Battle of the Little Bighorn upon for their survival had nearly disappeared.
Name __________________________________________ Score _______ Who won the Battle of the Little Bighorn? Millions had been killed by white hunters.
Fighting was especially fierce between white By the 1880s, most Plains tribes had been forced
Native Americans Fight to Survive settlers and the Sioux. In 1874, white onto reservations. Some turned to a Native
Before You Read prospectors rushed onto Sioux land after American prophet named Wovoka. He
In the last section, you read about how Americans began to Terms and Names discovering gold there. Sioux warriors united predicted a time when Native Americans
settle the West in the years following the Civil War. reservation Land set aside for under two chiefs, Sitting Bull and Crazy would again roam free. Wovoka's followers
In this section, you will learn how Native Americans of the Horse. Their goal was to drive out the settlers. grew, especially among the Sioux. The
Great Plains fought to protect their way of life.
Native American tribes
The Seventh Cavalry set out to return the Sioux government feared that the Ghost Dancers, as
As You Read Sand Creek Massacre A deadly to the reservation. The commander of the they were called, were preparing for war.
Use this diagram to take notes on the significant events in the attack on a peaceful Cheyenne cavalry was Lieutenant Colonel George A. In December 1890, the army rounded up a large
dash between Native Americans and white settlers. village by Colorado militia Custer. In June of 1876, the two sides clashed group of Ghost Dancers. Officials placed them
Sitting Bull Sioux chief near the Little Bighorn River in Montana. in a temporary camp along Wounded Knee
1876 1890 George A. Custer U.S. cavalry Custer and his men—211 in all—were wiped Creek in South Dakota. As the Native
out by several thousand Sioux and Cheyenne Americans handed over their weapons, a shot
in the Battle of Little Big Horn. rang out. U.S. troops responded with gunfire.
Battle of Little Big Horn Famous News of Custer's defeat shocked the nation. The About 300 Sioux were killed. This event
battle between U.S. troops and government stepped up its military effort. The became known as the Wounded Knee
Native Americans result was that the Little Bighorn was the last Massacre.
Wounded Knee Massacre Mass major Native American victory. 4. Why did the government round up the
killing of Native Americans by 2. What did defeat at Little Bighorn cause the followers of Wovoka?
government to do?
Dawes Act Plan that gave Native ______________________________
1887 Americans land to farm _____________________________
The Dawes Act Fails
Resistance in the Northwest and Southwest What was the goal of the Dawes Act?
Which tribes resisted white settlement? Some Americans felt that the only way Native
The Sioux was not the only tribe to battle white Americans could survive was through
settlers. The Nez Perce also sought to keep assimilation. This meant adopting the culture
their land. The Nez Perce lived throughout of the people around them. These reformers
eastern Oregon and Idaho. During the 1860s, wanted to "Americanize" Native Americans—
Native American Life on the Plains; A Clash reservation is land set aside for Native whites began moving onto their land. Most to make them more like whites.
of Cultures American tribes. members of the tribe were forced to sell their The government tried this approach by passing
How did the Plains tribes live? As more settlers moved west, the demand for land and to move. But in 1877 a group led by the Dawes Act in 1887. This act encouraged
Before 1500, most Plains tribes lived in villages land grew. So the federal government tried to Chief Joseph refused. The army eventually Native Americans to settle down as farmers. It
along rivers and streams. They hunted various buy back some of the reservation land. Many forced the group to surrender. divided reservations into individual plots of
animals. But the buffalo was the most Native Americans agreed because they saw no In the Southwest, both the Navajos and Apaches land for each family. But few Native
important. Buffalo meat was the chief food in other choice. But some tribes refused to give fought against being moved to reservations. Americans wanted to be farmers. In the end,
their diet. The tribes also used nearly every up any more of their land. The result was more These tribes battled the U.S. army before the Dawes Act was a failure.
part of the buffalo for food, clothing, or fighting between whites and Native finally surrendering. 5. Why did the Dawes Act fail?
shelter. Americans. 3. Why did some tribes fight against white
In the early 1540s, the Spanish first brought In 1862, about 1,200 Colorado militia attacked a settlers?
horses to the Great Plains. The arrival of peaceful Cheyenne village. More than 150
horses changed the way of life of the Plains Cheyenne were killed in what was called the ______________________________ _____________________________
people. They quickly became expert riders. Sand Creek Massacre.
They hunted the buffalo across the region. 1. What was the result of the refusal of some _____________________________
Over time, many Plains tribes developed a Native Americans to hand over more land to
nomadic way of life tied to buffalo hunting. the federal government?
Eastern Native Americans tribes also were living A Way of Life Ends
on the Plains by the mid 1800s. Decades What was the Wounded Knee Massacre?
______________________________ By the late 1800s, the way of life of the Native
before, the federal government had forced
them to move west onto reservations. A _____________________________ Americans on the Great Plains had come to an
end. The buffalo herds that they depended