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The Problem Decent into the World of Bla

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The Problem Decent into the World of Bla Powered By Docstoc
					      Metaphor
Using the Science of Learning to
Maximize Teaching & Learning
         Opportunities




                                    Creative
                                    Teaching
                                   Framework
           Workshop Objectives
• Identify the impact of quality teaching on student
  learning
• Identify the science and art of effective teaching
• Analyse 10 core principles of learning
• Utilize a range of resources (including information
  technologies) to construct creative learning designs
  and teaching strategies
• Use the Creative Teaching Framework to teach
  effectively within your personal style
   Teaching Quality – the big factor in
           Student Learning
“…nothing is as important to learning as the quality of a
student’s teacher. The difference between a good teacher and
a bad teacher is so great that fifth-grade students who have
poor teachers in grades three to five score roughly 50
percentile points below similar groups of students who are
fortunate enough to have effective teachers”

           (Izumi, T. L. & Evers, W. M., 2002. Teacher Quality, ix)

“The effect of the teacher far overshadows classroom variables, such as
previous achievement level of students, class size…heterogeneity of
students, and the ethnic and socio-economic makeup of the classroom.”

      (Rivers, C. J. & Sanders, W. L., 2002. Teacher Quality and Equity
                       in Educational Opportunity, p.17)
    What’s Worthwhile about Quality
              Teaching

• Turns many students on to learning

• Makes the job more productive and fun


    “Against boredom even the gods themselves
                 struggle in vain”
                   Friedrich Nietzsche
              Big Questions
1. What are the specific things that teachers do
   that lead students to perceive them as
   Effective & Interesting?

2. How do they do they create Experiences that
   gets these results?
              My Personal View


Making the simple complicated is commonplace; making the
complicated simple, awesomely simple, that's creativity.

                      Charles Mingus
In Awesomely Simple Terms
       (he says hopefully)
       A problem

         solved by

         R-R-S

         which takes
          The Problem: Descent into the World of Bla
         100



 A       80
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 I       40                     Bla
 O
                                      Bla
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(%age)
         20
                                            Bla


              0     15          30                45   60

                         SESSION TIME (minutes)
    Just what you fancy after lunch at 2pm
Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows:
The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly
proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction
as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object

   Then follow this with 40 mins of exposition and equations
Typical Attention Span
   The brain and motivation
(why many students are not well motivated)


Cloniger 1987 argued that 3 neural systems run our lives

  1. The Cortex’s quest for Novelty


  2. The Mid-Brains quest for Pleasure


  3. The Lower-Brains desire to avoid Pain
         It’s in ‘The Experience’
• Much of classroom learning is
  not novel or pleasurable.
  Some may even be painful

• So, how might teachers create
  Experiences which:
   – Add novelty and/or pleasure to
     learning
   – Take away some of the ‘pain’ of
     learning
                  Re-defining the World of Bla
         100



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(%age)
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              0        15          30                45   60

                            SESSION TIME (minutes)
Good Teaching – Science or Art
                The Serial Position Curve
80

70         Primacy Effect


60                                                               Recency Effect

50
                                         von Restorff Effect
40

30

20

     0 1    2   3   4   5   6   7    8   9   10   11   12   13    14   15 16

                                    Position on List
            Psychological Effects

• Primacy Effect (the tendency for the first items
  presented in a series to be remembered better or more
  easily)
• Recency Effect (the tendency for the most
  recently presented items or experiences to be
  remembered best)
• Von Restorff Effect (the tendency to remember
  distinct or novel items and experiences)
                    Model of Human Memory

          E
          N
          V
          I           Sight
          R                                      Working          Long –
                     Hearing
          O           Touch
                                                 Memory           Term
                                                 5-9 bits of
          N           Smell                     information       Memory
          M           Taste
          E
          N
          T                        Forgetting

                                                                Infinite Capacity

Effective transfer from Working Memory to Long –Term Memory is crucial.
This requires information to be well organised, meaningful and sufficiently rehearsed
             Physiology of learning
Learning results in connections between neurons
As we learn neurons connect with each other and pass on
information. At the physiological level, learning results from
the development of connected groups of neurons. As learning is
reinforced, myelin is produced which enhances long term
memory.
    Learning is part of an Holistic System

To learn is not the special province of a single specialized
realm of human functioning such as cognition or perception.
It involves the integrated functioning of the total organism
– thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving.

                      (Kolb, 1995, p.148)



In basic terms, we learn better when we perceive the learning
as useful (e.g., satisfy some important need), believe we can
be successful at it and enjoy it
          Meeting Human Needs
•   Survive and Reproduce
•   Belong – Love, Share and Cooperate
•   Power – Control and Competition
•   Freedom – Autonomy and Choice
•   Fun – Humour and Laughter


           (From the writings of William Glasser)
                 Psychological States
At the psychological level our state is how we think, feel
           and perceive at any given moment.


“The difference between acting badly or brilliantly is not based
on your ability, but on the state of your mind…”

                   Anthony Robbins, 2001



As teachers we can certainly influence the ‘here and now
experience’ and, if we do that well, we can promote better
                    psychological states
             Magic Eggs - Story
“Mum, Mum, you don’t have to buy eggs anymore coz
                I’m laying them”




  “We forget that beliefs are no more than perceptions,
  usually with a limited sell by date, yet we act as though
  they were concrete realities”
                       (Adler, H., 1996)
              Cognitive Dissonance


New experience,    I’m laying eggs
 which creates a                     Existing
perception that…                     Beliefs




                                           Chickens lay eggs
                                           I am not a chicken
              Cognitive Dissonance


New experience,    I can do this
 which creates a                   Existing
perception that…                   Beliefs




                                         I can’t do this
                                         I am not smart
                     Reframing

Reframing refers to putting things in different contexts
(frames or reference), thus giving them different meanings.
Reframing is the essence of creative thinking.


  “If you don’t get the result you want, do
            something different”
                    (Adler, 1996)
        Example of System Behaviour
                        1. Meet Core Needs
           (Survive, Belong, Power, Freedom, Fun – Glasser, 1988)




        Participation                            Buy into the experience
        & Learning

                           Constructing
                            Productive
                            Subjective
                           Experience

3. Reframing              Rapport Building       2. Positive Psychological
                                                    State
         Towards a Science of Learning
There is increasing recognition of a substantive and validated
research base that is beginning to constitute a ‘science of learning’.
For example, Marzano (1992) argued that:

      “…over the past 3 decades, we have amassed enough
      research and theory about learning to derive a truly research
      based-model of instruction” (p.2)

More recently, Darling-Hammond & Bransford (2006), from surveying
the research findings, concluded that:

      There are systematic and principled aspects of effective
      teaching, and there is a base of verifiable evidence of
      knowledge that supports that work in the sense that it is like
      engineering or medicine (p.12)
            Core Principles of Learning
1.   Learning goals, objectives and expectations are clearly
     communicated
2.   Learners’ prior knowledge is activated and connected to new
     learning
3.   Motivational and Attentional strategies are incorporated into
     learning designs
4.   Content is organized around key concepts and principles that are
     fundamental to understanding the key structure of a subject
5.   Self-directed learning is encouraged through facilitating the
     development of good thinking
     Core Principles of Learning [cont’d]
6.    Instructional methods and presentation mediums engage the range
      of human of senses (e.g. visual, auditory, kinaesthetic)
7.    Learning design takes into account the working of memory
      systems
8.    Learner competence is promoted through active and
      experiential learning
9.  A psychological climate is created which is positive, success
    orientated and promotes self-esteem
10. Assessment practices are integrated into the learning design to
    promote desired learning outcomes and provide quality
    feedback
    Core Principles - A Synergetic System
While each principle focuses attention on a key area relating to effective
pedagogy, they are not discrete or separate in that they should be
considered independently of each other. In fact, they are mutually
supporting, interdependent and potentially highly synergetic.

As Stigler & Hiebert (1999) highlight:

        Teaching is a system. It is not a loose mixture of individual
        features thrown together by the teacher. It works more like a
        machine, with the parts operating together and reinforcing
        one another, driving the vehicle forward. (p.75)
          Using Core Principles Thoughtfully
          in the Situated Context of learning
The core principles of learning must always be used thoughtfully
in relation to the following situated factors:

 The specific learning outcomes (e.g., recall of facts, conceptual understanding,
  competence, etc)

Learner characteristics (e.g., motivational level, prior competence, learner
  preferences, etc)

 Learning context and resource availability (e.g., learning environment, facilities,
  resources, etc)

It’s a bit like driving – good drivers are able to adjust
situationally to different and changing driving conditions
                      Teaching as Art?
…no science of teaching exists, or can exist, that will be so prescriptive
as to make teaching routine. The best that we can hope for – and it is
substantial – is to have better tools from science with which teachers
can use their heads.


                         (Eisner, 1995, p.96)
                          What is Creativity?
  A product or response will be judged creative to the extent that it
     is novel, useful or a valuable response to the task at hand.
                          (summarized from Amabile, 1996, p.35)



                                    <>

One dark foggy night in Halifax, as Percy Shaw was driving home, he saw two
small green lights, very close together near the edge of the road. He was curious
so he stopped and saw the ‘lights’ were a pair of cats eyes reflecting the light from
his head lights.
Percy got back in the car full of ideas and subsequently invented a small device
involving two marbles placed close together in a rubber casing; this would then be
set in the road at intervals between the lanes of traffic.

After a year of experiments, Percy patented the invention and then, in 1935,
formed his company, Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. (That’s Innovation & Enterprise)
 Components of Highly Effective Human
             Performance
What is it that top
salespeople have?

        What is it that top
        comedians have?

            What is it that successful
            communicators with the
            opposite sex have?
                                R–R-S
• Results are the outcomes we want in
  any situation (e.g., sell more cars, make
   the audience laugh, get attractive dates)
• Resources are the things we can
  bring into play in order to get our
  desired results
• Strategies are the orchestrated use of
  our resources to get the results we
  desire
             What are the Results, Resources and
             Strategies of Creative Teachers?
                       Creative Teaching
Creative teaching occurs when a teacher combines existing knowledge in
some novel form to get useful results in terms of facilitating student learning.
This may be either planned before the act of teaching, or invented as a
response to the demands of the learning situation


                  How technical am I?
                        Do you know
                      Java script well?
                                         Yes, I do, I once
                                         had a girlfriend
                                          from Jakarta
                    Creative Planning
Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows:
The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly
proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction
as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

                               What would happen to the ball if these
                                  conditions were changed:
                               1. The opposition played a trick on David
                                  and put down a much heavier ball
                               2. David plays a trick on the opposition by
                                  doing extra power training and can now
                                  hit the ball some 10% harder
A Creative Solution – Situated Invention?


      Kolkata Story
  The 4 Results Creative Teachers Seek (and
                 usually get)
                            Create good
                            rapport
Gain attention quickly
    when desired


                                          Make learning
                                             relevant
                                          and meaningful

    Imbue positive beliefs and
       psychological states
                 Importance of these Results
• Its biologically impossible to learn anything that you’re not paying
  attention to; the attentional mechanism drives the whole learning and
  memory process” (Robert Sylwester, 1998)

• “Rapport is the ultimate tool for producing results with other people”
   (Anthony Robbins, 2001)


• “If you think you can or think you can’t, you’re right” (Henry Ford)

• “The difference between acting badly or brilliantly is not based on your
  ability, but on the state of your mind…” (Anthony Robbins, 2001)

• “The more we make school learning like real life, the more the brain, with
  its rich capabilities, will sort it out” (Eric Jensen, 1997)
 How Creative Teachers get these Results -
               (SHAPE)
• Stories told to provide context, understanding and emotional
  anchors
• Humour used to achieve rapport and provide novelty
• Activities provided to integrate, apply and consolidate learning
• Presentation style employed (e.g., words, tone, body language
  – as well as observation and listening) to provide clarity,
  meaning and influence student attention, beliefs and
  psychological states
• Examples used to illustrate facts, concepts, principles,
  procedures

     …and    use these Resources Creatively
           The Power of SHAPE
“We understand everything in human life through stories”
                    (Jean-Paul Sartre)

“Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain”
                    (Edward De Bono)

“Learning activities are the best and most productive way
to learn”
                    (Lambert and Coombs)

“The meaning of your communication is the response
that you get”
                     (Bandler & Grinder)

“A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their
concentration and effort”
                       (Wlodkowski)
                   Re-defining the World of Bla
                             Where X = ?
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                             SESSION TIME (minutes)
             The Wolf – Stag Effect



Run
      Rest   Run          Run
                   Rest




      Wolves and stags are equally fast. In a chase
      situation the stags run continually, but the wolves
      stop for rests. Do the stags usually escape?
Resources (SHAPE) to use Strategically and Creatively
            to Make Teaching Interesting

• Tell Stories that provide context for learning, create emotional
  anchors and model good dispositions
• Use Humour to provide novelty, illustrate learning and
  promote rapport
• Reinforce content knowledge and make learning meaningful
  through challenging but achievable Activities
• Maximise your Presentation Style to get attention, convey
  meaning, imbue positive beliefs and enhance psychological
  states
• Use relevant Examples to clearly illustrate concepts and
  principles
                              tactics to create more Primacy,
                     (Wolf-like
                     Recency and von Restorff effects)
    Metaphor for Creative Teaching



CREATIVE TEACHING COMPETENCE




          H               P
                                     E
                 A
S



     CORE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
      Developing your Creative Teaching
                Competence:
• Desire to teach creatively
• Understand the science and art of creative teaching
• Develop a wide range of Resources, be able to Reframe and
  create interesting Strategies (get into great SHAPE)
• Willingness to take some risks
• Do it – Be the Best You Can (Total Pedagogy)
A bit like a creative life
   “Dying is tragic, but dying without having actually ever
                 lived is the ultimate tragedy”
                          Eric Fromm
       Modelling SHAPE Resources
Select a Resource Area below and model what it takes to develop
highly effective use. Follow the question templates provided in
the following slides:
•   Stories
•   Humour
•   Activities
•   Presentation Style
•   Examples
                               Stories
        “We understand everything in human life through stories”
                           Jean-Paul Sartre

What are the different ways
in which stories can be used
to promote effective
learning?

How to tell stories for
effective learning impact?


Where can I get useful
stories to make my lessons
more interesting?
                                Humour
  “Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain”
                                (Edward De Bono)

What are the different types
of humour that can be used in
the classroom?
What are the different
purposes for using humour in
teaching?
How to use humour
effectively?

Where can I get resources of
humour that will work for
me?
                               Activities
      “learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn”
                           (Lambert and Coombs, 1998)
What are the different types
of activities I could use?


What is important in
designing and managing
activities?



Where do I get relevant
activities that will be
challenging but achievable
for the students I teach?
                          Presentation Style
           “The meaning of your communication is the response
                 that you get” (Bandler & Grinder, 1990)

What are the various aspects of
a persons presentation style that
make it effective in creating
and maintaining interest?




How can I develop a
presentation style that is both
effective and fits my
personality?
                               Examples
“A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort”
                           (Wlodkowski, 1999)


  What makes an example a
  good example?



  When is it most effective
  to use examples?



  Where can I get good
  examples for the topics I
  teach?
      Online Learning in the Creative Teaching
                    Framework
The core principles that underpin good learning design in the face-to-
face learning context are equally applicable to designing and managing
learning in the online environment. Learning online does not change
the way the human brain functions or the basic processes of learning.

Colvin Clarke (2005) illustrates this fundamental point when he argued
that:
   The most robust instructional principles are those based on a model of
   human psychological learning processes….Any given instructional method
   will be effective or ineffective depending on the extent to which it supports
   or disrupts basic-learning psychological processes regardless of the
   delivery media. (p.594)
                 And...get the learning design into
                            great SHAPE
     Online Versus Face-to-Face




Apart from the anytime, anyplace benefits…

…what else can the online environment offer that
creates learning opportunities beyond that of the
typical face-to-face classroom context?
  Hyperlink the ‘Killer’ online feature?

“…the hyperlink, which is practicably without counterpart in the physical
world of traditional academics. Within an internet document, hyperlinks
are used to bring multisourced information into the primary text or to give
the reader a path to alternative media. In essence, this eliminates the
physical separation of material messages that are logically connected.
In addition to text, hyperlinked messages may be pictures, sound files,
animations, or video clips. External links can refer students to other
information-rich Internet sites, including personal Web pages, specialized
bibliographies, and professional specialists”

                 (Hamilton, S. & Zimmerman, S., 2002, p.270)
                Utilizing online capability
Firstly, it is important to be aware of what unique capabilities are
provided by online technologies. These are typically:
• Anytime, anyplace access to online resources
• Hyperlinked multi-modal, dynamic content
• Global social networking

Secondly, it is necessary to identify specific technologies and their
potential learning enhancement capabilities (e.g., which e- tools can
enhance specific aspects of learning, for what learners, how and in
what contexts, etc?). In that an e-tool support any of the core
principles, there are possible enhancement to aspects of the learning
process.
       To O or not to O? – that is the
                 Question
1.   Will the online components enhance the quality of student
     learning (e.g., increase the potential learning effectiveness
     for a group of learners – based on how the design positively
     impacts core principles and SHAPE)?

2.   What are the relative costs in resources (e.g., money, time,
     etc) in using online components as compared to face-to-face
     teaching? We may be prepared to trade-off some
     effectiveness for significant gains in efficiency (e.g., in the
     case of motivated distance learners)
                             Stories
    “We understand everything in human life through stories”
                          Jean-Paul Sartre

What are the different ways in which Introduce a topic/concept; Illustrate
stories can be used to promote       key concepts and/or principles in real
effective learning?                  world contexts-enhance
                                        understanding; Create emotional
                                        anchors for learning; Model good
                                        attitudes and dispositions; Build
                                        rapport
What is important in telling stories?   Clear lively presentation; Relevance
                                        to the topic; Timing and emphasis of
                                        key learning point(s) in story; Involve
                                        students; Draw out relevance if
                                        necessary; Sensitivities
Where can I get useful stories to       Experience; Colleagues, Newspapers;
make my lessons more interesting?       Books; Students, Internet; Folk tales;
                                        Industry journals/personnel;
                                        TV/Videos
                                  Humour
      “Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain”
                              Edward De Bono


What are the different types of    Jokes; Riddles; Anecdotes; Cartoons;
humour that can be used in the     Stories; One-liners, Body Language;
classroom?                         Impersonations; Funny’ objects
What are the different purposes    Get attention; Change psychological
for using humour in teaching?      state; Icebreaker for new class; Break
                                   up periods of teacher talk; Illustrate a
                                   fact, concept or principle; Build rapport
What must we consider carefully    Political correctness (ethnicity, gender,
before using humour?               sexuality); Timing; Presentation style

Where can I get resources of       Experience; Colleagues; Internet; Joke
humour that will work for me?      books; Journals; Newspapers; TV;
                                   videos; Create; Watch and learn from a
                                   comedian – model jokes and style
                                  Activities
      “Learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn”
                              Lambert and Coombs

What are the different types of        Specific learning tasks; Quizzes;
activities?                            Competitions; Projects; Visits; Forums;
                                       Simulations; Cases; Work experience;
                                       Brain gym/puzzles; Experiments; Role
                                       play; Songs
What is important in designing and     Relevant to learning outcomes;
managing activities?                   Challenging but achievable; Real life;
                                       Meet logistic/support demands; Clear
                                       notes of guidance for students;
                                       Assessment opportunities; Clear
                                       instructions; Create atmosphere;
                                       Maintaining interest and discipline;
                                       Resources allocation and use;
                                       Monitoring
Where do I get relevant activities that Produce; Colleagues; Resource centres,
will be challenging but achievable for Internet; Local community/industry;
the students I teach?                   Various media
                          Presentation Style
           “The meaning of your communication is the response
                             that you get”
                                  Bandler & Grinder
What are the various aspects of Clarity and Pace of delivery; Tone of voice;
a persons presentation style that Supporting body language; Variety of style;
make it effective in creating     Eye contact with audience; Movement
and maintaining interest?




How can I develop a                   Prepare well; Observe effective presenters;
presentation style that is both       Receive feedback from good presenters;
effective and fits my                 Watch videos of highly effective presenters;
personality?                          Practice, evaluate and modify
                               Examples
“A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort”
                                Wlodkowski

  What makes an example a good         Relevant to concept, principle, skill
  example?                             being taught; Students can relate to
                                       it through their own experiences; It
                                       has a strong real life current
                                       impact. These provide maximum
                                       opportunity for understanding
  When is it most effective to use     Before or immediately following
  examples?                            the teaching of a concept, principle
                                       procedure or skill; When concepts
                                       are abstract or difficult to visualise

  Where can I get good examples for Resource centres, Books, Industry
  the topics I teach?               journals, Own experiences,
                                    Colleagues, Internet, Create
                                    yourself, Commercial packages

				
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