Cross-cultural communication - PowerPoint by hcj


									                 Culture and communication

Culture and communication are inseparable, because culture not
only dictates who talks to whom, about what, and how the
communication proceeds, it also helps to determine how people
encode messages, the meanings they have for messages, and the
conditions and circumstances under which various messages may
or may not be sent, noticed, or interpreted. In fact, our entire
repertory of communicative behaviors is dependent largely on the
culture in which we have been raised. Culture, consequently, is
the foundation of communication. And when cultures vary,
communication practices also vary. (Samovar et al, 1981:24).
                     Communication Barriers

A. Language Barriers
       1. Fallacy of English as a universal language.
       2. The problem of translation:Big Bus. Blunders
B. Cultural Barriers
   -Appropriacy: Who/to whom/what/how/when/where
C. Perceptual Barriers
       1. Perception is selective
       2. Perceptual patterns are learned.
       3. Perception is culturally determined.
       4. Perception tends to remain constant.
       We therefore see things that do not exist and do
       not see things that do exist.
D. Nonverbal communication
E. Lack of cultural self-awareness
        CC communication in an organizational context
A. Social composition-Citibank
B. Organization structure
  -number of levels /hierarchy
   -organizational complexity
       -specialization/division of labor
       -Complexity: number of product lines
C. Goal orientation
D. Formalization
   -Number of reports: is more necessarily better?
       -Can be informative but also frustrating.
E. Shared experience
   -generally more personal contact---better communication
  Achieving cross-cultural communication effectiveness

A. Provide cultural training
   -about other cultures
   -about our own culture
B. Provide language training
C Improve feedback systems
       -within organizations
               -new technologies
D. Increase flexibility and cooperation
E. Focus on individual attitudes and skill building
            What do I do if they do not speak my language?
A. Verbal behavior
   1. Clear, slow speech 2. Repetition         3. Simple sentences
   4. Active words
B. Nonverbal behavior
   1. Visual restatements        2. Gestures         3. Demonstration
   4. Pauses            5. Summaries
C. Accurate interpretation
   1. Silence      2. Intelligence 3. Differences
D. Comprehension
   1. Understanding (assume they don’t) 2. Checking comprehension
D. Design
   1. Breaks       2. Small modules          3. Longer time frame
E. Motivation
   1. Encouragement 2. Drawing out             3. Reinforcement

from: Adler, N.J. (1997) International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior
   Cincinnati: Southwestern. P. 97.
            Cross cultural communication effectiveness

 1. Correct balance between task and relational behavior.
 2. Minimize self-oriented behaviors.
*3. The capacity to be non-judgmental.
*4. The tolerance for ambiguity.
*5. The display of respect.
 6. Personalizing knowledge and perceptions.
*7. Displaying empathy.
 8. Taking turns

From: Ruben, Brent. Guidelines for cross-cultural communication effectiveness.
   Group and Organization Studies, December 1977, 2(4): 470-479.
      Cultural Noise in the Communication Process

Attribution problems due to cultural variables in the
   communication process
1. Attitudes--e.g. the problem of stereotyping
2. Social organization
3. Thought patterns
4. Roles
5. Language
6. Nonverbal communication

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