasizes learning
   – Education= pleasure
• Do not expect recognition
• Qualities of a gentleman- moral way to live life
                   The Analects
“The Master said, A young man’s duty is to be-
have well to his parents at home and to his elders
abroad, to be cautious in giving promises and
punctual in keeping them, to have kindly feelings
towards everyone, but seek the intimacy of the
good. If, when all that is done, he has any energy
to spare, then let him study the polite arts.”

•   moral behavior and family structure
•   Keep all promises, cautious in giving them
•   Kind to all but only seek close relationships that are good
•   Polite Arts: The Book of Songs, book of Chinese poetry
                   The Analects
“The Master said, (good man) does not
grieve that other people do not recognize his merits.
His only anxiety is lest he should fail to recognize theirs.”
• Do not expect praise or recognition
• Should focus on recognizing others merits
   – Full circle
                The Analects
“The Master said, He who rules by moral force
is like the pole-star, which remains in its place
while all the lesser stars do homage to it.”

• Rule by moral force and power will remain
• Pole- star North Star- leads the way
• All will willingly follow
                  The Analects
“The Master said, Govern the people by regula-
tions, keep order among them by chastisements,
and they will flee from you, and lose all self-
respect. Govern them by moral force, keep order
 among them by ritual, and they will keep their self-
respect and come to you of their own accord.”

• Regulate the people
• If keep them confined, they won’t obey
• Rule by moral force and they will respect themselves
  and you and want to be under your rule
• Central idea of government
              The Analects
“The Master said, A gentleman can see a
 questions from all sides without bias. The
  small man is biased and can see a
  question from only one side.”

• Gentleman embodies central idea in
  Confucian thought
  – Virtuous and moralistic
               The Analects
“ The Master said, You shall I teach you what
knowledge is? When you know a thing, to
recognize that you know it, and when you do not
 know a thing, to recognize that you do not know
  it. That is knowledge.”

• Knowledge is unbiased
• Admit when you don’t know
             The Analects
“ The Master said, High office filled by men
  of narrow views, ritual preformed without
  reverence, the forms of mourning
  observed without grief- these are things I
  cannot bear to see!”

• Through rituals and social morality that
  order will be upheld
              The Analects
“The Master said, In old days men studied for the
  sake of self-improvement; nowadays men study
  In order to impress other people.”

• Confucian social philosophy looks back to the
     Golden Age
• Gentlemen ruled
• Social relations were conducted in a proper

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