Creative Teaching Framework

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					        Frame for this Workshop
Making the simple complicated is commonplace; making the
complicated simple, awesomely simple, that's creativity.

                      Charles Mingus

               Model it

If you are a highly creative teacher,
    what would you be able to do?
Teaching Quality – the big factor in Student
“…nothing is as important to learning as the quality of a
student’s teacher. The difference between a good teacher
and a bad teacher is so great that fifth-grade students who
have poor teachers in grades three to five score roughly 50
percentile points below similar groups of students who are
fortunate enough to have effective teachers”

         (Izumi, T. L. & Evers, W. M., 2002. Teacher Quality, ix)

“The effect of the teacher far overshadows classroom variables, such as
previous achievement level of students, class size…heterogeneity of
students, and the ethnic and socio-economic makeup of the classroom.”

       (Rivers, C. J. & Sanders, W. L., 2002. Teacher Quality and Equity
                        in Educational Opportunity, p.17)
 Two Big Reasons to be a Creative Teacher

• Makes learning more interesting and
  meaningful to students
• Makes your job more productive and

   “Against boredom even the gods themselves
                struggle in vain”
                  Friedrich Nietzsche
     Is this still the case now?
“Teaching is the only major occupation of man for which
we have not yet developed tools that make an average
person capable of competence and performance.

In teaching we rely on the "naturals," the ones who
somehow know how to teach”

    Sadly, Education has been a Creature of

For those of us who have been around education for a few decades or so –
you may remember Traditional (3 RRR’s) - Progressive Education - Back
to Basics (Traditional) Now Student-centred, inquiry-based, game-based, etc)
        Educational Jurassic Park

The present vogue is Constructivism and the teacher is no more
the Sage on the Stage but the Guide on the Side
(Why many don’t take teacher professionalism seriously)
    The present ‘Nemesis’ of Constructivism
“...move educational reform efforts from the fuzzy and unproductive world of
Ideology – which sometimes hides under the various banners of constructivism –
to the sharp and productive world of theory-based research on how people learn”
Mayer, R.,2004, p.18 – Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning?
The case for guided methods of instruction. American Psychologist, 59 (1), 14-19)

Report by the American Federation of teachers (April 2000) called for teacher-training
Programmes to develop a credible core in pedagogy: “We can no longer tolerate a
‘do your own thing’ pedagogy curriculum” (p.51 Stone)

“What teachers are told, however, is that student differences are important and if
their teaching is truly creative, energetic and engaging, they will succeed in
individualizing and bringing firth the best from all students. In effect teachers are
being taught to make diagnoses that heighten their awareness of differences
without advancing their ability to teach” (Stone, p.43)
Creative Teaching – Science or Art?
        Everything is Experience (& Perception)

       As human being we are stuck in a process of
       continuous Experience – even when sleeping

Given a choice, people seek experiences that are perceived as
pleasurable, novel, and pain reducing – because they satisfy
needs (Survive, Belong, Power, Freedom, Fun – from the work of William Glasser)
      As a teacher, YOU are the major player in
                Experience Shaping
You can make the learning experience useful, effective, interesting -
even fun (to varying degrees)

...Or you make it boring, tedious and difficult – even painful

It’s your call
                  Outcomes of a dull learning experience -
                       Descent into the World of Bla

 A       80
 E       60
 I       40                            Bla

              0            15          30                45   60

                                SESSION TIME (minutes)
    Just what you fancy after lunch at 2pm
Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows:
The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly
proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction
as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object

   Then follow this with 40 mins of exposition and equations
        Moving out of Educational Jurassic Park
“Contrary to common belief, people don’t have different learning styles.
They do, however, have different personalities. The distinction is
important, because we need to be clear that everybody learns
in the same way”
                (Schank. R., 1999, p.48)

“Emphasizing learning styles...are noted
for their lack of impact”
    (Hattie, J, 2009, A synthesis of over 800 Meta-Analyses
                 Relating to Achievement,p.199)

  “While our lives and our problems are very
  different, our brains work in similar ways”
                      (Goulston, 2009, p.3)
     Creating Experiences to maximize learning
1. What are the key processes involved in human learning,
   and how do they work?

2.    Are there guiding principles that can be systematically applied
      to the design and practices that structure these experiences?

               “If it bleeds, we can kill it”
                   Arnold Schwarzenegger in Predator
       A Practical Model of Learning (MUDD)
                     How competence develops
                            Doing              • Independent
                                               • Confident
                                               • High performance


• Dependent
• Uncertain                     Desire
• Erratic and poor
                Putting things into your memory, keeping
Memory           them there and being able to get at them
                           when you need them

Understanding     Making sense of concepts, principles
                 and procedures and seeing how they fit
                     together – results from thinking

Doing            Developing actual skills through practice

                    Having the motivation, belief and
Desire                   perseverance to learn

   To learn well is to mix MUDD well
Typical Attention Span
Far from the ‘Finished Article’
       Evolutionary Psychology argues that while we have
       experienced massive social and technological change – our
       brains are still at the stage of evolution when man roamed the
       African savannahs.

       At that time, we did not need to process too much
       information at once. Basically, when presented with a new
       stimulus, we only had to decide:
       • Can I eat it?
       • Can I mate with it?
       • Will it hurt me?

       That’s why children learn oral language so easily, but we all
       struggle with the technicalities of written language. Quite
       simply our brain has evolved modules for learning oral
       language quickly – but not for written language and similar
       types of learning.

       We are not phylogenetically well equipped for the massive
       content learning of present school curriculum
Brain Barriers to Learning
   Restricted Working Memory
      Despite having almost unlimited capacity for
      information – Working Memory can only deal
      with about 7±2 bits of information at once.

   Limited Attention Span
      Unless a stimulus is particularly pleasurable,
      novel or threatening, attention will drift onto
      more interesting stimuli (either in the present
      situation or in our imagination)

   Slow Conscious Processing Speed
      The actual processing speed of the brain is slow
      compared to its capacity and organising ability.
                    The Serial Position Curve

70         Primacy Effect

60                                                                Recency Effect

                                          von Restorff Effect



     0 1    2   3    4   5   6   7    8   9   10   11   12   13    14   15 16

                                     Position on List
              Psychological Effects

• Primacy Effect (the tendency for the first items
  presented in a series to be remembered better or
  more easily)
• Recency Effect (the tendency for the most recently
  presented items or experiences to be remembered
• Von Restorff Effect (the tendency to remember
  distinct or novel items and experiences)
        Model of Human Memory

    Hearing             Working        Long –
O    Touch              Memory         Term
N    Smell             5-9 bits of     Memory
M    Taste            information

              Forgetting             Infinite Capacity
             Physiology of learning
Learning results in connections between neurons
As we learn neurons connect with each other and pass on
information. At the physiological level, learning results from
the development of connected groups of neurons. As learning is
reinforced, myelin is produced which enhances long term
                      Long Term Memory

...long-term memory is now viewed as the central dominant structure
of human cognition. Everything we see, hear and think about is critically
dependent on and influenced by our long-term memory

We are skillful in an area because our long-term memory contains huge amounts of
Information concerning that area. That information permits us to quickly recognize
the characteristics of a situation and indicates to us, often unconsciously, what to do
and how to do it

Expert problem-solvers are able to draw on the vast knowledge bases in their
long-term memory and quickly select the best approach and procedures for solving
a given problem

                              (Kircher et al, 2006, pp3-4)
    Activity: Implications of the way our brain
               processes information

• What are the implications of the Serial Position Curve
  for the design of learning experiences?
• Are there ways to exploit the psychological effects
  (PE, VRE, RE) for enhancing learning effectiveness?
• How can we reduce the rate of forgetting (e.g.,
  failure to transfer information from WM to LTM)?
• Are there ways to consolidate learning in LTM and
  help build understanding?
                           Minimize Forgetting through Review

  Probability of recall

                                Recall without reviews

                                Recall with reviews at intervals

                            10      next       next        next    with continuous periodic reviews
                          minutes   day        day         week
                      Effect of the Senses in Learning

Mental activity is stimulated through our five   The greater the combination of our senses that
senses. Research suggests the following as       are stimulated in learning, the more successful
approximations of how much each sense            the learning is likely to be. For example, it is
contributes to our learning:                     estimated that we learn:

                                             10%         of what we read

                                             20%         of what we hear

                                             30%         of what we see

                                             40%         of what we see and hear

                                             50%         of what we discuss

                                             70%         of what we experience

                                             90%         of what we teach
     Learning is part of an Holistic System

To learn is not the special province of a single specialized
realm of human functioning such as cognition or perception.
It involves the integrated functioning of the total organism
– thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving.

                      (Kolb, 1995, p.148)

In basic terms, we learn better when we perceive the learning
as useful (e.g., satisfy some important need), believe we can
be successful at it and enjoy it

“We forget that beliefs are no more than perceptions,
usually with a limited sell by date, yet we act as though
they were concrete realities”
                      (Adler, 1996, p.145)

... And they shape our Psychological State (attitude) to the
situation we are in
             ‘Magic Eggs’ - Story

“Mum, Mum, you don’t have to buy eggs anymore coz
                I’m laying them”
                   Cognitive Dissonance

New experience,    I’m laying eggs
 which creates a                       Existing
perception that…                       Beliefs

                                     Chickens lay eggs
                                     I am not a chicken
                   Cognitive Dissonance

New experience, This is worth my time
 which creates a                          Existing
perception that…                          Beliefs

                                        Lessons are boring
                                        Teachers are blur, lah
               Cognitive Dissonance

                   This person is
New experience,    concerned for me
 which creates a                      Existing
perception that…                      Beliefs

                                             I’m going to get a

Reframing refers to putting things in
different contexts (frames or reference), thus
giving them different meanings.

And when we do this, our very world changes,
which changes the sensory experience, hence how we feel

“How your perceive something makes all the difference, and
   you are free to see things from any perspective you wish”
                          (Adler, 1996, p.145)
           Reframing students - how it works
                   Perception of something meaningful
                            In the experience

                    Effective                  Students decide to participate
                    learning                   in the classroom experience


          Reframing -           Engagement           Challenge -
Change in belief and                                 to existing beliefs and
positive psychological state                         negative psychological state
          Towards a Science of Learning
…over the past 3 decades, we have amassed enough research and
theory about learning to derive a truly research based-model of

                          (Marzano, 1992, p.2)

There are systematic and principled aspects of effective teaching,
and there is a base of verifiable evidence of knowledge that supports
that work in the sense that it is like engineering or medicine.

                  (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2006, p.12)
    Moving Teaching from Mystery to Heuristics
            Core Principles of Learning
“Heuristics represent an incomplete yet distinctly advanced understanding
of what was previously a mystery. But that understanding is unequally
distributed. Some people remain stuck in the world of mystery, while others
master its heuristics. The beauty of heuristics is that they guide us toward a
solution by way of organized exploration of possibilities.”

(Martin, R, 2009, The Design of Business, p.12: Harvard Business Press: Mass)

The core principles are a set of heuristics for the design of learning experiences.
They are ‘empirically based’ frames from which teaching professionals can effectively
and creatively plan student learning experiences.

They are not meant to be exhaustive nor summative, and they are always mediated by
the situated context in which learning occurs.
             Core Principles of Learning
           (A Basis for Pedagogic Literacy)

1.   Learning goals, objectives and expectations are clearly
2.   Learners’ prior knowledge is activated and connected to
     new learning
3.   Motivational and Attentional strategies are incorporated
     into learning designs
4.   Content is organized around key concepts and principles
     that are fundamental to understanding the key structure of
     a subject
5.   Self-directed learning is encouraged through facilitating the
     development of good thinking
     Core Principles of Learning [cont’d]
6.  Instructional methods and presentation mediums engage
    the range of human of senses (e.g. visual, auditory,
7. Learning design takes into account the working of memory
8. Learner competence is promoted through active and
    experiential learning
9. A psychological climate is created which is positive, success
    orientated and promotes self-esteem
10. Assessment practices are integrated into the learning design
    to promote desired learning outcomes and provide quality
      Core Principles – How they work
While each principle focuses attention on a key area relating to
effective pedagogy, they are mutually supporting, interdependent and
potentially highly synergetic.

As Stigler & Hiebert (1999) highlight:

        Teaching is a system. It is not a loose mixture of individual
        features thrown together by the teacher. It works more like a
        machine, with the parts operating together and reinforcing
        one another, driving the vehicle forward. (p.75)
           Using Core Principles Thoughtfully
               - The Fly Fishing Analogy

Key situated factors involve:

The specific learning outcomes (e.g., recall of facts, conceptual
  understanding, competence)
 Learner characteristics (e.g., motivational level, prior
  competence, learner preferences)
 Learning context and resource availability (e.g., learning
   environment, facilities, resources)
A Frame for Good Pedagogic Design
         (‘Nice Weaving’)


        Instructional Strategies
     (methods, activities, resources)

               of Learning
    Creativity: Not Thinking out of the Box

It all happens inside the head, it’s just a questions of what’s in there and
what you do with it and how

Little in there, little desire and effort to keep making new connections
especially across knowledge area – No Useful New Perceptions

As with all learning – to be really competent/excellent – it takes hard work -
                              What is Creativity?

  A product or response will be judged creative to the extent that it is novel, useful or a
                        valuable response to the task at hand.
                               (summarized from Amabile, 1996, p.35)

One dark foggy night in Halifax, as Percy Shaw was driving home, he saw two
small green lights, very close together near the edge of the road. He was curious
so he stopped and saw the ‘lights’ were a pair of cats eyes reflecting the light from
his head lights.
This triggered off his thinking, making some new connections in his brain – subsequently he
invented a small device involving two marbles placed close together in a rubber casing; this
would then be set in the road at intervals between the lanes of traffic.

After a year of experiments, Percy patented the invention and then, in 1935,
formed his company, Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. (That’s Innovation & Enterprise)
                       Creative Teaching
Creative teaching occurs when a teacher combines existing knowledge in
some novel form to get useful results in terms of facilitating student learning.
This may be either planned before the act of teaching, or invented as a
response to the demands of the learning situation

                  How technical am I?
                        Do you know
                      Java script well?
                                         Yes, I do, I once
                                         had a girlfriend
                                          from Jakarta
                    Creative Planning
Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows:
The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly
proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction
as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.

                               What would happen to the ball if these
                                  conditions were changed:
                               1. The opposition played a trick on David
                                  and put down a much heavier ball
                               2. David plays a trick on the opposition by
                                  doing extra power training and can now
                                  hit the ball some 10% harder
A Creative Solution – Situated Invention?

      Kolkata Story
           What is SHAPE?


A Metaphor for the underlying syntax -
    ‘the art’ - of Creative Teaching
               The Power of SHAPE
“We understand everything in human life through stories”
                    (Jean-Paul Sartre)

“Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain”
                    (Edward De Bono)

“Learning activities are the best and most productive way
to learn”
                    (Lambert and Coombs)

“The meaning of your communication is the response
that you get”
                     (Bandler & Grinder)

“A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their
concentration and effort”
The Benefits of Humour for Learning
            • Refreshes the brain
            • Creates mental images that retain
            • Reinforces desired behaviour and
              makes classroom management
            • Develops positive attitudes
            • Promotes creativity
            • Contributes to the enjoyment of
           The Health Benefits of Humour
                            The medical profession has something
                            to say about humour. Laughter causes lungs to
                            pump out carbon dioxide, muscles to relax
                            tension, the cardiovascular system to be
                            exercised, and blood pressure to be reduced.

                            Perhaps most important…endorphins, which
                            are chemicals produced by the brain to relieve
                            pain and boost the immune system, are
                            released into the bloodstream when a person

                            (Barth, 1990, p.170)

"The simple truth is that happy people generally don't get sick."
                     Bernie Siegel, M.D.
     Questions: A Powerful Short Activity

“Questions are the primary way we learn virtually everything”

   “Thinking itself is nothing but the process of asking and
                      answering questions”

   “Questions immediately change what we focus on and,
                 therefore, how we feel”

                (Anthony Robbins, 2001, pp.179-8)
    Presentation Style: Much more than talking
We experience other people through our senses – do they look nice, sound
nice, feel nice, smell nice....
Presentation Style refers to all the behaviours we exhibit in the communication

   What we say and how we say it
   Body language and how well it calibrates to voice (words and tone)
   How we respond to others – listening, answering questions
   Sensory Acuity – awareness of what’s going on – observation, listening,
    meaning making

    “Its not the matter you cover so much as it is the manner in
                         which you cover it”
                                    James Rohn
 Using SHAPE to Shape the learning experience

• Stories told to provide context, understanding and emotional
• Humour used to achieve rapport and provide novelty
• Activities provided to integrate, apply and consolidate
• Presentation style employed (e.g., words, tone, body language
  – as well as observation and listening) to provide clarity,
  meaning and influence student attention, beliefs and
  psychological states
• Examples used to illustrate facts, concepts, principles,
     …and   use these Resources Creatively
      SHAPE as a Metaphor for Expert Teaching

“ teachers use a repertoire of strategies, selecting the most
appropriate for use in a particular context and adapting it if
 necessary for a group of learners

A pedagogic repertoire consists of two aspects: approaches,
activities, examples, analogies and illustrations for representing facts,
skills, concepts, beliefs and attitudes to others; and the skills and
strategies used as an integral part of these approaches “

                    (Turner-Bisset, 2001, p.69)
A Metaphor for Highly Effective & Creative
       Teaching (simple version)



     ‘Great Weaving’ - Yummy
      Online Learning in the Creative Teaching
The core principles that underpin good learning design in the face-to-
face learning context are equally applicable to designing and managing
learning in the online environment. Learning online does not change
the way the human brain functions or the basic processes of learning.

Colvin Clarke (2005) illustrates this fundamental point when he argued
   The most robust instructional principles are those based on a model of
   human psychological learning processes….Any given instructional method
   will be effective or ineffective depending on the extent to which it
   supports or disrupts basic-learning psychological processes regardless of
   the delivery media. (p.594)

           You also need to get the learning design into
      Online Versus Face-to-Face

Apart from the anytime, anyplace benefits…

…what else can the online environment offer that
creates learning opportunities beyond that of the
typical face-to-face classroom context?
   Hyperlink the ‘Killer’ online feature?

“…the hyperlink, which is practicably without counterpart in the physical
world of traditional academics. Within an internet document, hyperlinks
are used to bring multisourced information into the primary text or to give
the reader a path to alternative media. In essence, this eliminates the
physical separation of material messages that are logically connected.
In addition to text, hyperlinked messages may be pictures, sound files,
animations, or video clips. External links can refer students to other
information-rich Internet sites, including personal Web pages, specialized
bibliographies, and professional specialists”

                 (Hamilton, S. & Zimmerman, S., 2002, p.270)
                 Utilizing online capability
Firstly, it is important to be aware of what unique capabilities are
provided by online technologies. These are typically:
• Anytime, anyplace access to online resources
• Hyperlinked multi-modal, dynamic content
• Global social networking

Secondly, it is necessary to identify specific technologies and their
potential learning enhancement capabilities (e.g., which e- tools can
enhance specific aspects of learning, for what learners, how and in
what contexts, etc?). In that an e-tool support any of the core
principles, there are possible enhancement to aspects of the learning
        To O or not to O? – that is the
1.   Will the online components enhance the quality of student
     learning (e.g., increase the potential learning effectiveness
     for a group of learners – based on how the design positively
     impacts core principles and SHAPE)?

2.   What are the relative costs in resources (e.g., money, time,
     etc) in using online components as compared to face-to-
     face teaching? We may be prepared to trade-off some
     effectiveness for significant gains in efficiency (e.g., in the
     case of motivated distance learners)
Developing your Creative Teaching Competence:

• Desire to teach creatively
• Understand the science and art of creative teaching
• Develop a wide range of Resources, be able to Reframe and
  create interesting Strategies (get into great SHAPE)
• Willingness to take some risks
• Do it – Be the Best You Can (Total Pedagogy)
A bit like a creative life
   “Dying is tragic, but dying without having actually ever
                 lived is the ultimate tragedy”
                          Eric Fromm
   “We understand everything in human life through stories”
                          Jean-Paul Sartre

What are the different ways in which Introduce a topic/concept; Illustrate
stories can be used to promote       key concepts and/or principles in real
effective learning?                  world contexts-enhance
                                        understanding; Create emotional
                                        anchors for learning; Model good
                                        attitudes and dispositions; Build
What is important in telling stories?   Clear lively presentation; Relevance
                                        to the topic; Timing and emphasis of
                                        key learning point(s) in story; Involve
                                        students; Draw out relevance if
                                        necessary; Sensitivities
Where can I get useful stories to       Experience; Colleagues, Newspapers;
make my lessons more interesting?       Books; Students, Internet; Folk tales;
                                        Industry journals/personnel;
      “Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain”
                              Edward De Bono

What are the different types of    Jokes; Riddles; Anecdotes; Cartoons;
humour that can be used in the     Stories; One-liners, Body Language;
classroom?                         Impersonations; Funny’ objects
What are the different purposes    Get attention; Change psychological
for using humour in teaching?      state; Icebreaker for new class; Break
                                   up periods of teacher talk; Illustrate a
                                   fact, concept or principle; Build rapport
What must we consider carefully    Political correctness (ethnicity, gender,
before using humour?               sexuality); Timing; Presentation style

Where can I get resources of       Experience; Colleagues; Internet; Joke
humour that will work for me?      books; Journals; Newspapers; TV;
                                   videos; Create; Watch and learn from a
                                   comedian – model jokes and style
     “Learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn”
                              Lambert and Coombs

What are the different types of        Specific learning tasks; Quizzes;
activities?                            Competitions; Projects; Visits; Forums;
                                       Simulations; Cases; Work experience;
                                       Brain gym/puzzles; Experiments; Role
                                       play; Songs
What is important in designing and     Relevant to learning outcomes;
managing activities?                   Challenging but achievable; Real life;
                                       Meet logistic/support demands; Clear
                                       notes of guidance for students;
                                       Assessment opportunities; Clear
                                       instructions; Create atmosphere;
                                       Maintaining interest and discipline;
                                       Resources allocation and use;
Where do I get relevant activities that Produce; Colleagues; Resource centres,
will be challenging but achievable for Internet; Local community/industry;
the students I teach?                   Various media
                          Presentation Style
           “The meaning of your communication is the response
                             that you get”
                                  Bandler & Grinder
What are the various aspects of Clarity and Pace of delivery; Tone of voice;
a persons presentation style that Supporting body language; Variety of style;
make it effective in creating     Eye contact with audience; Movement
and maintaining interest?

How can I develop a                   Prepare well; Observe effective presenters;
presentation style that is both       Receive feedback from good presenters;
effective and fits my                 Watch videos of highly effective presenters;
personality?                          Practice, evaluate and modify
“A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort”

  What makes an example a good         Relevant to concept, principle, skill
  example?                             being taught; Students can relate to
                                       it through their own experiences; It
                                       has a strong real life current
                                       impact. These provide maximum
                                       opportunity for understanding
  When is it most effective to use     Before or immediately following
  examples?                            the teaching of a concept, principle
                                       procedure or skill; When concepts
                                       are abstract or difficult to visualise

  Where can I get good examples for Resource centres, Books, Industry
  the topics I teach?               journals, Own experiences,
                                    Colleagues, Internet, Create
                                    yourself, Commercial packages