Wind energy by l0357Py8

VIEWS: 30 PAGES: 34

									     Wind energy in
        Tenerife
    (Canary Islands)

                   By:
        Darias, Laura
        De Iturrate, María
        García, Leticia
        González, Yolanda Mª
        Hernández, Marlene
        Mendoza, Alejandra

“Parral de otoño”, representing the
  image of the surrealist painter
         Óscar Domínguez


   IES TACORONTE-ÓSCAR DOMÍNGUEZ
The Canary Islands and the west African coast
IES TACORONTE – ÓSCAR DOMÍNGUEZ
       Introduction
We extract essential resources
from the environment and have
the obligation to preserve and
exploit it in a sustainable manner.

In order to progress we produce,
process and consume energy in
various forms.

Most are obtained from burning
fossil fuels which produce large
quantities of carbon dioxide, one
of the most aggressive gases for
our atmosphere.
                  Global warming
A major problem that our planet
faces is the global warming of the
earth, because of the greenhouse
gases.

We must search for new forms of
alternative energy production: clean
and renewable energies that do not
contaminate.

Among others we have the solar energy, a vital source for
many of the natural phenomena and an essential part of
the ecological cycle for life on earth.
       Renewable sources of energy are:


•   The sun: solar energy.
•   The wind: wind energy.
•   Rivers and freshwater streams: hydropower.
•   Seas and oceans: tidal power.
•   Heat of The Earth: geothermal energy.
•   Waves: tidal power.
     Solar energy:
The solar energy is the main source of energy on Earth:

• The Sun is responsible for the formation of the winds, where
we obtain the wind energy from.

• It produces the evaporation of water. With the precipitations
the water comes back to the surface and fill reservoirs, where
hydropower will be extracted from.

• It is indispensable for the plants to perform the photosynthesis
and be used as biomass.

• It plays a vital role in the formation of waves, tides and in the
warming of sea water.
                                       ITER
TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE FOR RENEWABLE ENERGIES
                                   The ITER is in Granadilla, on the South coast of
                                   Tenerife.

                                    The objectives of ITER are:

                                    •Systems Development for the use of
                                    renewable energy.
                                    • Project Coordination of R&D in energy made
                                    in the Canary Islands.
                                    •Creation of infrastructure for the development
                                    of the engineering, local industry and
                                    investigation in other areas.
                                    •The export of know-how to other countries and
                                    archipelagos.
 •Promoting relations with the scientific community.
 •Scientific and technical training of staff in renewable energies.
Its latest project is a new photovoltaic park, which will reduce air pollution
and represent a reduction of over 10,000 tons of carbon dioxide, in addition
to providing power to nearly 5,000 homes.




The Canary Islands have the ideal conditions for the exploitation of this
kind of energy: Subtropical climate, many hours of sun and the winds.
             The wind as a source of energy

The wind occurs when there is a
temperature difference between the air
of one region and another. Because of
its lower density, the hotter air mass
rises, leaving a space that is occupied
by the mass of cold air. The wind is the
result of the displacement of cold air.


The wind speed is determined by the
amount of kinetic energy of the air
mass; more speed, more kinetic
energy the wind has.
   Since the 90s this type of
energy has been developed
demonstrating its viability in
economical terms and
reaffirmed as energy for the
future.




  The wind energy is currently the renewable energy
  with higher growth and it already represents a large
  part of the electricity production.
The kinetic energy of the wind is transformed into
electrical energy through the wind turbines. The wind
turbine is a mechanical system of rotation provided
with blades that with the kinetic energy of the winds
moves a generator connected to the driving system.



There are two different
models of wind turbines
depending on the location
of the generator.

The system of operation is
the same for both types.
                 Types of wind turbines
Horizontal axis turbine

                  The rotor is attached to a
                  support where the generator is
                  situated, both on a tower that
                  can be of metal or concrete.
                                                   Vertical axis turbine

                          The generator is
                          located at the base
                          of the tower.
                          Easier to maintain
                          but the
                          performance is
                          lower.
                Location of wind farms

The best location is near the coast, where constant moderate winds blow
regularly.




  A wind speed of more than 30 Km. /H is needed for the operation of
  the installation.
Types of wind installations


                 There are two types:

                 Isolated
                 These are not
                 connected to the
                 electricity network.
                 They are small-scale
                 facilities for a small
                 scale use.
  Wind farms
Formed by a set of wind
turbines that are
connected to the
electricity network.
They are facilities of
large dimensions located
in places where the wind
speed is adequate.
They allow to obtain at
least 1 Megawatt of
power.
        The advantages of wind energy:

•Clean
•Renewable
•Slows down the
depletion of fossil fuels
•Cheap
•Optimum exploitation
of natural resources
•Profitable

Each Kwh. of electricity generated by wind energy
instead of coal avoids:
•1.33 Grams of SO2, sulfur dioxide.
•0.60 Kg of CO2, carbon dioxide
•1.67 Grams of NOx, rust of nitrogen.
Disadvantages of wind energy:

              •Big and expensive
              machinery is needed.

              •It deteriorates the
              landscape because of the
              visual impact.

              •The noise.

              •Mortality of birds caused by
              impact against the blades.
                 The Canary Islands
Location: Atlantic Ocean, between
the 27º-37' and 29º-25' north latitude
and 13º-20' and 18º-10' west
longitude. 100km NW of Africa,
1,150km SW of the Iberian Peninsula

                                         Population:
                                         around 2 million




                      Area: 7,492
                      square
                      kilometres
                        Climate
The subtropical climate is characterized by mild
temperatures and scarce and irregular precipitations.

Other factors that affect the climate are:
• Latitude
• Irregular relief
• Cold oceanic current
• Proximity to Africa
• Trade winds
       The wind power in the Canary Islands
The Canary Islands want to commit
seriously to the renewable energies,
looking for clean and ecological energy,
and total autonomy of supply.

There has been a great progress
in the production of wind farms in recent
years.

The Canary Islands have a great
advantage because of the influence of the
trade winds.

The trade winds are constant winds of NE
direction, humid because of the marine
influence. The trade winds are stronger in
the summer than in the winter.
The speed of these winds range between 6 and 25 Km/H.

There are 15 wind farms on the islands, and in the first six
months of 2008 they produced 90,119 megawatt hours. The
total power reaches 59.6 megawatts.

There are 5 wind farms in Gran Canaria, 5 in Tenerife, 2 in
La Palma and 1 in Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and La
Gomera.
The most powerful wind farms in the Canary
                 Islands


Finca Mogán (Tenerife)
producing 16.5
megawatts of power.

Cañada de la Barca
(Fuerteventura)
producing 10.2
megawatts of power.

Los Valles (Lanzarote)
with 7.2 megawatts.
                    Wind farms in Tenerife


There are five active wind farms in
Tenerife.

The ITER has three installed in the
industrial park of Granadilla: the
2.83 MW Pilot Platform, the 4.8
MW wind farm, and the 5.5 MW
wind farm.

The others are the Finca de Mogán
wind farm and Punta Teno wind
farm.


The energy produced is sold to the local power company UNELCO,
responsible for the distribution in the island.
                  The 2.83 pilot platform
The 2.83 MW Pilot Platform was financed
by various institutions.
Its main objective has been the study of
the functioning of different types of wind
turbines.
The total nominal power of this platform is
2.83 MW and it is formed by 9 different
turbines, powers varying between 150
and 500 Kw.
The technology used is different for each
of them.
Also, there are differences in diameter
and height.
                The 4.8 MW Wind Farm
Installed in 1996. Initially there
were 16 MADE AE-30 wind
turbines, with 300 Kw. of nominal
power each, with a total capacity
of 4.8 MW and an energetic
production of 11 GW.


In 1999, this wind farm was modified in order to reduce
noise and increase productivity.

The original turbines were changed for 8 MADE AE-46 wind
turbines of 600KW of power each and an annual production
of 14KWh.
             The 5.5 MW Wind Farm
The 5.5 MW wind farm is a self financed project for
ITER installed in 1998, with11 ENERCON E-40 wind
turbines of 500 Kw. of nominal power each.
Estimated annual energy production is 16.5 GWh.
                 Finca de Mogán wind farm

It is a unique initiative because it
combines the production of
electricity with other actions for the
promotion of renewable energy,
environmental awareness and the
development of the southern town of
Arico. It has:
• 53 wind turbines
• A nature classroom to teach about clean and renewable
energy.
• A training restaurant built according to bioclimatic criteria that
will provide jobs for the locals.
                      Punta Teno wind farm

Located in Buenavista del Norte. With an investment of more than 2.5
million euros this new wind installation has an installed capacity of
1,800 Kw., distributed in 6 wind turbines of 300 kw each.
The estimated annual production of electricity is of 6,480 MWh.
  Present and future of alternative energy sources in the
                       Canary Islands.
The energy demand is growing as a result of the increase in
population and economical growth.
Today, renewable energy sources only cover a 5 % of our
demand for energy.
The energy strategy to follow is to have a system of
renewable energies, specifically wind farms and photovoltaic
installations, whose exploitation will contribute to a
sustainable development.
The increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources will help the
Canary Islands reach the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol.

The target is to reach 12% of gross domestic consumption of energy from
renewable energy sources by 2010

New ideas are developing: In the island of El Hierro, there is a project in
process that consists in the construction of a new energy supply system
combining two sources of generation: the hydro electrical energy and wind
energy.
                      Conclusions
For centuries man has used wind energy. Now we use
modern version of the former windmills, present in the novel
about Don Quixote de la Mancha.
In the past, the windmills in the Canary Islands were used
to make “gofio”.Today’s windmills turn the force of the wind
into electric power by means of the coupling of a dynamo
that generates the wind energy.
It has some disadvantages: noise, alteration of the landscape
and mortality of birds. But the advantages are much more
important: Wind energy is clean, cheap and it is renewable. It
does not contaminate or damage the ozone layer.

The Canary Islands present a high wind potential, because of
the presence of the trade winds, with constant parameters in
speed and in direction during the year.

To commit with new projects in the use of the alternative
energies is in the hope that a better and sustainable future
exists.
FIRST EUROPEAN YOUTH PARLIAMENT
    GUIMARAES 17 APRIL 2009

								
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