The silent slavery
Slavery has been abolished in
most countries in the 1800s, but it
still exists in the world today in
After drug trafficking, human trafficking is tied
with the illegal arms trade as the second largest
criminal industry in the world
is the fastest growing.
WHAT IS HUMAN TRAFFICKING?
Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery
Sexual, Labour, forced Marriage, organ Transplant, Camel
Victims exploited for commercial sex or labor purposes
Traffickers use force, fraud, and coercion
Victims are young children, teenagers men and women.
Trafficking in Persons Defined
The United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and
Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and
Children defines trafficking in persons as:
The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or
receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or
other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of
deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of
vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or
benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control
over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of
the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual
exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices
similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
DEFINITION OF "SEVERE FORMS OF
TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS"
The Trafficking Victims Protection Act defines "severe
form of trafficking in persons" as
(a) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is
induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the
person induced to perform such an act has not attained
18 years of age; or
(b) the recruitment, harboring, transportation,
provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services,
through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the
purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage,
debt bondage, or slavery.
Definition of Terms Used in the Term "Severe
Forms of Trafficking in Persons"
"Sex trafficking" means the recruitment, harboring,
transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person
for the purpose of a commercial sex act.
"Commercial sex act" means any sex act on
account of which anything of value is given to or
received by any person.
"Involuntary servitude" includes a condition of
servitude induced by means of:
(a) any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause
a person to believe that, if the person did not
enter into or continue in such condition, that
person or another person would suffer serious
harm or physical restraint;
(b) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal
"Debt bondage“. Victims trafficking are often
subjected to debt-bondage, usually in the context
of paying off transportation fees into the
Victims do not realize that their debts are often
In many cases the victims are trapped into a cycle
of debt because they have to pay for all living
expenses in addition to the initial transportation
Most victims rarely see the money they are
supposedly earning and many they don’t know the
specific amount of debt.
(a) threats of serious harm to or physical restraint
against any person;
(b) any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause a
person to believe that failure to perform an act
would result in serious harm to or physical
restraint against any person; or,
(c) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal
Forms of exploitation in the country of destination
Sweatshops (garment and textiles sectors, etc.)
Catering and services sector
Begging and street peddling
Illegal adoption, baby selling and trafficking
Child sex tourist
(Each year more than a million children are
exploited in the global commercial sex trade. Child
sex tourism involves people who travel from their
own country to another and engage in commercial
sex acts with children)
WHAT IS SEX TRAFFICKING?
The recruitment, harboring, transporting, provision or
obtaining of a person of a commercial sex act, in which the
commercial sex act is inducted by force, fraud or coercion,
or in which the person forced to perform such an act is
under the age of 18 years
WHAT IS LABOR TRAFFICKING?
The recruitment, harboring, transporting, provision or
obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use
of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection
to involuntary servitude, debt bondage or slavery.
Victims can be found in domestic situations as nannies or
maids, sweatshop factories, construction sites, farm work,
VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
Estimations of the number of people trafficked each year
vary from tens of thousands to millions.
Such variation are due to the nature of trafficking and the
methodological difficulties in collection data, statistics and
information on the issue.
Some researches estimate that every year 1 to 2 million
women – men and children are trafficked worldwide,
around 225,000 of them are from South Asia (India, Nepal,
Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Bhutan).
Other estimates show that over the last 30 years, trafficking
for sexual exploitation alone has victimized some 30 million
Asian women and children.
VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
12 million Africans slaves moved to America in 400 years
30 million trafficked women in South East Asia in the last
USA estimates that 75,000 women and children are
illegally brought into the US annually for forced prostitution
and other forma of slave labor (from all over the world
including Africa, Asia, India, Eastern Europe, Latin
America, Russia, Canada, etc).
INDIA: Est. 2-3 million people trafficked
More than 17,000 women and children are victims of
trafficking in Greece today. Most victims come from
Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria and Albania.
HOW VICTIMS ARE TRAFFICKED?
Traffickers use force, fraud and coercion to compel
women, men and children to engage in these
FORCE: Involves the use of rape, beatings and
confinement to control victims.
Forceful violence is used especially during the early
stages of victimization, known as the “seasoning
process”, which is used to break victims resistant to
make them easier to control
Involves threats of serious harm to, or physical
restrain of, any person,
- any scheme plan or pattern intended to cause a
person to believe that failure to performer an act
would result in serious harm to or physical restrain
against any person or
- the abuse threatened abuse of the legal process.
FRAUD: Involves false offers that include people
into trafficking situations.
For example women and children will reply to
advertisements promising jobs as waitresses, maids
and dancers in other countries and are then
trafficked for purposes of prostitution once they
arrive at their destinations
Trafficking Vs. Migrant Smuggling
Victims either do not Migrant smuggling
consent to their situation includes those who consent
Ongoing exploitation of to being smuggled
victims to generate illicit Smuggling Is a breach of
profits for the traffickers the integrity of a nation's
Trafficking need not entail borders
the physical movement of a Smuggling is always
person (entail the transnational
exploitation for labor or
Factors for trafficking
The factors underlying the decision to leave home may be
classified into two groups.
Firstly, the role of the 'push' factors, in other words
factors in the home country such as poverty,
unemployment, repression, natural disasters and
war, which should not be underestimated.
Secondly, there are 'pull' factors in Western
countries that attract people, such as “democracy”
“freedom” and “employment opportunities”.
The causes of trafficking
The causes of human trafficking are complex and often
reinforce each other.
the attraction of perceived higher standards of living
lack of employment opportunities
violence against women and children
discrimination against women
Low levels of education
Family and social pressures
Natural disasters (the case of Indian Ocean Tsunami,2004)
In the aftermath of December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean
Tsunami, there were sporadic reports of sexual abuse,
kidnapping, and trafficking in persons in the countries
devastated by the tsunami.
Thousands of orphanage children where vulnerable to
exploitation by criminal elements seeking profite from their
The victims and their problems …..
They don’t speak the language of the country of destination
They are often confined to room or small space where they
eat, work and sleep.
They fear and don’t trust many providers, the government
or the police. Often traffickers tell their victims that they
are in the United States illegally, and they will be arrested
and deported if they try to get help.
Victims may feel that their current situation is their fault,
and they are guilty about it.
Trafficking victims may develop loyalties and positive
feelings toward their trafficker as way to cope with their
situation – known as the Stockholm or Syndrome.
Traffickers frequently move their victims to escape
detection. As a result, trafficking victims may not even
know what city or country they’re in.
Victims of trafficking also fear for the safety of their
family members in their native country, who are often
threatened by the traffickers.
It is hard to imagine that in the twenty first century
human beings could be exploited and force to work
in the sex industry and other industries.
Human trafficking is a crime against the basic
dignity and the rights of the human person.
All efforts must be expended to end it.