Rocky Wang P.1 March 28, 2012 Chapter 27 Questions 1. Fear of communism and a determination to stop its spread became one of the leading political forces in Western Europe and the United States for most of the rest of the century. Lenin instituted the New Economic Policy because of Russia being economically unstable after WWI. The Comintern imposed its Twenty-one Conditions on any socialist party that wished to join it. Stalin cunningly used his control over the Central Committee of the Communist Party to edge out Trotsky and his supporters. By 1927, Trotsky had been removed from all his offices, expelled from the party, and exiled to Siberia. 2. Fascists were people who were anti-democratic, anti-Marxists, antiparliamentary, and frequently anti-Semitic. After WWI, many Italians were not satisfied with the conditions of their existing government, which would help the fascists gain power in Italy. Fascists were appealing to the middle class, small businesses, owners of moderate amounts of property, and small farmers. 3. The difference between the statuses of women between the regimes was that in the USSR, women were assumed their traditional family values. On the other hand, in Italy, the fascist policy encouraged Italian women to have more children and to remain in the home to rear them for the good of the Italian state. 4. Both France and Britain were troubled democracies and neither brought good life in peace after victory in war. Parliament expanded the electorate to include all men aged twenty-one and women aged thirty. Ireland refused to go to the parliament at Westminster, so they declared for independence in 1919. 5. The crucial factor was the alleged leniency of the Paris treaties and Clemenceau’s failures to establish a separate Rhineland state. The invasion of Ruhr was not wise. Unemployment soon spread from the Ruhr to other parts of the country and produced cataclysmic inflation. The Locarno Pact was successful as it pleased everyone. The Locarno Agreements brought a new spirit of hope to Europe. 6. Some of the greatest strengths of the Weimar Republic were that it guaranteed civil liberties and provided for direct election, by universal suffrage, of the Reichstag and the president. One of the weaknesses was that it provided for proportional representation for all elections making it relatively easy to gain seats in the Reichstag. The Nazis (National Socialist German Workers’ Party) was a small nationalistic, anti-Semitic political party in the 1920s. Chapter 27 Vocabulary 1. Fascism: Fascists were people who were anti-democratic, anti-Marxists, antiparliamentary, and frequently anti-Semitic. The fascist governments were usually single-party dictatorships characterized by terrorism and police surveillance. Fascists believed that normal parliamentary politics and parties sacrificed national honor and greatness to petty disputes. They wanted to overcome the class conflicts of Marxism and the party conflict of liberalism by consolidating the various groups and classes within the nation for great national purposes. 2. Lenin: He was the leader of the Bolsheviks, which worked to create a socialist economic system. Throughout the period of the civil war, the government headed by Lenin carried out extensive repression of all actual or potential sources of opposition. Also, he outlined the New Economic Policy, which was used to help stabilize Russia’s economy. 3. New Economic Policy: The New Economic Policy was outlined by Vladimir Lenin. It allowed peasants to farm for profit. They would have to pay taxes like other citizens, but they could sell their grain on the open market. After 1921, the countryside became more stable under the New Economic Policy. 4. War Communism: War Communism was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War. Its aim was to keep towns and the Red Army supplied with weapon and foods. 5. Stalin: He was a Bolshevik leader and eventually the head of the Soviet state. He overthrew Trotsky by cunningly using his control over the Central Committee of the Communist Party to edge out Trotsky and his supporters. He had Trotsky removed from all his offices, expelled from the party, and exiled to Siberia. 6. Third International: It was a socialist movement founded by Soviet communists. It was better known as the Comintern. They worked to make the Bolshevik model of socialism, as developed by Lenin, the rule for all socialist party outside the Soviet Union. 7. Invasion of Ruhr: The French invasion of the Ruhr in January 1923 and the German response of economic passive resistance produced cataclysmic inflation. Unemployment soon spread from the Ruhr to other parts of the country, creating a new drain on the treasury and also reducing tax revenues. 8. Locarno Agreement: The Locarno Agreement pleased everyone. German was satisfied to have achieved respectability and a guarantee against another Ruhr occupation, as well as to have been afforded the possibility of revision in the east. Britain was pleased to be allowed to play a more evenhanded role. Italy was glad to be recognized as a great power. The French were happy, too, because the Germans voluntarily accepted the permanence of their western frontier. 9. Weimar Republic: The Weimar Republic was born amid the defeat of the imperial army, the revolution of 1918 against the Hohenzollerns, and the hopes of German Liberals and Social Democrats. Some of the greatest strengths of the Weimar Republic were that it guaranteed civil liberties and provided for direct election, by universal suffrage, of the Reichstag and the president. One of the weaknesses was that it provided for proportional representation for all elections making it relatively easy to gain seats in the Reichstag. The Nazis (National Socialist German Workers’ Party) was a small nationalistic, anti0Semitic political party in the 1920s. 10. Nazi Party: Nazi is the adopted name of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. The Nazis were a small nationalistic, anti-Semitic political party in the 1920s. In addition, the same year, the group began to parade under a red-and-white banner with a black swastika. 11. Mein Kampf: It was a book by the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler. He began the dictation of the book while he was in prison. He eventually made a great deal of money from it. In the book, he outlined key political views from which he never swerved, including a fierce racial anti- Semitism, a powerful opposition to Bolshevism, which he associated with the Jews, and a conviction that Germany must expand eastward beyond the borders established at Versailles to achieve greater “living space.” 12. Stresemann: He was primarily responsible for the reconstruction of the republic and for giving it a sense of self-confidence. He abandoned the policy of passive resistance in the Ruhr. He also moved against challenges from the left and the right. He supported the crushing of both Hitler’s abortive putsch and smaller communist disturbances. Later in 1923, he resigned as chancellor and became foreign minister. 13. Kellog-Briand Pact: The pact renounced war as “illegal” except for self-defense. Although it was signed by 62 nations, it had no real enforcement mechanism. 14. Lateran Accord: Through the Lateran Accord of February 1929, the Roman Catholic Church and the Italian state made peace with each other. It also recognized the pope as the temporal ruler of Vatican City. Finally, it brought further respectability to Mussolini’s authoritarian regime. 15. Dawes Plan: It was a plan submitted by American banker Charles Dawes. It lowered the annual payments and allowed them to vary according to the fortunes of the German economy. 16. Sinn Fein: It was regarded as the “Ourselves Alone,” movement. In the election of 1918, the Sinn Fein Party won all but four of the Irish parliamentary seats outside Ulster. Refusing to go to the Parliament at Westminster, they declared Irish dependence. 17. Labour Party: The Labour Party was socialistic in its platform, but democratic and distinctly nonrevolutionary. The party had expanded beyond its early trade-union base. Chapter 28 Questions 1. Three factors combined to bring about the intense severity and the extended length of the Great Depression. First, there was a financial crisis that stemmed directly from the war and the peace settlement. Second, a crisis arose in the production and distribution of goods in the world market. Finally, both difficulties became worse because neither the major western European nations nor the United States offered strong economic leadership or acted responsibly. 2. The National Government took three decisive steps to attack the depression. First, to balance the budget, it raised taxes, cut insurance benefits to the unemployed and the elderly, and lowered government salaries. Its leaders argued that the fall in prices that had taken place meant those reductions did not appreciably cut real income. Second, Britain went off the gold standard. Third, in 1932, Parliament passed the Import Duties Bill, which placed a 10 percent ad valorem tariff. 3. The most remarkable political event caused by the uncertainty and turmoil of the Great Depression was the coming to power of the Nation Socialists (Nazis) in Germany. Also, German unemployment rose. As the economy did not improve in 1932, Hitler ran against the old president. 4. Hitler’s economic policies supported private property and private capitalism, but subordinated all significant economic enterprise and decisions about prices and investment to the goals of the state. He instituted a massive program of public works and spending. 5. Hitler persecuted Jews where he would burn thousands of Jewish stores and kill them. People who opposed Mussolini were tortured and imprisoned; many were sentenced to be exiled for life. Joseph Stalin sent people to labor camps as a form of terror. Nazi policy favored motherhood only for those whom its adherents regarded as racially fit for motherhood. Nazi theorists also discriminated between the healthy and unhealthy, the desirable and undesirable, in the German population itself. 6. The drive to rapid industrialization was a major pillar in Stalin’s undertaking of “Socialism in One Country.” It was to be the path whereby the communist Soviet Union would overtake the productive capacity of capitalist nations and thus protect itself against capitalist enemies. Such a policy required the rapid construction of heavy industries, such as iron, steel, electricity- generating stations, the machine tool industry, and tractor manufacturing. Chapter 28 Vocabulary 1. Sir Oswald Mosley: He founded the British Union of Fascists. He held a minor position in the second Labour government and was disappointed by its feeble attack on unemployment. Mosley urged a program of direct action through a new corporate structure for the economy. 2. Popular Front: It was a coalition of all left-wing parties. Its purpose was to preserve the republic and press for social reform. The election of 1926 gave the Popular Front a majority in the Chamber of Deputies. The Socialists were the largest single party for the first time in French history. 3. Article 48: An article in which Hitler issued an emergency decree suspending civil liberties and proceeded to arrest communists or alleged communists. This decree was not revoked for as long as Hitler ruled Germany. 4. Reichstag Fire: A mentally ill Dutch communist set fire to the Reichstag building in Berlin. The Nazis quickly claimed the fire was part of an immediate communist threat to the government. 5. Enabling Act: It was an act passed by the Reichstag that permitted Hitler to rule by decree. Thereafter, there were no legal limits on his exercise of power. 6. Ernst Roehm: He was part of the SA, or storm troopers, who was considered a possible rival to Hitler himself. To protect his position, Hitler personally ordered the murder of key SA officers, including Roehm. 7. Schutzstaffel: It was security units commanded by Heinrich Himmler. This group originated in the mid-1920s as a bodyguard for Hitler and had become a more elite paramilitary organization than the much larger SA. By 1936, Himmler had become head of all police matters in Germany and stood second only to Hitler in power and influence. 8. Nuremburg Laws: A series of measures known as the Nuremberg Laws robbed German Jews of their citizenship. The professions and the major occupations were closed to those defined as Jews. Marriage and sexual intercourse between Jews and non-Jews were prohibited. Legal exclusion and humiliation of the Jews became the order of the day. 9. Kristallnacht: Thousands of Jewish stores and synagogues were burned or otherwise destroyed on what became known as Kristallnacht. The Jewish community itself was required to pay for the destruction because the government confiscated the insurance money that was paid to cover the damages. 10. Kulaks: Kulaks were anyone who resisted collectivization. This soon embraced any peasants. As part of the plan, The government needed to eliminate Kulaks as a class because of the unleashing unprecedented violence in the countryside.
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