Cultural Anthropology - Moorpark College by hcj

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									Linguistic Anthropology

      An Introduction
       What is Anthropology?
                 Anthropo logy
from the Greek                   from the Greek

anthropos - ἄνθρωπος              legein - λέγω

meaning “man; man-faced;     meaning “to speak”
a human being”
    The “Study of” or “Science of”

 bios + logy = the study of bios (“life”)

 geo + logy = the study of geo (“earth”)

 psykhe + ology = the study of psykhe (“breath”,
  “spirit”, “soul”)

 theos + logy = the study of theos (“God”)
        Four-Field Anthropology

 Cultural Anthropology

 Archaeology

 Linguistic Anthropology

 Biological (or Physical) Anthropology
          Cultural Anthropology
• Focuses on the role culture plays in human life

• Culture is

   – Learned by individuals as they grow up within a group

   – Passed on from generation to generation

   – The primary means by which humans adapt

   – Constantly changing
    Three Components of Culture


• Material

• Behavioral

• Ideational

                Nepali Mother and Child
                         (1995)
                  Archaeology
• Focuses on human life in the past

• Humans of the past

  – Relied on their cultures to adapt

  – Shared many common features with recent and
    modern humans

  – Saw their cultures change as a result of the same
    processes that change cultures today
        Linguistic Anthropology
• Focuses on the role language plays in human life

• Language is

  – Learned by individuals as they grow up within a group
  – Passed on from generation to generation

  – The primary means by which a human learns his/her
    culture
  – Constantly changing
           Biological Anthropology
              (aka“Physical Anthropology”)
• Focuses on humans as biological organisms

• Biological organisms

   – Have similar features and needs

   – Are the products of evolutionary and environmental forces

   – Are genetically unique
          Four-Field Anthropology
 Cultural Anthropology

 Archaeology                the cultural fields

 Linguistic Anthropology

 Biological (or Physical)
  Anthropology               the biological field

 Applied Anthropology       making it relevant
  (aka the “fifth field”)
Anthropology is a Biocultural Discipline




      Lhapo Wangchuk, a Nepali shaman, treats a woman for an
                   abdominal ailment (1995)
                 Linguistic Anthropology

• Uses all of the tools of Anthropology (and other fields)
  to study language

• Examples

   – What is the prehistory of language?

   – How do languages change?

   – What biological features make language possible?

   – How does language affect culture (and vice versa)?

								
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