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					 Internally assessed standards
     - Digital technologies

                    Malcolm Howard
National Technology Professional Development Facilitator
                 (Digital Technologies)
                        July 2011
            Aim of this session
Clarify key messages around the requirements of
the internally assessed digital technologies
standards for:
Digital information – 1.41
Digital media – 1.42 and 1.43
Computer Science and programming – 1.45 & 1.46
   Knowledge and skills standards
The Specialist Categories of Technology part of
the matrix (which is where the Digital
Technologies standards are) has two ‘types’ of
standards:
• Skills standards
  (Implement or construct...)
• Knowledge standards
  (Demonstrate understanding of...)
 The digital technologies standards
Aspect               Knowledge   Skills
                     standards   standards
Digital information  1.40        1.41
Digital media        1.42        1.43
Computer science and 1.44        1.45, 1.46
programming
Electronics          1.47        1.48, 1.49
Infrastructure       1.50        1.51
   Skills standards - Key messages
• Can be done within or outside tech practice
• Can be quite teacher directed
• Level one only requires basic procedures
  (level two is advanced procedures, level three
  is complex procedures)
• Step ups at level one are:
  A = implement basic procedures
  M = skilfully implement basic procedures
  E = efficiently implement basic procedures
Knowledge standards – key messages
• Can be done within or outside tech practice
• Can be quite teacher directed
• Level one only requires basic concepts (level
  two is advanced concepts, level three is
  complex concepts)
• Step ups are:
  A = demonstrate understanding of basic concepts
  M = demonstrate in-depth understanding of...
  E = demonstrate comprehensive understanding of...
          Sources of information
•   The registered standard (NZQA site)
•   Conditions of assessment (tki site)
•   Assessment resources (tki site)
•   The teaching and learning guide (tki site)
•   Other resources (eg NZACDITT site)
     Conditions of assessment




http://legacy.tki.org.nz/e/community/ncea
/conditions-assessment.php
            Assessment resources
                               Check you are using a
                               ‘final published version’
                               rather than a planning
                               draft




http://www.tki.org.nz/e/community/ncea/tech-lvl1.php
Digital submissions for moderation
NZQA have guidelines for preparing digital
submissions for moderation.
• formats, file types etc
• cover sheet

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/qualifications-
standards/qualifications/ncea/subjects/preparing
-digital-visual-submissions-for-moderation/
1.41 Produce a digital info outcome
Key points:
• This is a practical skills standard
• Produce a specified digital information outcome
• Use two of the four software types listed
• Techniques listed are “may include but not
  limited to”
• Basic procedures + data integrity procedures
• There is not an expectation for lots of
  documentation for these skills standards
         1.41 Basic procedures
• Basic procedures only
  (level two is advanced procedures, level three
  is complex procedures)
• Refer to the draft level two and three
  standards on tki to see what types of things
  are listed as advanced or complex procedures
    1.41 Conditions of assessment
This evidence may be generated from discussion, decision
making and/or reflection, teacher observation of procedures
and the presentation of the final product..

Assessors must closely supervise stages of the implementation
process in order to ensure authenticity of student work.


http://legacy.tki.org.nz/e/community/ncea/conditions-
assessment.php
  Conditions of assessment cont...
The assessor provides opportunities for students to develop
evidence for the standard by:
– ensuring that the outcome specifications, software and
   techniques to be used have been determined prior to the
   outcome being made. These may be teacher-given or
   developed in negotiation with the student
– ensuring software resources and techniques provide
   sufficient rigour to allow the student to meet the standard

(See Conditions of assessment document for the full list of
conditions of assessment)
                 Achieved
• Apply a set of techniques
• Select appropriate software and features
• Apply file management procedures
• Design elements and/or formatting
  techniques
• Data integrity and testing procedures
• Legal, ethical, moral responsibilities
                  The techniques
The set of techniques to be applied in spreadsheet software may
include but are not limited to:
• formatting cells to match data types, inserting/deleting rows
   and columns, entering formulae, using operators, replicating
   formulae, using simple functions such as sum, minimum,
   maximum, average, and if statements
• using absolute and relative cell references, sorting data,
   producing charts/graphs
• using headers/footers and page set-up features
• creating charts/graphs.

Refer explanatory note 6.
Data integrity and testing procedures
 Will be different depending on type of
 application used. May include such things as:
 • Checking data entry
 • Proofreading
 • Print preview
 • Checking formulae in spreadsheets
 • Reviewing results of database queries
 • etc
           Clarifications document
For this standard it is quite acceptable for the teacher to give
the student all of the text content. Alternatively a student may
download suitable text from the Internet. For either option they
must address any copyright issues. Students are not being
assessed on their literacy or numeracy skills in this standard;
rather they will be assessed on their ability to create a digital
information outcome by manipulating information, and
combining two programs.

http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/qualifications-
standards/qualifications/ncea/subjects/computing-digital-
technologies/clarifications-2/clarification-of-digital-technology-
achievement-standards/
           Other clarifications
• Design elements does not need to step up
  from A to M to E
• Outcome needs to meet specifications in
  order to achieve so need to be careful about
  what specifications are written into the
  teacher given brief.
               The step ups
• Achieved = implement basic procedures
• Merit = accuracy and independence
• Excellence = economises the use of resources
                    Merit
Showing accuracy and independence:
• Accuracy in the application of techniques
• Accuracy in the application of testing
  procedures
• Independence in decision making in the
  application of techniques
• Independence in decision making in the
  application of testing procedures
                 Excellence
Economises the use of resources. Such things as:
• Timely fashion
• Optimises the specific features of tools
• Efficient finger pathways and keyboard
  shortcuts
• Efficient when printing
• Efficient file management procedures
               1.41 Activity
• Do you understand the requirements for
  achieved?

• What do you expect students to do for merit
  (accuracy and independence)?

• What do you expect students to do for
  excellence (economises the use of resources)?
   1.42 Concepts of digital media
Key points:
• This is a knowledge standard (as compared to
  a skills standard)
• Students produce a report on a digital media
  outcome
• This standard doesn’t require the production
  of a digital media outcome
• The digital media outcome studied must
  demonstrate integration of digital media types
    1.42 Conditions of assessment
This evidence may be generated from discussion, individual
research, decision making and/or reflection and will be
presented as a separate report produced in any media that
clearly communicates the student’s understanding of basic
concepts of digital media.

Assessors must closely supervise the generation of the evidence
in order to ensure authenticity of student work.


http://legacy.tki.org.nz/e/community/ncea/conditions-
assessment.php
  Conditions of assessment cont...
The assessor provides opportunities for students to
develop evidence for the standard by:
– providing students with the opportunity to explore a
    range of digital media outcomes in order to discuss
    the software resources, tools, techniques, design
    elements, and ethical considerations used in their
    development.
(See the conditions of assessment document for the full
list of conditions of assessment)
             Clarifications document
• The Conditions of Assessment document states that the assessor should
  provide opportunities for students to explore a range of digital media
  outcomes in order to discuss the software resources, tools, techniques,
  design elements and ethical considerations used in their development.
• Some activities are basing the evidence collection around students
  planning their own outcomes. To achieve at Excellence level
  (comprehensive understanding), a student should look at more than
  their own practice. That is, students would need to demonstrate the
  knowledge from the wider community/existing outcomes that
  influenced/s their decision- making to produce their digital outcome.

• http://www.nzqa.govt.nz/qualifications-
  standards/qualifications/ncea/subjects/computing-digital-
  technologies/clarifications-2/clarification-of-digital-technology-
  achievement-standards/
      Concepts of digital media
At achieved need to cover:
• Types of media used
• Software resources used
• Techniques used
• Design elements
• Communication purpose
• Ethical considerations
           Where might it fit?

A teaching module            A report for 1.42 on
on digital media             the concepts of
                             digital media
                             (3 credits internal)




Better understandings that
will inform their own 1.43
project (developing
a digital media outcome)
               The step-ups
• Achieved = identify and describe
• Merit = describe and explain
• Excellence = explaining and discussing
                   Explain
• Explaining how software resources and
  techniques used affected the technical quality
  of a digital media outcome.
• One approach to assist students is to provide
  suitable sentence starters.
                   Discuss
• Discussing why the distinguishing
  characteristics of a digital media outcome
  support its communication purpose.
• Discussing why software resources and
  techniques were used to create a digital media
  outcome and how they affected its technical
  quality.
                1.42 Activity
• Look at the standard and the assessment
  resource - do you understand the
  requirements for A-M-E?
• Discuss strategies to help students ‘explain’ or
  ‘discuss’.
• Discuss how the requirements of 1.42 and
  1.43 are complimentary in a digital media
  unit.
1.43 Produce a digital media outcome
 Key points:
 • This is a practical skills standard
 • Specified outcome to be produced
 • Basic procedures only
 • Incorporates original content
 • Integrate digital media types
 • Data integrity procedures
 • Design elements
    1.43 Conditions of assessment
Evidence for this achievement standard would be expected to be
gathered from in-class and homework activities over a period of
time specified by the assessor. This evidence may be generated
from discussion, decision making and/or reflection, teacher
observation of procedures and the presentation of the final
product and collectively demonstrates the student’s ability to
implement basic procedures to produce a digital media
outcome.
http://legacy.tki.org.nz/e/community/ncea/conditions-
assessment.php
  Conditions of assessment cont...
The assessor provides opportunities for students to develop
evidence for the standard by:
• ensuring that the outcome specifications, software and
   techniques to be used have been determined prior to the
   outcome being made. These may be teacher-given or
   developed in negotiation with the student
• ensuring the media types and techniques provide sufficient
   rigour to allow the student to meet the standard

(See COA document for the full list of conditions of assessment)
             Original content
• Must include original content
• But not all content must be original
• Can be original graphics, audio, video photos,
  original web pages or desktop published
  documents (without use of templates) etc
• Best to steer away from altering or developing
  an existing graphic
               The step-ups
• Achieved = implement basic procedures
• Merit = accuracy and independence
• Excellence = economises the use of resources
                    Merit
Showing accuracy and independence:
• Accuracy in the application of techniques
• Accuracy in the application of testing
  procedures
• Independence in decision making in the
  application of techniques
• Independence in decision making in the
  application of testing procedures
                Excellence
Economises the use of resources
• Timely fashion
• Optimises the specific features of tools
For example...
• Used planning to make most efficient use of
  resources (including time)
• Optimise images for space considerations
• Efficient and commented code
               1.43 Activity
• Do you understand the requirements for
  achieved?

• What do you expect students to do for merit
  (accuracy and independence)?

• What do you expect students to do for
  excellence (economises the use of resources)?
1.45 Construct an algorithmic structure
 Key points:
 • Task is specified
 • Involves two kinds of information
 • Requires a combination of all of sequential,
   iterative, conditional algorithmic structures
 • Does NOT require coding the program
 • Can use natural language, pseudocode, or
   diagrams
                 1.45 merit
• Achieved plus...
• Using iterative structures nested inside other
  iterative structures
           1.45 excellence
Merit plus...
Using nested structures and complex logical
expressions combining multiple components
to express the solution concisely, simply and
clearly
                           1.45 COAs
The assessor provides opportunities for students to develop evidence for the
standard by:
• providing task(s) which allow complex reasoning and give students the
   opportunity to demonstrate excellence
• providing opportunity for students to explore suitable ways of desk
   checking algorithms. For example, in the case of a text or number
   processing algorithm, a listing of the steps and computations may be
   appropriate. For a graphical problem (eg in a Scratch or Alice
   environment), a diagram tracing the movements and actions of the
   characters may be appropriate.


(See Conditions of assessment document for the full list of
conditions of assessment)
http://legacy.tki.org.nz/e/community/ncea/conditions-
assessment.php
               1.45 Activity
• Do you understand the requirements for
  achieved?

• What do you expect students to do for merit
  (nested iterative structures)?

• What do you expect students to do for
  excellence (complex logic)?
       1.46 Computer program
Key points:
• A practical skills standard
• Specified task and algorithmic structure
  provided (or developed previously by the
  student)
• Involves writing the program and testing &
  debugging the program
                   Writing the program
Achieved                  Merit                      Excellence

Sequence                  Sequence                   Sequence

Selection and iteration   Selection and iteration    Selection and iteration
control structures        control structures         control structures

                          Multiple data types        Multiple data types

                          Iteration control          Iteration control
                          structures nested inside   structures nested inside
                          other iteration control    other iteration control
                          structures                 structures

                                                     Structures in which
                                                     complex logical
                                                     conditions are expressed
                                                     economically
           Testing and debugging
Achieved          Merit               Excellence



Expected inputs   Organised testing   Comprehensive
                  and debugging       testing and
                                      debugging
                  Range of inputs
                                      Time efficient
                                      testing and
                                      debugging

                                      All inputs
           Merit = a range of inputs...
Exceptional – These are special cases which may cause the program to have to do
something unusual. The inputs are valid, but not part of the "normal" behaviour.

Out-of-range – Input values that are not valid inputs because they are too large, or too
small, or too long, or too short or too..... If the program is interactive, then it should
probably reject them and require the user to reenter them.

Boundary – Input values that are right at the limit of being too large, too small, too
long, or too short, or too... - they are valid, but because they are right at the end of
the range, programmers may have got their conditions just a little bit wrong.

Invalid Inputs – Input values that are invalid for some other reason than being out of
range, eg, using invalid characters, inconsistent sets of values, wrongly formatted data
in a file, ....
    1.46 Conditions of assessment
The assessor provides opportunities for students to develop
evidence for the standard by:
• providing task(s) which allow complex reasoning and give
   students the opportunity to demonstrate excellence
• ensuring an algorithmic structure or structures are available
   (either provided to the student or created by the student and
   verified by the teacher as of suitable rigour for this standard)

(See COA document for the full list of conditions of assessment)
http://legacy.tki.org.nz/e/community/ncea/conditions-
assessment.php
               1.46 Activity
• Do you understand the requirements for
  achieved?

• What do you expect students to do for merit?

• What do you expect students to do for
  excellence?
                   Activity
• Choose to work on either Digital Information
  and/or Digital Media and/or Computer
  Science and Programming
• Refer back to the activity associated with each
  standard and spend further time on that
  activity?
• Discuss the teaching and learning needed to
  prepare students for the relevant assessment.
        Further information
Malcolm Howard

National Technology Professional
Development Facilitator (Digital Technologies)

mhoward@waikato.ac.nz

				
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