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Confucius • 551?- 479 ? B.C. • Concerned with opening up education to all, emphasis on character building rather than vocational training. • Public teacher at 22 • In his fifties he became a magistrate and a minister of justice. • At 56 he sought to spread his doctrines by traveling extensively with some of his students. • He urged the practice of gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness. Confucius • Impact- beliefs developed into a philosophy -unparalleled impact on Chinese life and many other Eastern Asian countries • Official state doctrine of most Chinese emperors from 2nd Century B.C. until overthrow in 1911. • Major part of elementary and intermediate schooling • Basis for civil service exams for government positions The Analects • Deals with all social units: family- state • Lays out the central ideas of government in Confucian thought. • Use of rhetoric, analogies and aphorisms The Analects “The Master said, To learn and at due times to repeat what one has learnt, is that not after all a pleasure? That friends should come to one from afar, is this not after all delightful? To remain un- soured even though one’s merits are unrecognized by others, is that not after all what is expected of a gentleman?” • Master = Confucius • Emphasizes learning – Education= pleasure • Do not expect recognition • Qualities of a gentleman- moral way to live life The Analects “The Master said, A young man’s duty is to be- have well to his parents at home and to his elders abroad, to be cautious in giving promises and punctual in keeping them, to have kindly feelings towards everyone, but seek the intimacy of the good. If, when all that is done, he has any energy to spare, then let him study the polite arts.” • moral behavior and family structure • Keep all promises, cautious in giving them • Kind to all but only seek close relationships that are good • Polite Arts: The Book of Songs, book of Chinese poetry The Analects “The Master said, (good man) does not grieve that other people do not recognize his merits. His only anxiety is lest he should fail to recognize theirs.” • Do not expect praise or recognition • Should focus on recognizing others merits – Full circle The Analects “The Master said, He who rules by moral force is like the pole-star, which remains in its place while all the lesser stars do homage to it.” • Rule by moral force and power will remain • Pole- star North Star- leads the way • All will willingly follow The Analects “The Master said, Govern the people by regula- tions, keep order among them by chastisements, and they will flee from you, and lose all self- respect. Govern them by moral force, keep order among them by ritual, and they will keep their self- respect and come to you of their own accord.” • Regulate the people • If keep them confined, they won’t obey • Rule by moral force and they will respect themselves and you and want to be under your rule • Central idea of government The Analects “The Master said, A gentleman can see a questions from all sides without bias. The small man is biased and can see a question from only one side.” • Gentleman embodies central idea in Confucian thought – Virtuous and moralistic The Analects “ The Master said, You shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to recognize that you know it, and when you do not know a thing, to recognize that you do not know it. That is knowledge.” • Knowledge is unbiased • Admit when you don’t know The Analects “ The Master said, High office filled by men of narrow views, ritual preformed without reverence, the forms of mourning observed without grief- these are things I cannot bear to see!” • Through rituals and social morality that order will be upheld The Analects “The Master said, In old days men studied for the sake of self-improvement; nowadays men study In order to impress other people.” • Confucian social philosophy looks back to the Golden Age • Gentlemen ruled • Social relations were conducted in a proper fashion.
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