Guided Reading - Jefferson County Schools by dffhrtcv3


									Language Arts:
Guided Reading
Big Blocks
Susan Roberts, Reading Specialist
Jefferson County Schools
 Reading in the Content
Reading Strategies Materials

Probably the single most important factor
in a child’s initial reading instruction is his
or his teacher. No books, no curriculum, no
computer can replace the enormous value
of good human-to-human teaching.
National Reading Panel
Research (December 2000):
 Less than 1/3 of fourth graders are reading
  adequately (April 1995)
 Now we know that reading must be taught
  systematically and explicitly.
 Research has been systematically analyzed
  and the most effective methods for teaching
  reading skills have been identified.
 We must have balanced literacy in our
 Reading is an enormously complex activity!
Guided Reading:
Four Blocks Style

 Always focused on comprehension
 Teachers choose the material and
 Students are guided to use reading
 All types of reading materials are used
Goals of Guided Reading in Big
Blocks Classrooms:
 to teach comprehension strategies
 to teach students how to read and
  respond to all types of literature
  including content texts
 to develop background knowledge and
 to provide as much instructional-level
  material as possible
 to maintain the self-confidence and
  motivation of struggling readers
Effective Guided Reading:
Three Segments
 Before Reading

 During Reading

 After Reading
In Big Blocks classrooms, the
Guided Reading Block is
approximately 180 minutes per
week and includes the following:
Before-Reading Phase
Before beginning a selection, students
 access or build prior knowledge
 make connections
 make predictions
 identify the purpose for reading
Students need to begin
thinking about the text before
they begin reading the text.
This time is brief, leaving the
majority of the time for actual
(Allington, 2000)
During-Reading Phase
While reading, students must:
 question and monitor what they are
  reading and thinking about
 make inferences
 visualize
 continue to make connections
 continue to set predictions
Students need uninterrupted
periods of time to read and think,
so this phase should be the
longest of any Guided Reading
lesson. For every minute spent
talking about reading (including
before and after), students
should spend at least one minute
actually reading.

(Pearson and Fielding, 1991)
Formats for Grouping Students
during Reading
 Plan for students to participate in
  various grouping formats.
 Exemplary teachers were found to
  teach lessons to the whole class, to
  small groups, and to individual students.
(Pressley, Allington, Wharton-McDonald,
  Block, and Morrow, 2001)
 Guided reading formats should vary
  based on the purpose of the lesson.
Whole Group, Multilevel
Instruction (Big Blocks, p.
Partner Reading (Big Blocks, p. 106)
 Carefully assign partners.
 Decide how often you need to change
 Decide where partners will meet.
 Decide how to handle absent partners.
 Decide how partners will read each selection.
  (Variations in partner reading)
 Make sure partners have a purpose for
 Set a time limit.
 Provide a “filler” for partners who finish before
  the rest of the class.
 Model the expected behavior.
 Be visible.
During Reading:
- Partner Reading
 Variations:
  – “Take turn days”
  – “Ask question days”   Variations
  – “Sticky note days”     Poster
  – “You decide days”
Reading Teams
Think of reading teams of two carefully
 selected partnerships making a
The same concerns apply as with
Each team has an assigned team leader
 who ensures that all members
Teams may also need a recorder or a
Three- Ring Circus
(Big Blocks p. 108)
 This is a wonderful way to allow
 students to read a common selection in
 the most efficient way for them. In
 three- ring circus, some students read
 by themselves, some students read with
 partners, and some students read with
 you. These groups are not static and
 change with the reading selection.
Book Club Groups
(Big Blocks p. 109)
 Three to five titles chosen
 Titles area connected in some way
 Managed choice (book passes)
 Groups meet daily to read and
 discuss their books
Literature Circles
(Big Blocks p. 111)
Like book club books, however, in literature
  circles students generally:
 Read on their own and only meet in groups
 to discuss what was read.
 Determine as a group how much to read
 between meetings.
 Have specific roles they play in the
 discussion groups.
 Choose books connected by genre, author,
 theme or topic.
Exemplary classrooms provide:
Conversation about the texts students read
(Allington & Johnston, 2001)
Literate conversations mimic the conversations
   real readers in the real world have about real
   books they really want to talk about!
 Conduct discussions with readers as
   conversations – not interrogations.
 Model types of connections readers make
   (T-S, T-T, T-W).
 Arrange for students to have literate
   conversations in small groups.
Literate Conversations:
 Increase the number of people with
 whom your students can have
 conversations through use of
 “Questioning the Author” and “Oprah
 Winfrey” strategies.
Questioning the Author
 We do not just understand what the
  author is saying, rather we figure out
  what the author means.
 If you have you ever found your
  students cannot answer the questions
  because the passage “didn’t say!” then
  you know why students need their
  reading guided by a strategy called
  “Questioning the Author.”
Planning a QTA Lesson:
 The teacher carefully reads the text and
 what the important ideas are – what problems
  students might have with the ideas
 how much of the text to read before stopping
  for discussion
 what queries to pose to help students
  construct meaning
 The teacher’s job is to pose queries that can
  help students use what they know to figure out
  what the author means.
 QTA continues with the teacher telling the
  students how much to read and posing both
  initiating and follow-up queries.
 Figure out what the author means….not just
  what he says!
“Oprah Winfrey” Strategy
1.   Several students read the same book.
2.   Teacher plays the role of Oprah (initially)
     and interviews them about their lives and
3.   Invite the students to appear on your
4.   Arrange chairs and welcome them.
5.   Begin with broad questions (tell me a bit
     about yourself).
6.   What seemed to be the problem?
7.   Ask others if they agree with her.
8.   You may even ask the audience questions.
Literate Conversations:
When students engage in conversations
  about what they have read, their
  understanding improves. (Fall, Webb, &
  Cudowsky, 2000)
Exemplary classrooms provide:
 A balance of question and answer
Literate Conversations:
Ask more open-ended questions:
 Is there anything you want to know more
 What are you wondering about?
 Does this book remind you of anything else
  you have read?
 Has anything like this ever happened to you?
 Did anyone in the story remind you of
  someone you know?
 Were you surprised by anything in this story?
Think-Along / Think Aloud
 Thinking is the essence of reading!

 Reading is more than just saying words!

 Reading is thinking!
More strategies:
 Bookmarks, Sticky Notes, and Highlighters
 ERT – Everyone Read To…Find out / Figure
  out (Big Blocks p. 116)
 Story Maps (Big Blocks p. 150)
 T-Charts (Big Blocks p. 111) (graphic p.
 Students write an entry from the text in the
  left column and respond with their
  connections in the right column.
 Predicting – Guess Yes or No (Big Blocks p.
 GIST (Big Blocks p. 113)
Informational Text Lessons: Use
graphic organizers
 KWL (Big Blocks p. 122)
 Feature Matrix
 Informational Web (Semantic Web) (Big
  Blocks p. 119)
 Data Charts
 Timelines
 Venn diagram (Compare & Contrast) (Big
  Blocks p. 118 & 120)
 Cause and Effect – Causal Chain (Big Blocks
  p. 121)
After-Reading Phase
After reading, students must follow-up
  their predictions, connections, and
  purpose. They may need to:
 summarize
 identify important information
 evaluate or apply the information from the
  text to a specific problem or situation
 engage in conversations
 create a written response to reflect their
The after-reading activity
should be challenging and
move beyond the “right
answer” to the teacher’s
question but not so involved
that it takes longer to respond
than it did to read.
Errors and
 Teachers express anxiety about their
  redefined role.
 Primary purpose is to improve
  comprehension. Other Blocks provide an
  appropriate context for skills instructions such
  as phonics, grammar, and mechanics.
 Round-robin reading is not a part of this
 Non-prescriptive – every classroom looks
Dr. Timothy Rasinski and Dr.
Michael Opitz
Question: What do I do about
worksheets and workbook
 …as little as possible
 Three criteria for a good
   –Must involve some reading and/or
   –Majority of my class (75-80%) must
   be able to do it
   –Students must need work on that skill
Four Blocks Research:
 Comprehension is what it’s all about!
 Reading comprehension – and how to
  teach it – is probably the area of literacy
  about which we have the most
  knowledge and the most consensus.
 It is also probably the area that gets the
  least attention in the classroom.
Brain of a Female Adolescent

 Never forget, you are
 working with an
Brain of a Male Adolescent

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