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					The Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
Location
                       “Trinity and Beyond”
       Chronology of First Five Nations With Nuclear Weapons
1945 July 16              U.S.  U.S. explodes the world's first atomic
bomb, the ‘Trinity Test’, at Alamogordo, New Mexico.

1949 August 29            U.S.S.R. Soviet Union detonates its first
atomic bomb, ‘Joe 1’, at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan. It’s a copy of the
Fat Man bomb and had a yield of 21 kilotons.

1952 October 3            UK  First British atomic bomb, ‘Hurricane’,
was tested at Monte Bello Islands, Australia, with a yield of 25 kilotons.

1960 February 13          FRANCE  First French nuclear test occurs at
Reganne, Algeria, in the Sahara Desert. ‘Gerboise Bleue’ had a yield of
60-70 kilotons.
                   ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


1964 October 16 CHINA  China explodes its first atomic bomb
at the Lop Nor test site on the northeastern edge of the Tarim Basin in the
XinJiang Province. It was an uranium 235 implosion fission device
named ‘596’and had a yield of 22 kilotons.
Players: Soviet Side




                                                              Fidel Castro
                             Andrei Gromyko,                Premier of Cuba
                         Minister of Foreign Affairs
 Nikita Khrushchev
 Soviet Premier



        Anatoly Dobrynin
    Ambassador to the U.S.
                                                       Raul Castro
                                                       Head of Military
                                                       Deputy Foreign Minister
Players: American Side
                                            John Kennedy
                                            U.S. President




                                              Robert Kennedy
                                             Attorney General
Robert McNamara
Secretary of Defense




                       Dean Rusk
                       Secretary of State
               Causes
–Soviet Insecurity
 •Missile capability NOT balanced.
–Cuban Invasion
 •Bay-of-Pigs-1961, Operation Mongoose-1962.
 •Castro nervous.
–Build-up
 •April 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita
  Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing
  intermediate-range missiles in Cuba to
  provide a real deterrent to a potential U.S.
  attack against the Soviet Union or Cuba.
        “Missiles & Machines of War”
USN F-8 Crusader




                                SS-4 "Sandal" 1000 km




USAF RF-101




                                   SS-5 "Skean" 2000 km
                      USAF U2
The Missiles: Locations
The Missiles: Locations
The Missiles: Aerial Photo 1
The Missiles: Aerial Photo 2
The Missiles: Aerial Photo 3
         Blockade: Close-up
•250,000 Marines and ground troops

•1,000 planes

•250 naval vessels.
                 Warning Signs
• May, 1962: Khrushchev makes veiled references
  to a plot (How would the U.S. feel having
  missiles pointing at them, as they have missiles
  pointed at us?)
• September: JFK and Congress issue warnings to
  USSR that US will deal harshly with any threats
  to national security
• October 14: U2 recon. flight over Cuba spots
  sites installing nuclear missiles…Major Richard S.
  Heyser
• October 15: Presence of missiles is confirmed
                            “13 Days” Begin
•October 16: President Kennedy notified
•October 16-22: Secret deliberations on what
 should be done
•October 22: Kennedy tells nation his plan
 for blockade and quarantine
•October 23: OAS endorses naval
 quarantine
•October 24: Naval quarantine begins and
 successfully changes course of many Soviet
 ships
                                     “13 Days” cont.
• October 25: One Soviet ship challenges naval
  quarantine; Kennedy lets it pass

• October 25: At the UN, Adlai Stevenson directly
  challenges the Soviet ambassador to admit to the
  existence of missiles, when the ambassador refuses,
  Stevenson wheels out pictures of the missile sites

• October 26: Soviets raise possibility for a deal: if
  we withdraw missiles will America promise not to
  invade Cuba?
                                 “13 Days” -- closure
• October 27: Soviets demand that Americans also
  withdraw missiles from Turkey;
  – Major Rudolf Anderson’s plane shot
    down…tensions high
  – Kennedy tells Khrushchev that he will accept the
    proposal of the 26th, Kennedy tells his brother to
    tell the Soviet Ambassador that though the
    Turkey missiles would not be part of the bargain,
    they would be removed in time
• October 28: USSR agrees to withdraw missiles
                Soviet Decisions & Motivations
1. Close the Missile Gap
     • Currently far behind U.S. in terms of
       number of missiles
     • Verbal threats no longer effective with
       overwhelming evidence of U.S. superiority
2. Protect Cuba
3. Reciprocity
     • The U.S. has missiles pointing at us, let’s see how
       they feel now
4. Inability to Use the Missiles
     • If fired a missile, repercussions would be severe
                     Why Khrushchev Settled

•Effectiveness of naval quarantine
•Conventional inferiority in the Caribbean
•No possible countermove
•Overwhelming world support for the U.S.
•Other possible reasons
 – Got what he wanted?
    •No U.S. invasion of Cuba
    •U.S. missiles withdrawn from Turkey
Castro’s Role

•No real role in decision making
•Apparently out of touch with the situation
  – Oct. 26: “Aggression imminent/imperialists
    disregarding world opinion”—Clearly not the
    case
  – Khrushchev plays along to some extent but it
    is clear he disagrees with him…
    (“your suggestion would have started a
    thermonuclear world war”)
The American Decision
• In September Kennedy had stated and
  Congress had passed a resolution saying
  that if the Soviet Union placed
  offensive weapons in Cuba we would
  not tolerate it.
  –Could we then rely solely on diplomacy? Both Kennedy
  brothers thought that John could be “impeached” if he didn’t
  act in accordance with his prior warnings

  •Determined in first 48 hours of crisis that the
  removal of missiles was the primary objective
  •Many options were considered
The American Decision: Considerations
(1) Air Strike
    – On October 17th, President Kennedy considered that
      there would be an air strike, at least against the missile
      sites, and perhaps against wider targets
    – Reservations from others: air strike may be using a
      “sledgehammer” to kill a “fly
    – Later that day Robert McNamara suggests policy in
      between diplomacy and an air strike
(2) Blockade
    – Advocated by McNamara and Robert Kennedy
    – Critics feared it would allow Soviets time
    – 10/19, Kennedy accepted plan
    The American Decision: Considerations
(3) Do Nothing
  – Ignore missiles in Cuba.
  – U.S. had military bases in 127 different countries
    including Cuba.
  – U.S. had nuclear missiles in several countries close to
    the Soviet Union.
  – Therefore, only right that the Soviet Union should be
    allowed to place missiles in Cuba.
(4) Negotiate
  – U.S. should offer the Soviet Union a deal.
  – USSR remove missiles in CubaU.S. withdraw her
    nuclear missiles from Turkey and Italy.
    The American Decision: Considerations
(5) Invasion
  – Send U.S. troops to Cuba to overthrow Castro's
    government.
  – Missiles could then be put out of action and the
    Soviet Union could no longer use Cuba as a
    military base.

(6) Nuclear Weapons
  – Use nuclear weapons against Cuba and/or the
    Soviet Union.
Activity 1
• As teams, please respond to the following Cuban
  Missile Crisis prompts, with clearly written,
  detailed discussions.
• Premier Khrushchev’s Letter:
  1. Discuss the underlying tone of Khrushchev’s
     letter.

   2. Describe the line of logic that Khrushchev used
      in making his case.

   3. Ultimately, what was the Soviet commitment
      toward the crisis? Identify and discuss.
Consequences of Cuban Missile Crisis
 Some of the direct consequences of the crisis
   include the following:
 (1)HOT LINE
     The two sides established a direct communications
     link that became known as the Hot Line. It was
     hoped that this would help prevent dangerous
     confrontations such as the Cuban Missile Crisis
     arising again.
 (2) U.S. REMOVES MISSILES
     Three months after the Cuban Missile Crisis the
     United States secretly removed all its nuclear missiles
     from Turkey and Italy.
Consequences of Cuban Missile Crisis
(3) TEST BAN TREATY
  A Test Ban Treaty was signed between the two countries
  in August 1963. The treaty prohibited the testing of
  nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.
(4)PRISONERS RELEASED
  The 1,113 prisoners captured during the Bay of Pigs
  invasion were exchanged by Castro for $50 million in
  food, drugs, medicine and cash.
(5) USSR RESOLVE
  The Soviet Union became determined to have a nuclear
  capability that was equal to the United States. This was
  achieved by 1972.
Consequences of Cuban Missile Crisis
(6) STRAIN ON SOVIET ALLIES
  China accused the Soviet Union of being a 'paper-tiger' and
  claimed to be the true leader of the Communist
  movement. The split between the Soviet Union and China
  became wider.
(7) U.S. RESOLVE
  The United States became convinced that the Soviet
  Union would not go to war over another communist
  country. It has been argued that this encouraged the
  United States to help attempts to overthrow socialist and
  communist governments in Vietnam, Nicaragua and
  Grenada.
Activity 1
   As teams, please respond to the following Cuban Missile
   Crisis prompts, with clearly written, detailed discussions.
President Kennedy’s Address:
1. Discuss the evidence of Cuba’s capabilities and
   President Kennedy’s general/specific concerns.
2. Describe the essential element(s) re. each of
   Kennedy’s Seven-Points.
3. What are the critical messages the president
   directed toward Cubans and Americans at the close
   of his address?
Activity 2
• As teams, please respond to the following Cuban
  Missile Crisis prompts, with clearly written,
  detailed discussions.
• Premier Khrushchev’s Letter:
  1. Discuss the underlying tone of Khrushchev’s
     letter.

  2. Describe the line of logic that Khrushchev used
     in making his case.

  3. Ultimately, what was the Soviet commitment
     toward the crisis? Identify and discuss.
Activity 3
   As teams, please respond to the following Cuban
   Missile Crisis prompts, with clearly written, detailed
   discussions.
1. Were Castro and Khrushchev justified in placing nuclear
   missiles in Cuba? Defend.

2. Were the actions taken by Kennedy and the U.S.
   appropriate? Defend.

3. HYPOTHETICAL: If Venezuela (which, under
   President Chavez, has been outspoken in its/his
   criticism of the U.S.) began receiving nuclear warheads
   and missile shipments (capable of reaching U.S. soil),
   what would you recommend as an effective response?
   Defend.
                JOURNAL 1


What might have happened differently if…


…the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. shared an equal
number of nuclear weapons before/during
the Cuban Missile Crisis?
               JOURNAL 2
As an individual, please respond to the following
“Fog of War” prompts, with a clearly written,
detailed Journal entry.

1. Evaluate former Defense Secretary Robert
   McNamara’s perspective on the Cuban Missile
   Crisis. Do you agree or disagree with his
   points? Defend.
2. What observations does he make about
   “Empathy”…about “Rationality?”
CONTENT/SOURCES: Text, handouts, PPT Notes
  –   Soviet Losses in WWII
  –   Yalta
  –   Potsdam Declaration
  –   Truman Doctrine
  –   Marshall Plan
  –   Berlin Blockade/Airlift
  –   NATO
  –   Korean War                UNIT REVIEW
  –   McCarthy Era
  –   Bay-of-Pigs

FORMAT:
  – Multiple choice
       • All content
  – Matching
       • People/Events
                      BONUS
Write responses at the bottom of last page, according to the
numbers below;
Accuracy is non-negotiable.
Each item is worth ½ pt. 4 points possible

1) Identify four key characteristics/points of
   significance of Sputnik:
                    A.__ B.__ C.__ D.__
     <must be accurate according to classroom readings>
2) Name Four SPECIFIC ways the U.S. controlled
  Cuban capital…AND the percentage of control:
                    A.__ B.__ C.__ D.__
    <must be accurate according to Bay of Pigs Handout>

				
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posted:6/19/2012
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