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					   ADVERBS AND ADVERBIALS
                               INTRODUCTION

Adverbs and adverbials form an important ‘part of speech’ in English grammar. In
accordance to their importance in modifying verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs they
need an in-depth study.

An Adverb is a part of speech. It is a word that modifies any other part of language
(verbs, adjectives, clauses, sentences, and other adverbs) except for nouns; modifiers of
nouns are primarily determiners and adjectives.
Adverbs typically answer such questions as how, when, where, in what way, or how
often? This function is called the adverbial function, and is realized not just by single
words (i.e. adverbs) but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses.

An adverbial is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an
adverbial clause) which modifies or tells us something about the sentence or the verb.
The word adverbial is also used as an adjective, meaning 'having the same function as
an adverb'.

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The success of the course depends to great extent on how well the students understand
the given course material. For this purpose topic research by students themselves is
bound to deliver results. Hence to ensure better understanding of English grammar and
to enrich research faculties of students, Nasreen Saeed the course instructor authorized
this report on November 1, 2006

Specifically, the following questions would be addressed in this study:
What are adverbs? What are their forms usage and role in a sentence as a modifier?
What are adverbials? What are their forms types and usages?
What is the relationship between adverbs and adverbials in terms of words and phrases?

PROCEDURES:

Initially a number of websites were consulted as a primary source of data that benefit us
for instance, Wikipedia, English grammar, and parts of speech websites. In addition to
this we visited some libraries and book shops and have gone through a number of
English grammar books as a source of secondary data. The primary data provided by
websites and secondary data provided by books searched was then analyzed to
determine the knowledge about adverbs, adverbials, and their relationships.




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                                    FINDINGS

For a study to achieve its goal, the results should be expressed in unequivocal terms.
Thus, the first section that follows discusses the adverbs and its types. The second
section gives adverbials and its forms. Lastly the relationship of the two in terms of
words, phrases, and clauses will be mentioned.

ADVERBS
An adverb is a word that describes or modifies
   1- a verb
   2- an adjective
   3- another adverb

   Examples:

   1- Modifies a verb:

               The man walked quickly.

       In this sentence, the verb is walked.
       The word that describes the verb, the word that tells us how the man walked, is
       Quickly.
       Quickly is the adverb.

   2- Modifies an adjective:

               He played a very good game of tennis.

       In this sentence, the adjective is good.
       The word that describes the adjective, the word that tells us how good his game
       was, is very.
       Very is the adverb.

   3- Modifies another adverb:

               She speaks quite quietly.

       In this sentence, there are two adverbs (quite and quietly)
       The word that describes the second adverb (quietly), the word that tells us how
       quietly she spokes is quite.
       Quite is the adverb that describes the second adverb.




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TYPES OF ADVERBS:
Adverbs fall into the following categories:

1- ADVERB OF MANNER

Adverbs of Manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placed after the
main verb or after the object.

Normally, adverbs of manner modify or give more information about verbs by
indicating how or in what manner an action is done
Examples:
             He swims fast. (after the main verb)
             She sings the song beautifully. (after the object)

An adverb of manner should not be placed between the verb and the object :
Examples:
             She sings beautifully the song. (between the verb and the object –
incorrect)
             She sings the song beautifully. (after the object)

If there is a preposition before the object, ( e.g : towards, to ) an adverb can be placed
before the preposition or after the object.
 Examples:
                The girl sings loudly to the crowd. (before preposition)
                The girl sings to the crowd loudly. (after the object)

However, the position of an adverb is important to determine the meaning of a
sentence:
Note that if an adverb of manner is placed after a clause, it modifies the whole action
described by the clause.
If the adverb is placed next to a verb, then it modifies the action, but not the whole
clause.
Examples:
                She slowly agreed to cook. (she hesitates to cook)
                She agreed to cook slowly. (the process of cooking will be slow)


2- ADVERB OF PLACE or LOCATION
   Adverbs of Place tell us where an incident happens or takes place. They are usually
placed after the main verb or after the object.

Like other adverbs, Adverbs of Place can also be placed at the initial, middle, and at the
final position of a clause.
Examples:
                The students are walking home. (after the main verb/final position)
                He threw the towel downstairs. (after object)


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3- ADVERB OF TIME

  Adverbs of Time tell us when an action happened, and the use of this adverb might
affect the verb tenses in a particular clause.

There are three common categories for Adverbs of Time :
Present : presently, currently, nowadays, now
Past : yesterday, recently, ago, last year
Future : tomorrow, next month

Examples:
                She currently works as a newscaster. (present tense)
                She went to school yesterday. (past tense)
                I will finish doing my work tomorrow. (future tense)

Adverbs of Time can be placed at the initial, middle or final position
Examples:
               She presently cooks for the family. (before the main verb)
               My father is currently working with the press. (middle)
               I was at the party yesterday. (end of clause)


4- ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY

 Adverbs of Frequency indicate approximately how many times something happens.
Similar to Adverbs of Manner and Adverbs of Time, Adverbs of Frequency can also
be placed at the initial, middle and final position of a clause.

Normally, adverbs of frequency modify or give more information about verbs by
informing how many times an action happens.
Examples :
               I often visit my grandmother. (before the main verb)
               You should always think about your future. (between)
               She cleans her room daily. (end of clause)

An adverb of frequency is much stronger when it is being placed at the end of a
sentence
Examples:
               The book is published annually. (directly modifying the preceding verb)
               He visits his mother regularly. (modifying the preceding clause)




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5-ADVERBS OF DEGREE

Adverbs of Degree tell us about the intensiveness or the degree of a quality           (
adjectives), or even an adverb itself, (normally adverbs of manner).
Unlike other adverbs, adverbs of degree are usually placed before the adjective or the
adverb they are modifying, after the auxiliary verb, before the main verb or between the
auxiliary verb and the main verb.
 Examples:
                 He is really good. (before the adjective)
                 She almost noticed his presence. (before main verb)
                 He is just sad. (after the auxiliary verb)
                 They don't really know you. (between auxiliary verb and main verb)

An adverb can also be placed at the very beginning of a clause, (normally Adverbs of
Time or adverbs like certainly, probably, fortunately and other adverbs that express
certainty or probability). A comma is always used after the adverb, and in this case, the
adverb is called " Sentence Adverb " (adverbs that modify the entire sentence).
Examples:
                 Tomorrow, the Ministry of Education officers will be coming here.
                 Fortunately, the fund raising went on smoothly.
                 Probably, the doctor may give her three days off.


6-INTEROGATIVE ADVERBS

An adverb is often used at the beginning of the sentence to ask a question. When an
adverb is use din this way, it is called an interrogative adverb. An interrogative
adverb also modifies some word in the sentence.

Example:
                  When did you come back?
                  Where did you buy the car?
In the first sentence, the adverb When modifies the verb did arrive. (You did arrive
vwhen?). In the second sentence, the adverb Where asks the question and modifies the
verb did put.




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ADVERBIALS:

An adverbial is a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause) which
modifies or tells us something about the sentence or the verb

ADVERBIAL PHRASES:

A group of words, not containing a verb and subject, which performs the same
function as an adverb, is called adverbial phrase.

Examples:
                We went to the zoo.
In this sentence, the verb is went.
The words that describe the verb, the words that tell us where they went, are to the zoo.
To the zoo is the Adverbial Phrase.

                She works all summer.
In this sentence, the verb is works.
The words that describe the verb, the words that tell us when she works, are all
summer.
All summer is the Adverbial Phrase.


FORMS OF ADVERBIALS:

1- Prepositional Phrase:
                We start in five minutes.
In this sentence, the verb is start.
The words that describe the verb, the words that tell us when we start, are in five
minutes.
In five minutes is the Adverbial Phrase. (Using a preposition in)

2- Noun Phrase:
                James answered this morning.
In this sentence, the verb is answered.
The words that describe the verb, the words that tell us when James answered are this
morning.

3- Infinitive Phrase:
                They hurried to get their in time.
In this sentence, the verb is hurried.
The words that describe the verb, the words that tell us why they hurried, are to get
there in time. To get there in time is the Adverbial Phrase. (Using an infinitive to
get)




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ADVERBIAL CLAUSES:

A group of words, containing a verb and subject, which performs the same function as
an adverb, is called adverbial clause.

Examples:
                When I have time, I will help you.
In this sentence, the verb is will help.
The words that describe the verb, the words that tell us when the speaker will help, are
when I have time.

                John saw his friend as he was going home.
In this sentence, the verb is saw.
The words that describe the verb, the words that tell us when John saw his friend, are as
he was going home.


TYPES OF ADVERBIALS:

From a syntactic point of view, we can recognize three types of adverbial in English,
namely adjuncts, disjuncts and conjuncts. Of these, adjuncts are more closely
integrated in the structure of the clause, whereas disjuncts and conjuncts are peripheral
to the clause.

1- DISJUNCTS:

Disjuncts are primarily used to provide some kind of comment on what is expressed in
the clause

Example:
               Fortunately, I found the ticket in time.

2- CONJUNCTS:

Conjuncts are used to specify the semantic relation between the proposition expressed
by the clause in which they occur and the proposition expressed by another clause in
the text.

Example:
              John loves Chinese food; Mary, on the other hand, can’t stand it.
Where the conjunct on the other hand expresses the contrast between the two
propositions.




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3- ADJUNCTS:

Adjuncts provide information about the circumstances in which the event took place
(time, place, reason, manner, etc.), or modify the meaning of the whole, or part of the,
proposition.

Example:
                        After saying goodbye, she walked hesitantly towards the door.
The first adjunct in the example above indicates when the event took place (time), the
second adjunct indicates the manner in which the action was performed, and the third
adjunct indicates the direction of her movement (place).




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