Trafficking Introduction

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					 TRAFFICKING
The silent slavery
  Slavery has been abolished in
 most countries in the 1800s, but it
  still exists in the world today in
            different forms.
After drug trafficking, human trafficking is tied
 with the illegal arms trade as the second largest
          criminal industry in the world
                        and
              is the fastest growing.
         WHAT IS HUMAN TRAFFICKING?

   Human trafficking is a form of modern day slavery

   Sexual, Labour, forced Marriage, organ Transplant, Camel
    Jockey.

   Victims exploited for commercial sex or labor purposes

   Traffickers use force, fraud, and coercion

   Victims are young children, teenagers men and women.
           Trafficking in Persons Defined
  The United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and
  Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and
       Children defines trafficking in persons as:


   The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or
  receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or
     other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of
    deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of
 vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or
 benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control
    over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of
     the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual
 exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices
   similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
     DEFINITION OF "SEVERE FORMS OF
        TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS"
The Trafficking Victims Protection Act defines "severe
  form of trafficking in persons" as
 (a) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is
  induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the
  person induced to perform such an act has not attained
  18 years of age; or
 (b) the recruitment, harboring, transportation,
  provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services,
  through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the
  purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage,
  debt bondage, or slavery.
    Definition of Terms Used in the Term "Severe
          Forms of Trafficking in Persons"
   "Sex trafficking" means the recruitment, harboring,
    transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person
    for the purpose of a commercial sex act.

   "Commercial sex act" means any sex act on
    account of which anything of value is given to or
    received by any person.
   "Involuntary servitude" includes a condition of
    servitude induced by means of:

    (a) any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause
    a person to believe that, if the person did not
    enter into or continue in such condition, that
    person or another person would suffer serious
    harm or physical restraint;
                         or
    (b) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal
    process.
   "Debt bondage“. Victims trafficking are often
    subjected to debt-bondage, usually in the context
    of paying off transportation fees into the
    destination countries.
    Victims do not realize that their debts are often
    legally unenforceable.
     In many cases the victims are trapped into a cycle
    of debt because they have to pay for all living
    expenses in addition to the initial transportation
    expenses.
    Most victims rarely see the money they are
    supposedly earning and many they don’t know the
    specific amount of debt.
    "Coercion" means:
     (a) threats of serious harm to or physical restraint
     against any person;
     (b) any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause a
     person to believe that failure to perform an act
     would result in serious harm to or physical
     restraint against any person; or,
    (c) the abuse or threatened abuse of the legal
     process.
Forms of exploitation in the country of destination


    Sexual exploitation
    Economic exploitation
    Domestic workers
    Sweatshops (garment and textiles sectors, etc.)
    Catering and services sector
    Begging and street peddling
    Sports
                 Other forms…..?
   Illegal adoption, baby selling and trafficking

   Child sex tourist
    (Each year more than a million children are
    exploited in the global commercial sex trade. Child
    sex tourism involves people who travel from their
    own country to another and engage in commercial
    sex acts with children)
           WHAT IS SEX TRAFFICKING?



   The recruitment, harboring, transporting, provision or
    obtaining of a person of a commercial sex act, in which the
    commercial sex act is inducted by force, fraud or coercion,
    or in which the person forced to perform such an act is
    under the age of 18 years
       WHAT IS LABOR TRAFFICKING?

   The recruitment, harboring, transporting, provision or
    obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use
    of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of subjection
    to involuntary servitude, debt bondage or slavery.

   Victims can be found in domestic situations as nannies or
    maids, sweatshop factories, construction sites, farm work,
    restaurants, etc
            VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
   Estimations of the number of people trafficked each year
    vary from tens of thousands to millions.
   Such variation are due to the nature of trafficking and the
    methodological difficulties in collection data, statistics and
    information on the issue.
   Some researches estimate that every year 1 to 2 million
    women – men and children are trafficked worldwide,
    around 225,000 of them are from South Asia (India, Nepal,
    Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan and Bhutan).
   Other estimates show that over the last 30 years, trafficking
    for sexual exploitation alone has victimized some 30 million
    Asian women and children.
           VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
   12 million Africans slaves moved to America in 400 years
   30 million trafficked women in South East Asia in the last
    10 years
    USA estimates that 75,000 women and children are
    illegally brought into the US annually for forced prostitution
    and other forma of slave labor (from all over the world
    including Africa, Asia, India, Eastern Europe, Latin
    America, Russia, Canada, etc).
   INDIA: Est. 2-3 million people trafficked
   More than 17,000 women and children are victims of
    trafficking in Greece today. Most victims come from
    Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria and Albania.
     HOW VICTIMS ARE TRAFFICKED?
    Traffickers use force, fraud and coercion to compel
        women, men and children to engage in these
                           activities

   FORCE: Involves the use of rape, beatings and
    confinement to control victims.
    Forceful violence is used especially during the early
    stages of victimization, known as the “seasoning
    process”, which is used to break victims resistant to
    make them easier to control
    COERCION:
    Involves threats of serious harm to, or physical
     restrain of, any person,
    - any scheme plan or pattern intended to cause a
     person to believe that failure to performer an act
     would result in serious harm to or physical restrain
     against any person or
    - the abuse threatened abuse of the legal process.
   FRAUD: Involves false offers that include people
    into trafficking situations.

    For example women and children will reply to
    advertisements promising jobs as waitresses, maids
    and dancers in other countries and are then
    trafficked for purposes of prostitution once they
    arrive at their destinations
          Trafficking Vs. Migrant Smuggling
       TRAFFICKING                      SMUGGLING
   Victims either do not            Migrant smuggling
    consent to their situation        includes those who consent
   Ongoing exploitation of           to being smuggled
    victims to generate illicit      Smuggling Is a breach of
    profits for the traffickers       the integrity of a nation's
   Trafficking need not entail       borders
    the physical movement of a       Smuggling is always
    person (entail the                transnational
    exploitation for labor or
    commercial sex)
               Factors for trafficking
    The factors underlying the decision to leave home may be
                    classified into two groups.


   Firstly, the role of the 'push' factors, in other words
    factors in the home country such as poverty,
    unemployment, repression, natural disasters and
    war, which should not be underestimated.

   Secondly, there are 'pull' factors in Western
    countries that attract people, such as “democracy”
    “freedom” and “employment opportunities”.
            The causes of trafficking
      The causes of human trafficking are complex and often
                          reinforce each other.
   poverty
   the attraction of perceived higher standards of living
    elsewhere
   lack of employment opportunities
   organized crime
   violence against women and children
   discrimination against women
   government corruption
   political instability
   armed conflict
   Low levels of education
   Family and social pressures
   Natural disasters (the case of Indian Ocean Tsunami,2004)

    In the aftermath of December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean
    Tsunami, there were sporadic reports of sexual abuse,
    kidnapping, and trafficking in persons in the countries
    devastated by the tsunami.

    Thousands of orphanage children where vulnerable to
    exploitation by criminal elements seeking profite from their
    misery.
    The victims and their problems …..
   They don’t speak the language of the country of destination

   They are often confined to room or small space where they
    eat, work and sleep.

   They fear and don’t trust many providers, the government
    or the police. Often traffickers tell their victims that they
    are in the United States illegally, and they will be arrested
    and deported if they try to get help.

 Victims may feel that their current situation is their fault,
  and they are guilty about it.
   Trafficking victims may develop loyalties and positive
    feelings toward their trafficker as way to cope with their
    situation – known as the Stockholm or Syndrome.

 Traffickers frequently move their victims to escape
  detection. As a result, trafficking victims may not even
  know what city or country they’re in.

 Victims of trafficking also fear for the safety of their
  family members in their native country, who are often
  threatened by the traffickers.
                    CONCLUSION
   It is hard to imagine that in the twenty first century
    human beings could be exploited and force to work
           in the sex industry and other industries.

       Human trafficking is a crime against the basic
         dignity and the rights of the human person.

            All efforts must be expended to end it.

				
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posted:6/20/2012
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