Small Business Handbook Small Business Safety and Health Management Series OSHA 2209-02R 2005 Employers are responsible for providing a safe and Employers cannot be cited under the General Duty healthy workplace for their employees. OSHA’s role Clause in Section 5(a)(1) of the Act for failure to fol- is to promote the safety and health of America’s low recommendations in this handbook. working men and women by setting and enforcing The materials in this handbook are based upon standards; providing training, outreach and educa- Federal OSHA standards and other requirements in tion; establishing partnerships; and encouraging effect at the time of publication and upon generally continual improvement in workplace safety and accepted principles and activities within the job health. safety and health field. They should be useful to small business owners or managers and can be About this Handbook adapted easily to individual establishments. It is important to point out that 24 states, Puerto This handbook is provided to owners, propri- Rico and the Virgin Islands operate their own etors and managers of small businesses by the OSHA-approved safety and health programs under Occupational Safety and Health Administration Section 18 of the Act. While the programs in these (OSHA), an agency of the U.S. Department of State Plan States may differ in some respects from Labor. For additional copies of this publication, Federal OSHA, this handbook can be used by write to the U.S. Government Printing Office, employers in any state because the standards (GPO), Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop imposed by State Plan States must be at least as SDE, 732 N. Capitol Street, NW, Washington, DC effective as Federal OSHA standards. A list of 20401, or call the OSHA Publications Office at (202) states that operate their own safety and health pro- 693-1888, or fax (202) 693-2498 for ordering infor- grams can be found on OSHA’s website at mation. Please note that the entire text of the www.osha.gov. Small Business Handbook is available on OSHA’s Material in this publication is in the public website at http://www.osha.gov/Publications/ domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially, osha2209.pdf. without permission. Source credit is requested but The handbook should help small business em- not required. ployers meet the legal requirements imposed by This information will be made available to sen- the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (the sory impaired individuals upon request by voice Act), and achieve an in-compliance status before an phone (202) 693-1999 or teletypewriter (TTY) (877) OSHA inspection. An excellent resource to accom- 889-5627. pany this information is OSHA’s Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines, (54 Federal Please Note: The small business employer seeking Register 3904-3916, January 26, 1989), also avail- information on procurement or contracting with the able on OSHA’s website. Department of Labor or OSHA should contact the This handbook is not a legal interpretation of the Department of Labor’s Office of Small Business provisions of the Act and does not place any addi- Programs, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Room C- tional requirements on employers or employees. 2318, Washington, DC 20210. Small Business Handbook Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor OSHA 2209-02R 2005 U.S. Department of Labor www.osha.gov Contents PREFACE 4 Office of Small Business Assistance 4 Cooperative Programs 4 State Plans 4 Office of Training and Education 4 OSHA’s Website 5 Safety and Health Add Value 5 INTRODUCTION: The Value of a Safety and Health Management System 6 A Profit and Loss Statement 6 Developing a Profitable Strategy for Handling Occupational Safety and Health 6 A FOUR-POINT WORKPLACE PROGRAM: The Basis of a Plan 8 Using the Four-Point Program 8 MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT 8 WORKSITE ANALYSIS 9 HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL 9 TRAINING FOR EMPLOYEES, SUPERVISORS AND MANAGERS 10 Documenting Your Activities 11 Safety and Health Recordkeeping 11 INJURY/ILLNESS RECORDS 11 EXPOSURE RECORDS AND OTHERS 12 STARTING A SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Creating a Plan 13 Decide to Start Now 13 Designating Responsibility 13 Ask for Help 13 Organize the Workplace 14 Start Gathering Specific Facts About Your Situation 14 Establish a Four-Point Safety and Health Program 15 Develop and Implement Your Action Plan 15 SELF-INSPECTION 17 Self-Inspection Scope 17 Self-Inspection Checklists 18 EMPLOYER POSTING 18 RECORDKEEPING 18 SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM 18 MEDICAL SERVICES AND FIRST AID 19 FIRE PROTECTION 19 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING 20 GENERAL WORK ENVIRONMENT 20 WALKWAYS 21 FLOOR AND WALL OPENINGS 21 STAIRS AND STAIRWAYS 22 ELEVATED SURFACES 22 EXITING OR EGRESS - EVACUATION 22 EXIT DOORS 23 PORTABLE LADDERS 23 HAND TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 24 PORTABLE (POWER OPERATED) TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT 24 ABRASIVE WHEEL EQUIPMENT GRINDERS 24 POWDER-ACTUATED TOOLS 25 MACHINE GUARDING 25 LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURES 26 WELDING, CUTTING AND BRAZING 27 COMPRESSORS AND COMPRESSED AIR 28 COMPRESSORS/AIR RECEIVERS 28 COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS 29 HOIST AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT 29 INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS - FORKLIFTS 29 SPRAYING OPERATIONS 30 ENTERING CONFINED SPACES 30 ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS 31 FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS 32 HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL EXPOSURE 33 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES COMMUNICATION 34 ELECTRICAL 35 NOISE 37 FUELING 37 IDENTIFICATION OF PIPING SYSTEMS 37 MATERIALS HANDLING 38 TRANSPORTING EMPLOYEES AND MATERIALS 38 CONTROL OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES BY VENTILATION 38 SANITIZING EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING 39 TIRE INFLATION 39 ASSISTANCE IN SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 40 OSHA Assistance 40 OSHA’S OFFICE OF SMALL BUSINESS ASSISTANCE 40 ON-SITE CONSULTATION 40 OTHER COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS 41 VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS (VPP) 42 OSHA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM (OSPP) 42 OSHA ALLIANCE PROGRAM 42 States with Approved Plans 42 OSHA Publications 42 Other Sources of Assistance 43 VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS PARTICIPANTS’ ASSOCIATION (VPPPA) 43 SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS 43 NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) 44 WORKERS’ COMPENSATION CARRIERS AND OTHER INSURANCE COMPANIES 44 TRADE ASSOCIATIONS AND EMPLOYER GROUPS 44 TRADE UNIONS AND EMPLOYEE GROUPS 44 THE NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL AND LOCAL CHAPTERS 44 PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS 44 SPECIFIC MEDICAL CONSULTATION 44 YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY 45 FINANCING WORKPLACE IMPROVEMENT 45 ADDITIONAL WEB PAGES OF INTEREST TO SMALL BUSINESSES 45 Appendix A: Overall Action Plan Worksheet 46 Appendix B: Model Policy Statements 48 Appendix C: Codes of Safe Practices 49 Appendix D: OSHA Job Safety and Health Standards, Regulations and Requirements 50 Appendix E: Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (SBREFA) 51 OSHA Regional Offices 52 OSHA’s Non-Retaliation Policy inside back cover 4 PREFACE American employers and workers want safe and sector and other government entities lead to healthful places in which to work. They want improved safety and health. As a result, OSHA everyone on the job to go home whole and healthy continues to expand its cooperative programs each day. Determined to make that dream possi- which currently include the free and confidential ble, OSHA is committed to assuring – so far as pos- Consultation Program, the Voluntary Protection sible – that every working man and woman in the Programs, the Strategic Partnership Program and nation has safe and healthful working conditions. OSHA’s newest addition, Alliances. For a more OSHA believes that providing workers with a safe detailed description of each of these programs, workplace is central to their ability to enjoy health, please see pages 40- 42. security and the opportunity to achieve the Small businesses are encouraged to investigate American dream. the full array of cooperative programs offered by OSHA seeks to cut unnecessary rules, regula- OSHA. Participation can be on an individual com- tions and red tape. It is eliminating thousands of pany basis or through an industry association. pages of outdated regulations and continues to Detailed information on each program is also avail- rewrite standards in plain English. OSHA is paring able on OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov, by con- down its regulatory agenda so that it more accu- tacting any OSHA office, or by calling (800) 321- rately reflects realistic goals that best serve the OSHA. needs of American employers and employees. Confronted by the realities and demands to State Plans keep pace with the workforce and problems of the future, OSHA is developing new strategies to OSHA has important partnerships with the 24 reduce occupational fatalities, injuries and illness- states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands that oper- es. Coupled with strong, effective and fair enforce- ate their own OSHA-approved safety and health ment, OSHA strives to provide improved outreach, programs. State workplace safety and health pro- education and compliance assistance to America’s grams frequently lead the way in developing inno- employers and employees. vative approaches to making America’s workplaces safer and healthier. Office of Small Business Assistance States that operate their own worker safety and health plans must provide worker protection that is OSHA wants to provide quality service to our “at least as effective as” the Federal program. small business customers. In October 2002, OSHA However, because their standards and other proce- created the Office of Small Business Assistance to dures may vary, businesses should become famil- provide small business direction, to facilitate infor- iar with their state regulations and agencies. See mation sharing and to help in finding and achieving OSHA’s website for a list of State Plan States. regulatory compliance. The office also works to educate small businesses on using up-to-date tools Office of Training and Education and materials, and facilitates opportunities to com- ment on OSHA’s regulatory agenda. The Office of OSHA’s Office of Training and Education Small Business Assistance maintains OSHA’s spe- provides training and instruction in all facets of cialized small business web pages found at http:// occupational safety and health. OSHA’s Training www.osha.gov/dcsp/smallbusiness/index.html. Institute, located in Arlington Heights, IL, provides The Office of Small Business Assistance can be training for OSHA compliance safety and health contacted by telephone at (202) 693-2220 or by officers as well as for the general public and safety writing to: Director, Office of Small Business and health staff from other Federal agencies. In Assistance, 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Room addition to OSHA’s Training Institute, there are 32 N-3700, Washington, DC 20210. additional education sites located throughout the country. These OSHA education centers operate in Cooperative Programs conjunction with universities, colleges and learning centers to conduct OSHA courses for the private Years of experience show us that voluntary col- sector and other Federal agencies, making safety laborative relationships between OSHA, the private and health training and education more accessible OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 5 to those who need it. There are tuition fees for pri- If you would like to receive regular updates vate sector students. For more information about from OSHA about new programs, tools, best prac- OSHA’s Training Institute, OSHA’s education cen- tices and other useful information, subscribe to the ters, or to obtain training catalogs with course agency’s e-news memo, QuickTakes. QuickTakes is schedules, write the OSHA Training Institute, 2020 issued twice monthly to subscribers and is always South Arlington Heights Road, Arlington Heights, IL available online. You can subscribe to OSHA’s 60005 or call (847) 297-4810. The information is QuickTakes at www.osha.gov. also fully accessible on the Internet at www.osha.gov. Safety and Health Add Value OSHA’s Website Addressing safety and health issues in the work- place saves the employer money and adds value to OSHA has made every effort to continuously the business. Recent estimates place the business expand and improve its website. OSHA’s extensive costs associated with occupational injuries at close website provides employers and employees with to $170 billion–expenditures that come straight out practical, easy-to-understand and up-to-date guid- of company profits. ance on regulations, compliance assistance and When workers stay whole and healthy, the learning how to identify and control hazards. Each direct cost-savings to businesses include: OSHA cooperative program has individual web I lower workers’ compensation insurance costs; pages describing program elements and highlight- I reduced medical expenditures; ing successes of the participants. Several pages I smaller expenditures for return-to-work are devoted to small business, technical links, news programs; items, publication lists and an inventory of compli- I fewer faulty products; ance assistance tools, including expert advisors I lower costs for job accommodations for and eTools. eTools are “stand-alone” interactive, injured workers; web-based training tools on occupational safety I less money spent for overtime benefits. and health topics. Regulations, standards, direc- tives and interpretations relating to OSHA can be Safety and health also make big reductions in found as well. There is a Spanish version of the indirect costs, due to: OSHA website, and many posters and some publi- I increased productivity; cations are also available in Spanish. I higher quality products; OSHA’s web pages include MyOSHA, which I increased morale; allows users to create their own personalized I better labor/management relations; OSHA web page with customized content and I reduced turnover; links. Quick Start is another tool on OSHA’s I better use of human resources. Compliance Assistance web page that allows the user to identify many of the major OSHA require- Employees and their families benefit from ments and guidance materials that apply to their safety and health because: individual workplaces or industry sectors. I their incomes are protected; Through its website, OSHA invites citizens to e- I their family lives are not hindered by injury; mail questions that can be routed to appropriate I their stress is not increased. agency officials for response. Any communication conducted via the “Contact Us” link on the OSHA Simply put, protecting people on the job is in website is considered an informational exchange everyone’s best interest–our economy, our commu- rather than an official communication with the nities, our fellow workers and our families. Safety Department of Labor. For an official response to a and health add value to businesses, workplaces question or concern, inquiries should be submitted and lives. in writing. Occupational Safety and Health Administration 6 INTRODUCTION: The Value of a Safety and Health Management System A Profit and Loss Statement Developing a Profitable Strategy for Handling Occupational Safety and Health As a small business owner, you are, by nature, a risk taker. You wager your business acumen Nobody wants accidents to happen in his or her against larger, perhaps more heavily financed cor- business. A serious fire, a permanent injury, or the porate groups and other free-spirited, self-employ- death of an employee or owner can cause the loss ed individuals like yourself. There is excitement of profit or even an entire business. To prevent and challenge in such a venture, but to succeed such losses, you don’t have to turn your business you need good management information, an ability upside down. You may not have to spend a lot of to be a good manager of people and the intelli- money, either. You do need to use good business gence and inner strength to make the right deci- sense and apply recognized prevention principles. sions. There are reasons why accidents happen. Thousands of workers die each year and many, Something goes wrong somewhere. It may take many more suffer injury or illness from conditions some thought, and maybe the help of friends or at work. But how often does an owner or manager other trained people, to figure out what went like you actually see or even hear about work-relat- wrong, but an accident always has a cause–a rea- ed deaths, serious injuries or illnesses in the busi- son why. Once you know why an accident hap- nesses with which you are familiar? How often has pened, it is possible to prevent future incidents. your business actually sustained this type of loss? You need some basic facts and perhaps some help In most small businesses, the answer is rarely. from others who already know some of the an- For this reason, many owners or managers do not swers. You also need a plan–a plan to prevent understand why there is controversy about the accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration Not all dangers at your worksite depend on an (OSHA), job safety and health standards, inspec- accident to cause harm, of course. Worker expo- tions, citations, etc. sure to toxic chemicals or harmful levels of noise But others have learned why. Unfortunately, or radiation may happen in conjunction with rou- they have experienced a loss. These owner/man- tine work as well as by accident. You may not real- agers will tell you that it is too late to do anything ize the extent of the exposure or harm that you and once a serious accident happens. They have learn- your employees face. The effect may not be imme- ed that prevention is the only real way to avoid this diate. You need a plan that includes prevention of loss. these health hazard exposures and accidents. You Reducing losses is a goal that you as an owner need a safety and health management system. or manager share with us in OSHA. While we may It is not difficult to develop such a plan. Basi- see this goal in a slightly different light, it remains cally, your plan should address the types of acci- a common bond. dents and health hazard exposures that could hap- We have learned from small employers, like pen in your workplace. Because each workplace is you, that you place a high value on the well-being different, your program should address your spe- of your employees. Like many small businesses, cific needs and requirements. you may employ family members and personal There are four basic elements to all good safety acquaintances. And, if you don’t know your em- and health programs. These are as follows: ployees before they are hired, then chances are that the very size of your workplace will promote 1. Management Commitment and Employee the closeness and concern for one another that Involvement. The manager or management team small businesses value. leads the way, by setting policy, assigning and sup- Assuming that you are committed to safe and porting responsibility, setting an example and in- healthful work practices, OSHA wants to work with volving employees. you to prevent all losses. We believe that, when you make job safety and health a real part of your every- 2.Worksite Analysis. The worksite is continually ana- day operations, you will not lose in the long run. lyzed to identify all existing and potential hazards. Investing in safety and health activity now will better enable you to avoid possible losses in the future. 3. Hazard Prevention and Control. Methods to pre- OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 7 vent or control existing or potential hazards are put It will certainly give you a way to express and doc- in place and maintained. ument your good faith and commitment to protect- ing your workers’ health and safety. 4.Training for Employees, Supervisors and This approach usually does not involve large Managers. Managers, supervisors and employees costs. Developing a health and safety protection are trained to understand and deal with worksite plan does not have to be expensive and generally hazards. does not require additional employees, especially in smaller businesses. Safety and health can be Regardless of the size of your business, you integrated into your other business functions with should use each of these elements to prevent work- modest effort on your part. place accidents and possible injuries and illnesses. The key to the success of a safety and health Developing a workplace program following plan is to see it as a part of your business opera- these four points is a key step in protecting you tion and to see it reflected in your day-to-day oper- and your workers’ safety and health. If you already ations. As you implement the plan and incorporate have a program, reviewing it in relation to these it into your business culture, safety and health elements should help you improve what you have. awareness will become second nature to you and Following this four-point approach to safety and your employees. health in your business may also improve efficien- The next section provides short descriptions cy. It may help you reduce insurance claims and and illustrations of each element. Since most other costs. While having a safety and health plan employers, like you, are pressed for time, these based on these four elements does not guarantee descriptions will assist you in getting started on compliance with OSHA standards, the approach your own approach. will help you toward full compliance and beyond. Occupational Safety and Health Administration 8 A FOUR-POINT WORKPLACE PROGRAM: The Basis of a Plan The Four-Point Workplace Program described assets you have. Their safety, health and goodwill here is based upon the Safety and Health Program are essential to the success of your business. Hav- Management Guidelines issued by OSHA in ing them cooperate with you in protecting their January 1989. (For a free copy of the guidelines, safety and health not only helps to keep them go to OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov, write to healthy–it makes your job easier. OSHA Publications, U.S. Department of Labor, P.O. Here are some actions to consider: Box 37535, Washington, DC 200013-7535, or call (202) 693-1888.) Although voluntary, these guide- I Post your policy on worker safety and health lines represent OSHA’s policy on what every work- next to the Job Safety and Health Protection site should have in place to protect workers from Poster where all employees can see it. (See occupational hazards. The guidelines are based Appendix B, Model Policy Statements.) heavily on OSHA’s experience with its Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP), which recognize excel- I Hold a meeting with all employees to commu- lence in workplace safety and health management. nicate your safety and health policy, and dis- For more information on these guidelines and cuss your objectives for safety and health. OSHA’s cooperative programs, contact OSHA’s Office of Small Business Assistance, U.S. I Make sure that your support is visible by get- Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, ting personally involved in the activities that NW, Room N-3700, Washington, DC 20210, (202) are part of your safety and health program. 693-2220. For example, personally review all inspection and accident reports and ensure that follow- Using the Four-Point Program up occurs when needed. As you review this publication, we encourage I Ensure that you, your managers and your you to use the Action Plan Worksheet in Appendix supervisors follow all safety requirements that A to jot down the things you want to do to make apply to all employees, even if you are only in your workplace safe for your employees. Noting an area briefly. If, for instance, you require a those actions as you go along will make it easier hard hat, safety glasses and/or safety shoes in to assemble the total plan you need. an area, wear them yourself when you are in that area. MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT I Take advantage of your employees’ special- As the owner or manager of a small business, ized knowledge and encourage them to buy your attitude toward job safety and health will be into the program by having them make in- reflected by your employees. If you are not inter- spections, conduct safety training, or investi- ested in preventing employee injury and illness, gate accidents. your employees will probably not give safety and health much thought either. I Make clear assignments of responsibility for Therefore, it is essential that you demonstrate at every part of your safety and health program, all times your personal concern for employee safety and make sure everyone understands them. and health, and the priority you place on them in The more people who are involved, the better. your workplace. Your policy must be clear. Only you A good rule of thumb is to assign safety and can show its importance through your own actions. health responsibilities in the same way you You can demonstrate the depth of your commit- assign production responsibilities. Make it a ment by involving your employees in planning and special part of everyone’s job to work safely. carrying out your efforts. If you seriously involve your employees in identifying and resolving safety I Give those with safety and health responsibili- and health problems, they will bring their unique ty enough people, time, training, money and insights and energy to achieving the goals and authority to get the job done. objectives of your program. The men and women who work for you are among the most valuable I Don’t forget your safety and health program OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 9 after you make assignments; make sure the ards. The checklists (at pages 18-39) provide a job gets done. Recognize and reward those starting point. Your state consultant can assist who do well and correct those who don’t. you in establishing an effective system. I At least once a year, review what you have I Make sure your employees feel comfortable in accomplished in meeting your objectives and alerting you or another member of manage- reevaluate whether you need new objectives ment when they see things that look danger- or program revisions. ous or out of place. I Institute an accountability system where all I Learn how to conduct a thorough investiga- personnel will be held accountable for not fol- tion when things go wrong. This will help you lowing work rules designed to promote work- develop ways to prevent recurrences. Exten- place safety and health. sive information can be found on OSHA’s website under “Accident Investigation” in the WORKSITE ANALYSIS index. It is your responsibility to know what items or substances you have in your workplace that could I Review several years of injury or illness rec- hurt your workers. Worksite analysis is a group of ords to identify patterns that can help you processes that helps you make sure that you know devise strategies to improve your safety and what you need to keep your workers safe. For help health program. Periodically review several in getting started with these processes, you can call months of experience to determine if any new on your state on-site Consultation Program and patterns are developing. have an experienced health and safety professional visit your workplace for free and confidentially. HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL Locations for each state are listed on OSHA’s web- Once you have identified your existing and site. Also, OSHA’s booklet, Job Hazard Analysis, potential hazards, you are ready to implement the may be helpful. (See OSHA Publications at page systems that prevent or control those hazards. 42 for ordering information.) Your state Consultation Program can help you do Here are some actions to consider: this. Whenever possible, hazards should be elimi- nated. Sometimes that can be done through sub- I Request a consultation visit from your state stitution of a less toxic material or engineering con- on-site Consultation Program covering both trols. When you cannot eliminate hazards, systems safety and health to get a full survey of the should be established to control them. hazards that exist in your workplace and those Here are some actions to consider: that could develop. You can also contract for such services from expert private consultants I Set up safe work procedures based on an if you prefer. analysis of the hazards in your workplace and ensure that employees understand and follow I Establish a way to get professional advice them. It is a good idea to involve employees when you make changes to procedures or in the analysis that results in those procedures. equipment, to ensure that the changes are not (See Appendix C, Codes of Safe Practices.) introducing new hazards into your workplace. Find ways to keep current on newly recog- I Be ready to enforce the rules for safe work nized hazards in your industry. procedures. Ask your employees to help you establish a disciplinary system that will be fair I Periodically review with employees each job, and understood by everyone. analyzing it step-by-step to see if there are any hidden hazards in the equipment or procedures. I Where necessary, ensure that personal protec- tive equipment (PPE) is used and that your em- I Set up a self-inspection system to check your ployees know why they need it, how to use it hazard controls and evaluate any new haz- and how to maintain it. Occupational Safety and Health Administration 10 I Provide for regular equipment maintenance to first aid. First-aid supplies must be readily prevent breakdowns that can create hazards. available for emergency use. Arrangements Ensure that preventive and regular mainte- for this training can be made through your nance are tracked to completion. local Red Cross chapter, your insurance carri- er, your local safety council, and others. I Plan for emergencies, including fire and natu- ral disasters. Conduct frequent drills to en- I Check battery charging stations, maintenance sure that all employees know what to do operations, laboratories, heating and ventilat- under stressful conditions. ing operations and any corrosive materials areas to make sure the required eyewash facil- I Ask your state consultant to help develop a ities and showers are operational. medical program that fits your worksite. In- volve nearby doctors and emergency facilities I Consider retaining a local doctor or an occu- by inviting them to visit your workplace and pational health nurse on a part-time or as- help you plan the best way to avoid injuries needed basis for advice on medical and first and illness during emergency situations. aid planning. I Ensure the ready availability of medical per- TRAINING FOR EMPLOYEES, SUPERVISORS sonnel for advice and consultation on matters AND MANAGERS of employee health. This does not mean that An effective accident prevention program re- you must provide health care, but you must quires proper job performance from everyone in be prepared to deal with medical emergencies the workplace. or health problems connected to your work- As an owner or manager, you must ensure that place. all employees know about the materials and equip- ment they work with, known hazards and how to To fulfill the above requirements, consider the control the hazards. following: Each employee needs to know that: • no employee is expected to undertake a job I Develop an emergency medical procedure to until he or she has received job instructions handle injuries, transport ill or injured workers on how to do it properly and is authorized to and notify medical facilities. Posting emer- perform that job. Also, gency numbers is a good idea. • no employee should undertake a job that appears unsafe. I Survey the medical facilities near your place You may be able to combine safety and health of business and make arrangements for them training with other training, depending upon the to handle routine and emergency cases. Co- types of hazards in your workplace. operative agreements may be possible with Here are some actions to consider: nearby larger workplaces that have on-site medical personnel and/or facilities. I Ask your state consultant to recommend train- ing for your worksite. The consultant may be I Ensure that your procedure for reporting able to conduct training while he or she is injuries and illnesses is understood by all there. employees. I Make sure you have trained your employees I Perform routine walkthroughs of the worksite on every potential hazard that they could be to identify hazards and to track identified haz- exposed to and how to protect themselves. ards until they are corrected. Then verify that they really understand what you taught them. I If your business is remote from medical facili- ties, you are required to ensure that adequate- I Pay particular attention to your new employ- ly trained personnel are available to render ees and to employees who are moving to new OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 11 jobs. Because they are learning new opera- INJURY/ILLNESS RECORDS tions, they are more likely to get hurt. OSHA rules for recording and reporting occupa- tional injuries and illnesses affect 1.4 million estab- I Train your supervisors to understand all the lishments. Small businesses with 10 or fewer hazards faced by the employees and how to employees throughout the year are exempt from reinforce training with quick reminders and most of the requirements of the OSHA recordkeep- refreshers, or with disciplinary action if neces- ing rules, as are a number of specific industries sary. in the retail, service, finance, insurance and real estate sectors that are classified as low-hazard. I Make sure that your top management staff Detailed information about OSHA recordkeeping understand their safety and health responsibil- rules can be found at http://www.osha.gov/record- ities and how to hold subordinate supervisory keeping/index.html or refer to 29 Code of Federal employees accountable for theirs. Regulations (CFR) 1904 for the specific exceptions. OSHA recordkeeping can help the small busi- Documenting Your Activities ness employer evaluate the success of safety and health activities. Success can be measured by a Document your activities in all elements of the reduction or elimination of employee injuries and Four-Point Workplace Program. Essential records, illnesses during a calendar year. including those legally required for workers’ com- The OSHA recordkeeping system has five steps: pensation, insurance audits and government in- spections must be maintained as long as the actual 1. Obtain a report on every injury or job-related ill- need exists or as required by law. Keeping records ness requiring medical treatment (other than basic of your activities, such as policy statements, first aid). training sessions, safety and health meetings, information distributed to employees, and med- 2. Record each injury or job-related illness on ical arrangements made, is greatly encouraged. OSHA Form 300 (Log of Work-Related Injuries and Maintaining essential records also will demonstrate Illnesses) using the instructions provided. sound business management as supporting proof for credit applications, for showing “good faith” in 3. Prepare a supplementary record of occupational reducing any proposed penalties from OSHA injuries and illnesses for recordable cases on OSHA inspections, for insurance and other audits, and aid Form 301 (Injury and Illness Incident Report). efficient review of your current safety and health activities for better control of your operations and 4. Every year, prepare an annual summary using to plan improvements. OSHA Form 300A (Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses). Post it no later than Safety and Health Recordkeeping February 1, and keep it posted until May 1. A good place to post it is next to the OSHA Workplace Records of sales, costs, profits and losses are Poster. essential to all successful businesses. They enable the owner or manager to learn from experience 5. Retain these records for at least five years. and to make corrections for future operations. Records of accidents, related injuries, illnesses and Periodically review these records to look for any property losses can serve the same purpose, if they patterns or repeat situations. These records can are used in the same way. The primary purpose of help you to identify high-risk areas that require OSHA-required recordkeeping is to retain informa- your immediate attention. tion about accidents that have happened to help determine the causes and develop procedures to Basic OSHA recordkeeping requirements prevent a recurrence. address only injuries and illnesses, so you might consider expanding your own records to include all Occupational Safety and Health Administration 12 incidents, including those where no injury or illness EXPOSURE RECORDS AND OTHERS resulted. This information may assist you in pin- In addition to injury/illness records, certain pointing unsafe conditions and/or procedures. OSHA standards require records on the exposure Safety councils, insurance carriers and others can of employees to toxic substances and hazardous assist you in instituting such a system. exposures, physical examination reports and The employer is required to report to OSHA employment records. within eight hours of the accident, all work-related As you identify hazards, you will be able to fatalities or multiple hospitalizations that involve determine whether these requirements apply to three or more employees. your workplace. Your records should be used in Even if your business is exempt from routine conjunction with your control procedures and with recordkeeping requirements, you may be selected your self-inspection activity. They should not be by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) or considered merely as bookkeeping. a related state agency for inclusion in an annual sample survey. You will receive a letter directly from the agency with instructions, if you are selected. OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES STARTING A SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Creating a Plan 13 You can use this handbook to create a basic Designating Responsibility plan of action for starting a safety and health management system at your business. The action You must decide who in your company is the plan described in this section provides the most most appropriate person to manage your safety direct route to getting yourself organized to com- and health system. Who can ensure that the pro- plete the Four-Point Program outlined in the previ- gram will become an integral part of your busi- ous section. ness? In many cases it will be you, the owner. Sometimes it will be a plant manager or key super- Decide to Start Now visor. It could even be an engineer, personnel spe- cialist, or other staff member. The time to start your safety and health man- Whoever you choose should be committed to agement system is now. You have a better picture workplace safety and health, have the time to de- of what constitutes a good safety and health pro- velop and manage the program, and be willing to gram. Now you can address the practical concerns take on the responsibility and accountability that of putting these elements together and coming up goes with operating an effective program. The with a program to suit your workplace. individual will need your full cooperation and sup- Hopefully, you have been taking notes for your port, but the ultimate responsibility for safety and action plan as you reviewed the preceding de- health in your workplace rests on you. scription of the Four-Point Program. You should now be ready to decide what you want to accom- Ask for Help plish and to determine what steps are necessary to achieve your goals. Next you need to deter- Federal occupational safety and health law mine how and when each step will be done and allows a state to develop and operate its own occu- who will do it. pational safety and health program in place of the Your plan should consider your company’s Federal OSHA program. It is possible that the reg- immediate needs and provide for ongoing, long- ulatory aspect of the law (setting of mandatory lasting worker protection. Once your plan is minimum standards and conducting inspections of designed, it is important to follow through and workplaces) is being operated by your state gov- use it in the workplace. You will then have a pro- ernment as opposed to Federal OSHA. gram to anticipate, identify and eliminate condi- One of the first things to learn is which branch tions or practices that could result in injuries and of government, Federal or state, has current juris- illnesses. diction over your business. If you are not sure If you have difficulty deciding where to begin, a what agency is responsible for administering work- phone call to your state Consultation Program will place safety and health in your state, contact the help get you started. A state consultant will survey nearest OSHA Area Office to find out. (See your workplace for existing or potential hazards. www.osha.gov). You will need certain Federal Then, if you request it, he or she will determine OSHA publications (or comparable state publica- what you need to make your safety and health pro- tions) for use in your safety and health activities, gram effective. The consultant will work with you such as: to develop a plan for making these improvements and to keep your program effective. I Job Safety and Health Protection - OSHA Whether you choose to work with a consultant 3165. You must display the Federal or state or to develop your program yourself, many publi- OSHA poster in your workplace. This poster cations are available from your state on-site Con- is also available in Spanish (Job Safety and sultation Program or from OSHA that spell out in Health Protection OSHA 3167). greater detail the steps you can take to create an effective safety and health program for your work- I OSHA standards that apply to your business. place. The rewards for your efforts will be an effi- You need to have a copy of all OSHA stan- cient and productive workplace with a low level of dards that apply to your type of business loss and injury. available for reference. (See Appendix D.) Occupational Safety and Health Administration 14 Standards are the regulations that OSHA uses vey should focus on evaluating workplace condi- to inspect for compliance and should be the tions with respect to safety and health regulations baseline for your inspections in determining and generally recognized safe and healthful work what to do when hazards are identified. Most practices. It should include checking on the use of businesses fall under OSHA’s General Industry any hazardous materials, observing employee work Standards. If you are involved with construc- habits and practices, and discussing safety and tion or maritime operations, you will need the health problems with employees. See the Self- standards that apply to these classifications. Inspection Checklists (at pages 18-39), to help you (In states with state-run occupational safety get a good start on creating this initial survey. and health programs, use the appropriate state standards.) 2. The second major activity is to assess your existing safety and health program and identify I Recordkeeping requirements and the neces- areas that work well and those that need improve- sary forms. ment. You should gather as much information as you can that relates to safety and health manage- I Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. ment in your workplace. You should include the You may want a copy of this legislation for following in this review: reference. I Safety and health activities. Examine ongoing Organize the Workplace activities as well as those tried previously, company policy statements, rules (both work Poor housekeeping can contribute to low and safety), guidelines for proper work prac- morale and sloppy work. Most safety action pro- tices and procedures, and records of training grams start with an intensive cleanup campaign in programs. all areas of the workplace. Get rid of unecessary items; provide proper I Equipment. List your major equipment, what waste containers; store flammables properly; make it is used for and where it is located. Special sure exits are not blocked; mark aisles and pas- attention should be given to inspection sched- sageways; provide adequate lighting, etc. ules, maintenance activities, and plant and Get everyone involved and impress upon em- office layouts. ployees that you want to make your workplace safer, more healthful and more efficient. I Employee capabilities. Make an alphabetical list of all employees, showing the date hired, Start Gathering Specific Facts their job descriptions, and experience and About Your Situation training. Before making changes in your safety and I Accident and injury/illness history. Review health operations, you should gather information first-aid cases and workers’ compensation about the current conditions and business practices insurance payments and awards, and review that comprise your safety and health program. your losses. Compare your insurance rate This information can help you identify problems with others in your group. Give special atten- and determine what is needed to solve them. tion to recurring accidents, types of injuries, Your workplace assessment should be conduct- etc. ed by the person responsible for your safety and health management system and/or a professional After gathering facts, see if any major problem safety and health consultant. The assessment con- areas emerge such as interruptions in your normal sists of two major activities: operations, too many employees taking too much time off due to illness or injury, too many damaged 1. A comprehensive safety and health survey of products, etc. General help with this kind of prob- your entire facility will identify any existing or lem identification can often be obtained from com- potential safety and health hazards. This initial sur- pensation carriers, local safety councils, trade asso- OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 15 ciations, state agencies, major suppliers or similar- Establish and regularly conduct a worksite ly situated businesses in the same industry. analysis. A successful safety and health program If you discover a major problem, see what can depends on an accurate identification of all the haz- be done to solve it. Once a problem is identified, ards and potential hazards in your workplace. This you can work on the corrective action or a plan to is an ongoing process that includes routine self- control the problem. Take immediate action and inspections. make a record of what you have done. Even if you Create systems and procedures to prevent and find no major problems, don’t stop there. Now it is control hazards identified through your worksite time to develop a comprehensive safety and health analysis. OSHA standards can be helpful because program to avoid any major problems in the future. they address controls in order of effectiveness and preference. The hierarchy of controls is engineer- Establish a Four-Point Safety and ing, administrative, work practice and PPE. When- Health Program ever feasible, engineering, administrative or work practice controls should be instituted even if they The success of any workplace safety and health do not eliminate the hazard or reduce exposure. program depends on careful planning. This means Use of such controls in conjunction with PPE will that you must take the time to analyze what you help reduce the hazard or exposure to the lowest want to accomplish and develop an action plan in practical level. Where no standard exists, creative order to attain your goals. From this standpoint, problem-solving and consultant resources may you can design a step-by-step process to take you help you create effective controls. The basic for- from the idea stage to an effective safety and mula for controlling workplace hazards, in order of health management system. preference, includes: The best way to create a safe and healthful workplace is to institute the Four-Point Program I Eliminating the hazard from the machine, the discussed at page 8 of this handbook. method, the material or the facility. Establish your management commitment and involve your employees. No safety and health I Abating the hazard by limiting exposure or program will work without this commitment and controlling it at its source. involvement. The first step is to designate a person to be responsible for your safety and health program. I Training personnel to be aware of the hazard Involve your employees as widely as possible and to follow safe work procedures to avoid it. from the beginning. They are most in contact with the potential and actual safety and health hazards I Prescribing PPE for protecting employees at your worksite and will have constructive input against the hazard and ensuring that they not on the development of your program. The ultimate only use it, but that they know how to use it success of your safety and health program will correctly. depend on their support. Make sure your program assigns responsibility Establish and provide ongoing training for and accountability to all employees in your organi- employees, supervisors and managers to ensure zation. A good safety and health program makes it that everyone at your worksite can recognize haz- clear that each and every employee, from you ards and how to control them. through the supervisory levels to the line worker, These points are crucial to a safe and healthful carries responsibility for his or her part of the pro- workplace for you and your employees, making it gram. Make safety and health duties clear and more difficult for accidents to occur and for work- hold every individual accountable for his or her related health problems to develop. safety- and health-related duties. Refer to the recommended actions to take in the Develop and Implement Your Action Plan Worksite Analysis paragraph at page 9. These will help start your program off on the right track. You Developing an action plan to build a safety and will be building the foundation for a successful health program around the four points can serve as safety and health program. a “road map” to take your program to where you Occupational Safety and Health Administration 16 want it to be. An action plan tells you what has to Remember, a safety and health program is a plan be done, the logical order in which to do it, who is put into practice. Keep your program on track by responsible and where you want to be when you periodically checking its progress and by calling on finish. It describes problems and solutions, but is a state consultant when you need assistance. not ironclad. An action plan can and should be Any good management system requires period- changed to correspond with changes in the work- ic review. Take a careful look at each component of place. your safety and health program to determine what A good action plan has two parts: is working well and what changes are needed. Once again, a state consultant can assist you in this 1. A list of major changes or improvements to area. Any necessary improvements can be turned make your safety and health program effective. into new safety and health objectives for the com- Each item should be prioritized, have a target date ing year. Developing new action plans to imple- for completion and identify who is responsible for ment these improvements will continue progress implementation. toward an effective safety and health program, reduce your safety and health risks, and increase 2. A specific plan to implement each major change efficiency and profit. or improvement, including what you want to Remember that it is important to document accomplish, the steps required, who will be your activities. The best way to evaluate the suc- assigned to do what and a schedule for comple- cess of your safety and health program is to have tion. documentation of what you have done, which pro- vides guidance on how you can make it work even A worksheet to help you design an overall better. action plan and describe specific action steps Technical assistance may be available to you as appears in Appendix A. a small business owner or manager through your Once a plan is established, put it into action, insurance carrier; your fellow businesspeople; sup- beginning with the highest priority item. Ensure pliers of your durable equipment and raw materi- that it is realistic, manageable and addresses the als; the local safety council; and many local, state steps you have planned for that item. A detailed and Federal agencies, including the state on-site description of the steps required will help you keep Consultation Programs and closest OSHA Area track of your progress. Keep in mind that you can Office. work on more than one item at a time and that pri- Establishing a quality safety and health man- orities may change as other needs are identified or agement system will take time and involve some as your company’s resources change. resources, but you should be pleased with the Open communication with your employees is results. Employees will feel reassured because of crucial to the success of your efforts. Their cooper- your commitment to their safety and health on the ation depends on them understanding what the job. You may save money through increased pro- safety and health program is all about, why it is ductivity and reduced workers’ compensation in- important to them and how it affects their work. surance costs. You may gain increased respect in The more you do to involve them in the changes you your community. The tangible and intangible re- are making, the smoother your transition will be. wards for a solid safety and health program far Putting your action plan into operation at your outweigh the cost of an accident, injury or work- workplace will be a major step toward implement- place fatality. ing an effective safety and health program. OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES SELF-INSPECTION 17 The most widely accepted way to identify haz- I Building and Grounds Conditions – floors, ards is to conduct safety and health inspections walls, ceilings, exits, stairs, walkways, ramps, because the only way to be certain of an actual sit- platforms, driveways, aisles. uation is to look at it directly from time to time. Begin a program of self-inspection in your own I Housekeeping Program – waste disposal, workplace. Self-inspection is essential if you are to tools, objects, materials, leakage and spillage, know where probable hazards exist and whether cleaning methods, schedules, work areas, they are under control. remote areas, storage areas. This section includes checklists designed to assist you in self-inspection fact-finding. The I Electricity – equipment, switches, breakers, checklists can give you some indication of where to fuses, switch-boxes, junctions, special fixtures, begin taking action to make your business safer circuits, insulation, extensions, tools, motors, and more healthful for all of your employees. grounding, national electric code compliance. These checklists are by no means all-inclusive and not all of the checklists will apply to your busi- I Lighting – type, intensity, controls, conditions, ness. You might want to start by selecting the diffusion, location, glare and shadow control. areas that are most critical to your business, then expanding your self-inspection checklists over time I Heating and Ventilation – type, effectiveness, to fully cover all areas that pertain to your busi- temperature, humidity, controls, natural and ness. Remember that a checklist is a tool to help, artificial ventilation and exhausting. not a definitive statement of what is mandatory. Use checklists only for guidance. I Machinery – points of operation, flywheels, Don’t spend time with items that have no appli- gears, shafts, pulleys, key ways, belts, cou- cation to your business. Make sure that each item plings, sprockets, chains, frames, controls, is seen by you or your designee and leave nothing lighting for tools and equipment, brakes, ex- to memory or chance. Write down what you see or hausting, feeding, oiling, adjusting, mainte- don’t see and what you think you should do about it. nance, lockout/tagout, grounding, work space, Add information from your completed checklists location, purchasing standards. to injury information, employee information, and process and equipment information to build a I Personnel – training, including hazard identifi- foundation to help you determine what problems cation training; experience; methods of check- exist. Then, as you use the OSHA standards in ing machines before use; type of clothing; your problem-solving process, it will be easier for PPE; use of guards; tool storage; work prac- you to determine the actions needed to solve these tices; methods for cleaning, oiling, or adjust- problems. ing machinery. Once the hazards have been identified, insti- tute the control procedures described at page 9 I Hand and Power Tools – purchasing stan- and establish your four-point safety and health dards, inspection, storage, repair, types, main- program. tenance, grounding, use and handling. Self-Inspection Scope I Chemicals – storage, handling, transportation, spills, disposals, amounts used, labeling, toxi- Your self-inspections should cover safety and city or other harmful effects, warning signs, health issues in the following areas: supervision, training, protective clothing and equipment, hazard communication require- I Processing, Receiving, Shipping and Storage – ments. equipment, job planning, layout, heights, floor loads, projection of materials, material han- I Fire Prevention – extinguishers, alarms, sprin- dling and storage methods, training for mate- klers, smoking rules, exits, personnel assign- rial handling equipment. ed, separation of flammable materials and dangerous operations, explosion-proof fix- Occupational Safety and Health Administration 18 tures in hazardous locations, waste disposal appropriate information concerning employee and training of personnel. access to medical and exposure records and Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) been I Maintenance – provide regular and preventive posted or otherwise made readily available to maintenance on all equipment used at the affected employees? worksite, recording all work performed on the machinery and by training personnel on the proper care and servicing of the equipment. J Are signs loading, biohazards, exposures to x- ties, floor concerning exit routes, room capaci- ray, microwave, or other harmful radiation or I PPE – type, size, maintenance, repair, age, stor- substances posted where appropriate? age, assignment of responsibility, purchasing methods, standards observed, training in care J Is the Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses (OSHA Form 300A) posted during the and use, rules of use, method of assignment. months of February, March and April? I Transportation – motor vehicle safety, seat belts, vehicle maintenance, safe driver programs. RECORDKEEPING I First-Aid Program/Supplies – medical care J Are occupational injuriesonlyillnesses, except minor injuries requiring or first aid, recorded facilities locations, posted emergency phone as required on the OSHA 300 log? numbers, accessible first-aid kits. I Evacuation Plan – establish and practice pro- J Are employee medical hazardous substances employee exposure to records and records of cedures for an emergency evacuation, e.g., or harmful physical agents up-to-date and in fire, chemical/biological incidents, bomb compliance with current OSHA standards? threat; include escape procedures and routes, critical plant operations, employee accounting following an evacuation, rescue and medical J Are employee training records kept and acces- sible for review by employees, as required by duties and ways to report emergencies. OSHA standards? Self-Inspection Checklists J Have arrangements been made to retaineach records for the time period required for specific type of record? (Some records must These checklists are by no means all-inclusive. be maintained for at least 40 years.) You should add to them or delete items that do not apply to your business; however, carefully consider each item and then make your decision. You J Areitems suchpermits and records up-to-date for operating as elevators, air pressure tanks, should refer to OSHA standards for specific guid- liquefied petroleum gas tanks, etc.? ance that may apply to your work situation. (Note: These checklists are typical for general industry but SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM not for construction or maritime industries.) EMPLOYER POSTING J Do you have an active safety and health safety gram in operation that includes general pro- J Is the required OSHA Job Safety and Health Protection Poster displayed in a prominent loca- and health program elements as well as the management of hazards specific to your work- tion where all employees are likely to see it? site? J Are emergency telephone found in case of where they can be readily numbers posted J Is one person clearly responsible for the safety and health program? emergency? J Do youup of management and laborgroup made have a safety committee or represen- J Where employees mayphysical agents,toxic substances or harmful be exposed to has tatives that meets regularly and reports in writing on its activities? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 19 J Do you have a working procedure to handle in-house employee complaints regarding safe- J If employees have hadpathogens, was an im- involving bloodborne an exposure incident ty and health? mediate post-exposure medical evaluation and follow-up provided? J Are your employees the safety and health pro- advised of efforts and accomplishments of gram made to ensure they will have a work- J Are medicalconsultationreadily availableemploy- advice and personnel on matters of for place that is safe and healthful? ees’ health? J Have you consideredexcel in reducing work- or workgroups who incentives for employees J Are emergency phone numbers posted? place injury/illnesses? J Areeach work area,first aid kits easily accessible to fully supplied periodically inspected and replenished as needed? MEDICAL SERVICES AND FIRST AID J Havephysician, indicating that they are ade- first aid kits and supplies been approved J Is there a hospital, clinic, or infirmary for med- ical care near your workplace or is at least one by a quate for a particular area or operation? employee on each shift currently qualified to render first aid? J Is there an eye-washorstation or sink available for quick drenching flushing of the eyes and J Have all employees emergencies as part of respond to medical who are expected to body in areas where corrosive liquids or mate- rials are handled? their job responsibilities received first aid training; had hepatitis B vaccination made FIRE PROTECTION available to them; had appropriate training on procedures to protect them from bloodborne J Is your local fire department familiar with your facility, its location and specific hazards? pathogens, including universal precautions; and have available and understand how to use appropriate PPE to protect against exposure to J If you have aand tested annually?is it certified as required fire alarm system, bloodborne diseases?* *Pursuant to an OSHA memorandum of July 1, J If youinspected regularly? and valves, are they have interior standpipes 1992, employees who render first aid only as a col- lateral duty do not have to be offered pre-exposure J If youflushedoutside privateafire hydrants,aare they have at least once year and on rou- hepatitis B vaccine only if the employer includes tine preventive maintenance schedule? and implements the following requirements in his/her exposure control plan: (1) the employer must record all first aid incidents involving the J Are fire doors and shutters in good operating condition? presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials before the end of the work shift during J Are fire doors andobstructions, including and protected against shutters unobstructed their which the first aid incident occurred; (2) the em- counterweights? ployer must comply with post-exposure evaluation, prophylaxis and follow-up requirements of the J Are fire door and shutter fusible links in place? Bloodborne Pathogens standard with respect to “exposure incidents, ” as defined by the standard; J Are automatic sprinkler systemcheckedcontrol valves, air and water pressure water period- (3) the employer must train designated first aid ically as required? providers about the reporting procedure; (4) the employer must offer to initiate the hepatitis B vac- cination series within 24 hours to all unvaccinated J Is the assigned to responsible persons or to a tems maintenance of automatic sprinkler sys- first aid providers who have rendered assistance in sprinkler contractor? any situation involving the presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials. J Are sprinkler heads protected bydamage? if exposed to potential physical metal guards Occupational Safety and Health Administration 20 Pathogens standard, 29 CFR 1910.1030(b), for J Is proper clearance maintained below sprinkler heads? the definition of “other potentially infectious materials. ” J Are portable fire extinguishers provided inin adequate number and type and mounted J Are hard hats required, providedexists?worn and where danger of falling objects readily accessible locations? J Are fire extinguishers recharged regularly with J Are hard hats periodically inspected for dam- age to the shell and suspension system? this noted on the inspection tag? J Are employees periodically instructed in the J Is appropriate footfoot injuriesrequired where there is the risk of protection from hot, corro- use of fire extinguishers and fire protection sive, or poisonous substances, falling objects, procedures? crushing, or penetrating actions? PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING J Are approvedCFR 1910.134provided when need- ed? (See 29 respirators for detailed infor- mation on respirators or check OSHA’s website J Has the employer determined whether hazards that require the use of PPE (e.g., head, eye, at www.osha.gov). face, hand, or foot protection) are present or J Is allreadymaintained in a sanitary condition and PPE for use? are likely to be present? J If hazards or the likelihood of hazards are J Are food or beverages consumed only in areas where there is no exposure to toxic material, found, are employers selecting appropriate blood, or other potentially infectious materials? and properly fitted PPE suitable for protection from these hazards and ensuring that affected employees use it? J Is protection against thesound levels exceed al noise provided when effects of occupation- those of the OSHA Noise standard? J Have trained on PPE procedures,employeesPPE both the employer and the been i.e., what is necessary for job tasks, when workers need J Are adequate work procedures,whenand other equipment provided and used PPE cleaning it, and how to properly wear and adjust it? up spilled hazardous materials? J Areand worn where there is any danger of fly- ed protective goggles or face shields provid- J Areorappropriate procedures in place to dispose of decontaminate PPE contaminated with, ing particles or corrosive materials? or reasonably anticipated to be contaminated with, blood or other potentially infectious J Are approved safetyareas where thereto berisk worn at all times in glasses required is a materials? of eye injuries such as punctures, abrasions, GENERAL WORK ENVIRONMENT contusions, or burns? J Are employees who wear correctivewith harm- lenses J Are all worksites clean, sanitary and orderly? (glasses or contacts) in workplaces ful exposures required to wear only approved J Are work surfaces kept the surfaces are slip- means taken to assure dry and appropriate safety glasses, protective goggles, or use other resistant? medically approved precautionary proce- dures? J Are all spilled hazardous materials or infec- including blood and other potentially liquids, J Are protective gloves,required where employ- means provided and aprons, shields, or other tious materials, cleaned up immediately and according to proper procedures? ees could be cut or where there is reasonably anticipated exposure to corrosive liquids, chemicals, blood, or other potentially infec- J Is combustible scrap, debrisfrom the worksite stored safely and removed and waste tious materials? See the OSHA Bloodborne promptly? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 21 J Is all regulated waste, asstandard (29the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens defined in CFR J Are spilled materials cleaned up immediately? 1910.1030), discarded according to Federal, J Are changes of direction or elevations readily identifiable? state and local regulations? J Are accumulations ofelevated surfaces includ- combustible dust rou- J Areoperating machinery,that pass near moving or aisles or walkways welding operations, tinely removed from or similar operations arranged so employees ing the overhead structure of buildings, etc.? will not be subjected to potential hazards? J Is combustible dustsuspension ofwith a particles system to prevent cleaned up dust vacuum J Is adequate headroomwalkway? for the entire provided length of any aisle or in the environment? J Is metallic or conductive dustor around electri- prevented from J Are standard guardrails provided wherever aisle or walkway surfaces are elevated more entering or accumulating on than 30 inches (76.20 centimeters) above any cal enclosures or equipment? adjacent floor or the ground? J Are covered metal waste cans used for oily or paint-soaked waste? J Are hazards?provided over conveyors and sim- bridges ilar J Are allfailure controls todevices equipped with flame oil and gas-fired prevent flow of fuel if FLOOR AND WALL OPENINGS pilots or main burners are not working? J Are paint spray booths, dip tanks, etc., cleaned J Are floor openings guardedall sides (except at guardrail, or equivalent on by a cover, a regularly? stairways or ladder entrances)? J Are facilities provided and maintained in wash- ing the minimum number of toilets and a J Are toeboards installed around the edges of permanent floor openings where persons may clean and sanitary fashion? pass below the opening? J Are all work areas adequately illuminated? J Areatskylight screens able to kilograms)? load withstand a J Are pits and floor openings covered or other- of least 200 pounds (90.7 wise guarded? J Is thesubjectin windows,human glass walls,suf- glass doors, J Have all confined29 CFR 1910.146? (Permit- compliance with spaces been evaluated for etc., to possible impact, of ficient thickness and type for the condition of required confined spaces.) use? WALKWAYS J Are gratessuchsimilar type covers over floor openings or as floor drains designed to allow unimpeded foot traffic or rolling equip- J Are aisles and passageways kept clear and marked as appropriate? ment? J Are wet surfaces covered with non-slip mate- J Are in use either covered or protected bypits not unused portions of service pits and rials? guardrails or equivalent? J Are surfaceinrepaired properly, covered, orwalk- ing holes the floor, sidewalk, or other oth- J Are manholetheir supports designedandcarry a covers, trench covers similar covers, and to erwise made safe? truck rear axle load of at least 20,000 pounds J Is there safe clearance for walking in aisles where motorized or mechanical handling (9,072 kilograms) when located in roadways and subject to vehicle traffic? equipment is operating? J Are materials or equipment stored in such a J Are floor provided with doorsfire-resistant con- struction or wall openings in or covers com- way that sharp projections will not interfere patible with the fire rating of the structure and with the walkway? Occupational Safety and Health Administration 22 provided with a self-closing feature when appropriate? J Do stairwaydirection of traveldimension meas- ured in the landings have a at least equal to STAIRS AND STAIRWAYS the width of the stairway? J Do standardatstair rails orrisers? on all stair- handrails J Is thelimited todistance(3.6576 meters) or land- ings vertical 12 feet between stairway less? ways have least four J Are all stairways at least 22 inches (55.88 cen- timeters) wide? ELEVATED SURFACES J Do incheshave landing platformsthe direction stairs not less than J Are elevated surface loadappropriate, showing the signs posted, when capacity? 30 (76.20 centimeters) in of travel and extend 22 inches (55.88 centime- J Are surfaces that are elevated more with stan- inches (76.20 centimeters) provided than 30 ters) in width at every 12 feet (3.6576 meters) or less of vertical rise? dard guardrails? J Do stairsdegrees? more than 50 and no less angle no J Are or machinerysurfacesbe exposed to falling ple all elevated could beneath which peo- than 30 objects provided with standard 4-inch (10.16- J Are stairs of hollow-pan typethe panand land- ings filled to the top edge of treads with solid centimeter) toeboards? material? J Is a permanent means of access and egress provided to elevated storage and work sur- J Are step risers on stairs uniform from top to bottom? faces? J Are steps slip-resistant? J Is required headroom provided where neces- sary? J Are stairway handrails located between 30 inches (76.20 centimeters) and 34 inches J Is materialinon manner to preventpiled, stacked, or racked a elevated surfaces it from tip- (86.36 centimeters) above the leading edge of ping, falling, collapsing, rolling, or spreading? stair treads? J Do stairway handrails have at least 3 inches J Are dock boards or bridge plates usedand transferring materials between docks when (7.62 centimeters) of clearance between the trucks or railcars? handrails and the wall or surface they are mounted on? EXITING OR EGRESS - EVACUATION J Where doors or gates open so the swing stair- way, is a platform provided directly on a of J Are all exits amarked with an exit sign and illu- minated by reliable light source? the door does not reduce the width of the plat- form to less than 21 inches (53.34 centime- ters)? J Are the directions to exits, when notsigns? ately apparent, marked with visible immedi- J Are stairway handrails(90.7 kilograms), applied a load of 200 pounds capable of withstanding J Are doors, passagewaysto exits, but could are neither exits nor access or stairways that be within 2 inches (5.08 centimeters) of the top mistaken for exits, appropriately marked “NOT edge in any downward or outward direction? AN EXIT, ” “TO BASEMENT, ” “STORE- ROOM, ” etc.? J Where stairsvehicles may be operated,into ade- area where or stairways exit directly are any J Are exit signs labeled with(12.70word “EXIT” in the quate barriers and warnings provided to pre- lettering at least 5 inches centimeters) vent employees from stepping into the path of high and the stroke of the lettering at least l/2- traffic? inch (1.2700 centimeters) wide? J Are exit doors side-hinged? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 23 J Are all exits kept free of obstructions? J Where panic hardware it allow the on a to required exit door, will is installed door J Are atelevated platforms, pits, or rooms where from least two means of egress provided open by applying a force of 15 pounds (6.80 kilograms) or less in the direction of the exit the absence of a second exit would increase traffic? the risk of injury from hot, poisonous, corro- sive, suffocating, flammable, or explosive sub- stances? J Are doors on cold storage rooms provided with an inside release mechanism that will release the latch and open the door even if the J Are there sufficient exits to permit prompt escape in case of emergency? door is padlocked or otherwise locked on the outside? J Are special during construction and repair employees precautions taken to protect J Where alley,doors open directly onto any may exit street, or other area where vehicles operations? be operated, are adequate barriers and warn- J Is the number of exits from each floor of a building and the number of exits from the ings provided to prevent employees from stepping into the path of traffic? building itself appropriate for the building occupancy load? J Are locatedthat swingrooms where thereandfre- are doors between in both directions is J Are exit stairwaysparts of arequired to be sepa- rated from other that are building enclosed quent traffic provided with viewing panels in each door? by at least 2-hour fire-resistive construction in buildings more than four stories in height, and PORTABLE LADDERS not less than 1-hour fire-resistive construction elsewhere? J Are allbetween maintainedsidegood tight, all joints ladders steps and in rails condition, J Where ramps are usedthe part ofslope limited ing from a building, is as ramp required exit- hardware and fittings securely attached, and moveable parts operating freely without bind- to 1 foot (0.3048 meter) vertical and 12 feet ing or undue play? (3.6576 meters) horizontal? J Where glass exit doors, storm frameless glass exiting will be through J Arerung ladder, andfeet provided on each metal or non-slip safety are ladder rungs and steps doors, doors, etc., are free of grease and oil? the doors fully tempered and meet the safety requirements for human impact? J Are in front of doors opening toward thealad- der employees prohibited from placing lad- EXIT DOORS der unless the door is blocked open, locked, or guarded? J Are doorsand constructed so that theaspath of designed that are required to serve exits J Are employees barrels, or other placing lad- prohibited from ders on boxes, unstable bases exit travel is obvious and direct? to obtain additional height? J Are windows that could be mistaken for exit doors made inaccessible by means of barriers J Are employees required to face the ladder when ascending or descending? or railings? J Are exit doors able to be opened from of a key the J Are employees prohibited from usingrungs, or that are broken, have missing steps, ladders direction of exit travel without the use cleats, broken side rails, or other faulty equip- or any special knowledge or effort when the ment? building is occupied? J Is a revolving,serving asoraoverheadexit door? sliding, door pro- J Are employees instructed notastoause the top step of ordinary stepladders step? hibited from required Occupational Safety and Health Administration 24 J When portable rung ladders are used to gain access to elevated platforms, roofs, etc., does J Are tool cutting edges kept sharp so theskip- will move smoothly without binding or tool the ladder always extend at least 3 feet (0.9144 ping? meters) above the elevated surface? J Are tools stored in abedry, secure location J Are employees required to secure the base of a portable rung or cleat type ladder to prevent where they cannot tampered with? slipping, or otherwise lash or hold it in place? J Is eye andor tempered studs or when driving hardened face protection used nails? J Are portable metal ladders- Do Not marked with signs reading “CAUTION legibly Use Around PORTABLE (POWER OPERATED) TOOLS Electrical Equipment” or equivalent wording? AND EQUIPMENT J Areguys, braces,prohibited from using ladders as employees skids, gin poles, or for other J Are grinders, saws and safety guards? pro- vided with appropriate similar equipment than their intended purposes? J Are employees instructed toat a base (not only adjust exten- J Are power attachments, as proper shields, by guards, or tools used with recommended sion ladders while standing the manufacturer? while standing on the ladder or from a posi- tion above the ladder)? J Are portable circular sawsthe base shoe? guards above and below equipped with J Are metal ladders inspected for damage? J Are circular saw guards checked theensure that to J Areinches (30.48 centimeters) centerspaced at 12 the rungs of ladders uniformly to center? they are not wedged up, leaving portion of the blade unguarded? lower HAND TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT J Are rotatingprevent physical contact? guarded to or moving parts of equipment J Are all tools and equipment (both company and employee-owned) used at the workplace J Are alland equipment effectively grounded or cord-connected, electrically operated tools in good condition? of the approved double insulated type? J Are hand tools, such as chisels, punches, etc., which develop mushroomed heads during J Are effectiveand sprockets onover belts, pul- guards in place leys, chains equipment such use, reconditioned or replaced as necessary? as concrete mixers, air compressors, etc.? J Are broken or fractured handles on hammers, axes and similar equipment replaced promptly? J Are portable fans provided with full guards or screens having openings 1/2 inch (1.2700 cen- J Are worn or bent wrenches replaced? timeters) or less? J Are tools? handles used on files and sim- ilar appropriate J Is hoisting equipmentand are hoist ratingsfor lifting heavy objects, available and used and characteristics appropriate for the task? J Are employees aware of hazards caused by faulty or improperly used hand tools? J Areall temporary circuit interrupters provided on ground-fault electrical 15 and 20 ampere J Are appropriate using hand tools or shields, etc., used while safety glasses, face equipment circuits used during periods of construction? that might produce flying materials or be sub- ject to breakage? J Are pneumatic checked regularly foron power- operated tools and hydraulic hoses deteriora- tion or damage? J Are in good operating condition? ensure they are jacks checked periodically to ABRASIVE WHEEL EQUIPMENT GRINDERS J Arealltool handles wedged tightly into the heads of tools? J Is the work rest used and kept adjusted to within 1/8 inch (0.3175 centimeter) of the wheel? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 25 J Is the adjustable tongue on the topwithinof the grinder used and kept adjusted to side 1/4 J Are powder-actuatedeach day before for ob- structions or defects tools inspected use? inch (0.6350 centimeters) of the wheel? J Do powder-actuated tool operatorshats, safety have and J Do sideand 75 percentthethe wheelnut and flange guards cover of spindle, diameter? use appropriate PPE such as hard goggles, safety shoes and ear protectors? J Are bench and pedestal grinders permanently mounted? MACHINE GUARDING J Are goggles or face shields always worn when grinding? J Is theresafe methods of machine operation? ees on a training program to instruct employ- J Is the maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) rating of each abrasive wheel compatible with J Is there adequate supervision machine operat- employees are following safe to ensure that the rpm rating of the grinder motor? ing procedures? J Are fixed ortopermanently mounted grinders connected their electrical supply system J Is there a regular program of safety inspection of machinery and equipment? with metallic conduit or other permanent wiring method? J Is all machinery and equipment kept clean and properly maintained? J Does each switch? have an individual on and off control grinder J Is sufficient clearance provided safe opera- between machines to allow for around and J Is each electrically operated grinder effectively grounded? tions, set up and servicing, material handling and waste removal? J Are new abrasive wheels visually inspected and ring tested before they are mounted? J Is equipment andprevent tipping or other and anchored to machinery securely placed movement that could result in personal injury? J Are dust collectorsused powered exhaustspro- vided on grinders and in operations that pro- J Is thereoperator’s shut-off switch within reach a power duce large amounts of dust? of the position at each machine? J Are splash guards mountedcoolant from reach- use coolant to prevent the on grinders that J Canfor maintenance, repair,machine be locked out electric power to each or security? ing employees? J Are the noncurrent-carrying metal partsand of J Is cleanliness maintained around grinders? electrically operated machines bonded grounded? POWDER-ACTUATED TOOLS J Are foot-operated switches guarded or by per- ranged to prevent accidental actuation ar- J Are employees who operate powder-actuated tools trained in their use and required to carry sonnel or falling objects? a valid operator’s card? J Are manually operated valves and switches controlling the operation of equipment and J Is eachcontainer when not being used?its own locked powder-actuated tool stored in machines clearly identified and readily acces- sible? J Is a10 inches (25.40inches (17.78 centimeters) by sign at least 7 centimeters) with bold face J Are all emergency stop buttons colored red? type reading “POWDER-ACTUATED TOOL IN USE” conspicuously posted when the tool is J Are all pulleys floorbelts within level properly meters) of the and or working 7 feet (2.1336 being used? guarded? J Are powder-actuatedused? left unloaded until they are ready to be tools J Are all moving chains and gears properly guarded? Occupational Safety and Health Administration 26 J Are splash guards mountedcoolant from reach- use coolant to prevent the on machines that J If the power disconnect electrical control cir- not also disconnect the for equipment does ing employees? cuit, are the appropriate electrical enclosures identified and is a means provided to ensure J Are methods providedintothe machine operator and other employees protect the area that the control circuit can also be disconnect- ed and locked out? from hazards created at the point of operation, ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips and sparks? J Is the locking outpower disconnectsinstead of locking out main of control circuits prohibited? J Are machinecause a hazard whilearranged so they do not guards secure and in use? J Are allwith a means for locking out? pro- vided equipment control valve handles J If special hand toolsdo they protect the opera- removing material, are used for placing and J Does the lockout procedure requireetc.) be re- energy (mechanical, hydraulic, air, that stored tor’s hands? leased or blocked before equipment is locked out for repairs? J Are revolving drums, barrels andinterlocked containers guarded by an enclosure that is with the drive mechanism so that revolution J Are appropriatepersonal safety locks? with indi- vidually keyed employees provided cannot occur unless the guard enclosure is in place? J Are of their key(s) while they have safety locks trol employees required to keep personal con- J Do arborsand are they free from play? secure bearings, and mandrels have firm and in use? J Is itthe hazardthat only the employee exposed required J Are provisions made to prevent machines from automatically starting when power is to lock? can place or remove the safety restored after a power failure or shutdown? J Is itthe lockoutthat attempting acheck theafter required employees safety J Are machines constructed so as to be free from excessive vibration when the largest size of by making sure no one is exposed? startup tool is mounted and run at full speed? J Are employeesstop button to always push the instructed J If machinery is cleaned with compressed air, is air pressure controlled and PPE or other safe- control circuit prior to re-energiz- ing the main power switch? guards utilized to protect operators and other workers from eye and body injury? J Is there a meansare working on locked-out all employees who provided to identify any or J Are fan blades protectedl/2 inchguard having openings no larger than with a (1.2700 cen- equipment by their locks or accompanying tags? timeters) when operating within 7 feet (2.1336 meters) of the floor? J Are a or tags and safety of accident prevention signs sufficient number padlocks provided for J Are sawsdevices and spreaders? with anti- kickback used for ripping equipped any reasonably foreseeable repair emergency? J When machineoperator to leave the control operations, configuration, or J Are radial will gently so arranged that the cut- ting head arm saws return to the back of the size require an station and part of the machine could move if table when released? accidentally activated, is the part required to be separately locked out or blocked? LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURES J If equipment ortagged, is a safeshutprocedure lines cannot be down, J Is all machinerytoorbeequipment capable of move- ment required de-energized or disengaged locked out and job established and rigidly followed? and blocked or locked out during cleaning, serv- icing, adjusting, or setting up operations? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 27 WELDING, CUTTING AND BRAZING J Is red used to identifyfor the oxygen(and other the acetylene J Are only authorized and trained personnel per- mitted to use welding, cutting, or brazing fuel-gas) hose, green hose and black for inert gas and air hoses? equipment? J Are gas and pressures for which they are in-for pressure-reducing regulators used only J Does each operator have a copy of and follow the appropriate operating instructions? the tended? J Are compressed gas cylinders regularlyrusting, ined for obvious signs of defects, deep exam- J Is open circuit (no-load) voltage possible and and cutting machines as low as of arc welding or leakage? not in excess of the recommended limits? J Is caresafety valves, reliefand storage of cylin- ders, used in handling valves, etc., to pre- J Under wet conditions,voltage used? controls for reducing no-load are automatic vent damage? J Is grounding of the machine frame and safety J Areair or oxygen takenflammable gases, except of precautions with to prevent the mixture ground connections of portable machines checked periodically? at a burner or in a standard torch? J Are electrodes removed from the holders J Are only approved apparatuses (torches, regu- lators, pressure reducing valves, acetylene when not in use? generators, manifolds) used? J Is itshut off when no one is in attendance? be required that electric power to the welder J Are cylinders kept awaygangways? of heat and elevators, stairs, or from sources J Is suitable fire extinguishing equipment avail- able for immediate use? J Is it prohibited to use cylinders as rollers or supports? J Is the welder forbidden hiscoil or loop welding to electrode cable around body? J Are empty cylinders appropriately marked and their valves closed? J Are wetuse? thoroughly dried and tested machines before J Are signs posted reading “DANGER, NO ” or SMOKING, MATCHES, OR OPEN LIGHTS, J Are work and wear and damage, andfrequently electrode lead cables inspected for replaced the equivalent? when needed? J Are cylinders,and apparatuses couplings,ofregu- lators, hoses cylinder valves, kept free oily J Are cable connectors adequately insulated? or greasy substances? J When the objecthazardswelded cannot be moved and fire to be cannot be removed, J Is care taken not to drop or strike cylinders? are shields used to confine heat, sparks and J Are regulators removed and valve-protection caps put in place before moving cylinders, slag? unless they are secured on special trucks? J Are fireis performed in locations where a seri- cutting watchers assigned when welding or J Do cylindersnon-adjustablewheels have keys, handles, or without fixed wrenches on stem ous fire might develop? valves when in service? J Are combustible floors kept wet, covered with damp sand, or protected by fire-resistant J Are liquefiedvalve covers inand shipped valve- end up with gases stored place? shields? J Areshock whenprotected from possible electri- personnel J Are employees trained never to of ignition? gas cylinder valve near sources crack a fuel cal floors are wet? J Arethe other sidetaken to protectwhen welding precautions combustibles J Before and gas released? is the valve closed a regulator is removed, on is underway? of metal walls Occupational Safety and Health Administration 28 J Are used drums, barrels, tankssubstances con- tainers thoroughly cleaned of and other that J When usingwear protective chipcleaning, do employees compressed air for guarding and could explode, ignite, or produce toxic vapors PPE? before hot work begins? J Are safety chains or other suitable locking J Do eye protection, helmets, hand shields and goggles meet appropriate standards? devices used at couplings of high-pressure hose lines where a connection failure would create a hazard? J Arewelding, cutting, or brazing operations pro- employees exposed to the hazards created by tected with PPE and clothing? J Before compressedthe safe working pressure tainers of liquid, is air is used to empty con- of the container checked? J Is a check made for or cutting ventilation in adequate and where welding is performed? J Whencleaning equipment, is the operating blast compressed air is used with abrasive J When working in confined places, are environ- mental monitoring tests done and means pro- valve a type that must be held open manually? vided for quick removal of welders in case of an emergency? J Whenare a clip-on chuck usedan inline regula- tires, compressed air is and to inflate auto tor preset to 40 psi required? COMPRESSORS AND COMPRESSED AIR J Are employeesclean up or move using com- prohibited from J Are compressors equipped with pressure relief valves and pressure gauges? pressed air to combustible dust if such action could cause the dust to be suspended in the air and cause a fire or explo- J Are compressorto ensure that only clean, equipped so as air intakes installed and sion hazard? uncontaminated air enters the compressor? COMPRESSORS/AIR RECEIVERS J Are air filters installed on the compressor intake? J Is everyand one orequipped with a pressure receiver gauge more automatic, spring- J Are compressorsthe manufacturer’s recom- accordance with operated and lubricated in loaded safety valves? mendations? J Is the able to preventcapacity ofin the receiver valve total relieving pressure the safety J Are safety devices on compressed air systems checked frequently? from exceeding the maximum allowable work- ing pressure of the receiver by more than 10 percent? J Before aiscompressor’s bled off and the system pressure system is re- paired, the pressure locked out? J Is every airatreceiver provided for the drain pipe and valve the lowest point with a removal of accumulated oil and water? J Are signs postedoftothe compressors? warn of the automatic starting feature J Are compressed air receivers periodically drained of moisture and oil? J Is theprotection for the front, back, top and pro- belt drive system totally enclosed to vide sides? J Aredetermine whether they areregular intervals to all safety valves tested at in good operat- ing condition? J Are compressedstrictly prohibited from direct- employees ing air towards a person? J Is there a current operating permit? J Are employees prohibited from using highly compressed air for cleaning purposes? J Is thefree ofofaccumulated oil and carbonaceous kept inlet air receivers and piping systems materials? J When compressed air is used to clean clothing, are employees trained to reduce the pressure to less than 10 pounds per square inch (psi)? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 29 COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS J Is thevisible to theofoperator? legibly marked rated load each hoist J Are cylinders with a water weight capacity over 30 pounds (13.6 kilograms) equipped and with a means to connect a valve protector J Aretrolley provided at the safe limits of travel for stops hoists? device, or with a collar or recess to protect the valve? J Are the controls of hoiststravel or marked to indicate the direction of plainly motion? J Are type of gas? marked to clearly identify the cylinders legibly J Is each cage-controlled hoist equipped with an effective warning device? J Are compressedexternal heat sources such as protected from gas cylinders stored in areas J Are close-fitting guardshoist to ensure that or other suitable de- flame impingement, intense radiant heat, elec- vices installed on each tric arcs, or high-temperature lines? hoist ropes will be maintained in the sheave grooves? J Are cylindersbe damaged by passing orwhere they will not located or stored in areas falling J Are all hoistfull range ofropes long enough to chains or objects or subject to tampering by unautho- handle the movement of the rized persons? application while maintaining two full wraps around the drum at all times? J Are to preventstored from creating ainhazard by ner cylinders them or transported a man- J Are guards provided for nipand sheaves per- points or contact tipping, falling, or rolling? points between hoist ropes manently located within 7 feet (2.1336 meters) J Are cylinders containingaliquefied fuelthat the stored or transported in position so gas of the floor, ground, or working platform? safety relief device is always in direct contact with the vapor space in the cylinder? J Are employees prohibited from usingand pro-or rope slings that are kinked or twisted chains hibited from using the hoist rope or chain wrap- J Are valve protectors always not in use cylin- ders when the cylinders are placed on or con- ped around the load as a substitute for a sling? nected for use? J Is the operator instructed to avoid carrying loads above people? J Are all valves closed off before a cylinderatisthe moved, when the cylinder is empty and INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS - FORKLIFTS completion of each job? J Are low-pressure fuel gas cylindersdistortion, periodically for corrosion, general checked J Are type of industrial truck they operate? of the employees properly trained in the use cracks, or any other defect that might indicate a weakness or render them unfit for service? J Are only trained personnel allowed to operate industrial trucks? J Doescylinders include a close inspection of the gas the periodic check of low-pressure fuel J Is substantialhigh lift rider equipment? provided on overhead protective equipment cylinders’ bottoms? J Areand enforced?lift truck operating rules post- ed the required HOIST AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT J Is each overhead electric hoist equipped with a J Is directional lighting provided on each less trial truck that operates in an area with indus- limit device to stop the hook at its highest and than 2 footcandles per square foot of general lowest point of safe travel? lighting? J Will load up to 125 percent ofstoprated load if any each hoist automatically its and hold J Does each industrial or other device that can horn, whistle, gong, truck have a warning its actuating force is removed? be clearly heard above normal noise in the areas where it is operated? Occupational Safety and Health Administration 30 J Arebringing the on eachto a complete and safe of the brakes vehicle industrial truck capable J Is the20 feetarea free of hotfrom flames, at least spray (6.096 meters) surfaces and stop when fully loaded? sparks, operating electrical motors and other ignition sources? J Does thethe vehicle fromofmoving when unat- parking brake the industrial truck prevent tended? J Are portable lamps usedatohazardous location? areas suitable for use in illuminate spray J Are industrial vapors,that operate where flam- mable gases, trucks combustible dust, or J Is approved respiratory equipment provided and used when appropriate during spraying ignitable fibers may be present approved for operations? such locations? J Do solvents used for Fahrenheit (deg.flash cleaning have a J Are motorized hand and hand/rider trucks designed so that the brakes are applied and point to 100 degrees more? F) or power to the drive motor shuts off when the operator releases his or her grip on the device J Are fire control sprinkler heads kept clean? that controls the truck’s travel? J Are “NO SMOKING”paint booths and spray areas, paint rooms, signs posted in paint J Are industrialare operatedinternal combustion engines that trucks with in buildings or storage areas? enclosed areas carefully checked to ensure that such operations do not cause harmful J Is the spray area kept clean of combustible residue? concentrations of dangerous gases or fumes? J Are spray or otherconstructed noncombusti- booths of metal, J Areelevated ramps and platforms? the edges of safe distances maintained from masonry, ble material? substantial J Are employeeselevated portionsstanding or passing under prohibited from of trucks, J Are spray booth floors and baffles noncom- bustible and easily cleaned? whether loaded or empty? J Is infrared drying apparatusoperations and is kept out of the J Are unauthorized employees prohibited from riding on trucks? spray area during spraying the spray booth completely ventilated before using the drying apparatus? J Are operators prohibited of a fixed object?to anyone standing in front from driving up J Is the electric drying apparatus properly grounded? J Are arms and legs kept inside the running lines of the truck? J Are lightingbooth with the interior lighted fixtures for spray booths located outside the J Areofloadstruck? only within the rated capac- ity the handled through sealed clear panels? J Are trucks in need of repair removed from J Are the electric or ducts? exhaust fans placed outside booths motors for service immediately? SPRAYING OPERATIONS J Are belts and pulleys inside the booth fully enclosed? J Is adequate ventilation provided before spray- J Do ducts have access doors to allow cleaning? ing operations are started? J Do all drying spaces have adequate ventilation? J Is mechanical ventilation provided when spray- ing operations are performed in enclosed areas? ENTERING CONFINED SPACES J When mechanical ventilationso provided dur- ing spraying operations, is it is arranged that J Are confined spaces thoroughly emptiedsuch any corrosive or hazardous substances, of it will not circulate the contaminated air? as acids or caustics, before entry? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 31 equipment such as salamanders, torches, fur- J Are alltoxic, flammable, or space thatmaterials inert, lines to a confined corrosive contain naces, etc., in a confined space, is sufficient air provided to assure combustion without reduc- valved off and blanked or disconnected and ing the oxygen concentration of the atmos- separated before entry? phere below 19.5 percent by volume? J Are alland equipment insideor other moving parts impellers, agitators, confined spaces J Whenever combustion-type equipment is to used in a confined space, are provisions made locked out if they present a hazard? ensure the exhaust gases are vented outside J Is either natural or mechanicalentry? pro- vided prior to confined space ventilation of the enclosure? J Is each confined space checked for may pro- decaying J Arecheck for oxygen deficiency, toxic sub- to appropriate atmospheric tests performed vegetation or animal matter which duce methane? stances and explosive concentrations in the confined space before entry? J Is the confined space checkedcontain toxic industrial waste which could for possible J Is adequate illuminationconfined space? work to be performed in the provided for the properties? J If the confined space is below ground and near J Is the atmosphereor continuously monitored frequently tested inside the confined space areas where motor vehicles will be operating, is it possible for vehicle exhaust or carbon during work? monoxide to enter the space? J Is there a trained and outside thestandby employee positioned equipped confined ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS space, whose sole responsibility is to watch the work in progress, sound an alarm if neces- J Are all work areas properly illuminated? sary and render assistance? J Are employees instructed in proper first aid and other emergency procedures? J Is theequipped to handle an emergency?trained and standby employee appropriately J Are hazardous substances, blood and other potentially infectious materials, which may J Are employees prohibited from entering the confined space without lifelines and respira- cause harm by inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption or contact, identified? tory equipment if there is any question as to the cause of an emergency? J Are employees aware of thethey may involved with the various chemicals hazards be ex- J Is approved respiratorythe confinedrequired if the atmosphere inside equipment space can- posed to in their work environment, such as ammonia, chlorine, epoxies, caustics, etc.? not be made acceptable? J Is all portable electrical equipment used inside J Is employee exposure acceptable levels? workplace kept within to chemicals in the confined spaces either grounded and insulated or equipped with ground fault protection? J Can a less harmful method or product be used? J Are confined space? bottles forbidden inside the compressed gas J Is the work area ventilation system appropriate for the work performed? J Before gas welding or burning is started in a confined space, are hoses checked for leaks, J Are spray painting operations performed in torches lighted only outside the confined area spray rooms or booths equipped with an and the confined area tested for an explosive appropriate exhaust system? atmosphere each time before a lighted torch is taken into the confined space? J Is employee exposureusewelding fumes expo- trolled by ventilation, to of respirators, con- sure time limits, or other means? J If employees will be using oxygen-consuming Occupational Safety and Health Administration 32 J Arewith flashand other nearby workers provid- ed welders shields during welding opera- J Are employees’ assigned capacities assessed before they are physical to jobs requiring tions? heavy work? J If forklifts andenclosed areas,are usedcarbon ings or other other vehicles are the in build- J Are for lifting heavy objects? the proper man- ner employees instructed in monoxide levels kept below maximum accept- able concentration? J Wherebeen provided with have cooling or air areas heat is a problem, spot all fixed work J Hasinthere facilitiesdetermination that noise lev- els the been a are within acceptable lev- conditioning? els? J Are employees screened before ifassignment to areas of high heat to determine their health J Are steps beingexcessiveuse engineering con- trols to reduce taken to noise levels? might make them more susceptible to having an adverse reaction? J Are proper precautions being taken when han- dling asbestos and other fibrous materials? J Are employeesexposed to the hazards of traffic ways who are working on streets and road- required to wear bright colored (traffic orange) J Are cautionsubstances (e.g., asbestos)warn of hazardous labels and signs used to and bio- warning vests? hazards (e.g., bloodborne pathogens)? J Are exhaustcontaminated air will not be re-so that nearby stacks and air intakes located J Are wet the emission ofwhen practicable, to prevent methods used, airborne asbestos circulated within a building or other enclos- ed area? fibers, silica dust and similar hazardous mate- rials? J Is equipment producing ultraviolet radiation properly shielded? J Are engineering controlsscheduled basis?main- examined and tained or replaced on a J Are universalexposure to blood or other po- occupational precautions observed where J Is vacuuming with appropriate equipment used whenever possible rather than blowing tentially infectious materials can occur and in all instances where differentiation of types of or sweeping dust? body fluids or potentially infectious materials J Are grinders, saws and other machinesindustri- produce respirable dusts vented to an that is difficult or impossible? al collector or central exhaust system? FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS J Are all local exhaust ventilationflow and vol- signed to provide sufficient air systems de- J Are combustible scrap, debris and covered waste materials (oily rags, etc.) stored in ume for the application, and are ducts not metal receptacles and promptly removed from plugged and belts not slipping? the worksite? J Is PPE provided, used and maintained wherev- er required? J Is proper storagespontaneousminimize the risk practiced to of fire, including combustion? J Are there the selection andoperating proce- dures for written standard use of respirators J Are approved containers andand combustible tanks used to store and handle flammable where needed? liquids? J Are restrooms and washrooms kept clean and sanitary? J Are allpiping, vapor on drums and combustible connections liquid and liquid tight? J Is all water provided for drinking, washing and cooking potable? J Are all flammableinliquids(e.g., parts cleaning kept in closed con- tainers when not use J Are all outlets for water that is not suitable for drinking clearly identified? tanks, pans, etc.)? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 33 J Are bulk drumscontainers during dispensing? and bonded to of flammable liquids grounded J Where sprinkler systemsheadspermanently or installed, are the nozzle are so directed arranged that water will not be sprayed into J Do storage rooms forexplosion-proof lights bustible liquids have flammable and com- operating electrical switchboards and equip- ment? and mechanical or gravity ventilation? J Is liquefiedinpetroleum gas stored, practices handled J Arecombustible liquidsfor dispensingofflammable or safety cans used at the point use? and used accordance with safe and standards? J Are all spills of flammable or combustible liq- uids cleaned up promptly? J Are “NO SMOKING” and inpostedwhere flam- signs on liquefied petroleum gas tanks areas mable or combustible materials are used or J Are storage tanks adequately vented to pre- or vent the development of excessive vacuum stored? pressure as a result of filling, emptying, or atmosphere temperature changes? J Areprevent damage fromstorage tanks guarded liquefied petroleum to vehicles? J Are storage tanksrelieve excessiveemergency venting that will equipped with internal J Are all solvent wastescovered containers until kept in fire-resistant, and flammable liquids pressure caused by fire exposure? they are removed from the worksite? J Are rulesofenforced in areas involving storage and use hazardous materials? J Is vacuuming or sweeping combustiblerather than blowing used whenever possible dust? HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL EXPOSURE J Arecombustibles or flammables that are stack- of firm separators placed between containers J Are employeessafe handling practices for situ- aware of the potential hazards ed one upon another to ensure their support and trained in and stability? ations involving various chemicals stored or used in the workplace such as acids, bases, J Are fuel gas cylinders and oxygen cylinders separated by distance and fire-resistant barri- caustics, epoxies, phenols, etc.? ers while in storage? J Is employeelevels? to chemicals kept within acceptable exposure J Arethe types of materials in theand provided for fire extinguishers selected areas where J Are eye-wash fountains and safety chemicals showers they are to be used? provided in areas where corrosive are handled? Class A - Ordinary combustible material fires. Class B - Flammable liquid, gas or grease fires. J Are all containers,their contents,storage tanks, etc., labeled as to such as vats, e.g., “CAUS- TICS”? Class C - Energized-electrical equipment fires. J Are appropriate fire extinguishers mounted J Are all employees required to use personal protective clothing and equipment when han- within 75 feet (22.86 meters) of outside areas dling chemicals (gloves, eye protection, respi- containing flammable liquids and within 10 rators, etc.)? feet (3.048 meters) of any inside storage area for such materials? J Are flammable or whenchemicals kept in closed containers toxic not in use? J Are extinguishers free from obstructions or blockage? J Aretheir content? systems clearly marked as chemical piping to J Are all extinguishers serviced, maintained and tagged at intervals not to exceed one year? J Where corrosive liquids are frequently handled in open containers or drawn from storage ves- J Are all extinguishers fully charged and in their designated places? sels or pipelines, are adequate means readily Occupational Safety and Health Administration 34 available for neutralizing or disposing of spills or overflows and performed properly and safely? J Do employees complain aboutordizziness, headaches, nausea, irritation, other factors J Are standard being followed when cleaning up and are they operating procedures established of discomfort when they use solvents or other chemicals? chemical spills? J Are respirators stored in a convenient, clean J Is there a dermatitis problem? Do employees complain about dryness, irritation, or sensitiza- and sanitary location, and are they adequate tion of the skin? for emergencies? J Are employees prohibited from eating in areas J Have you or environmental health specialist hygienist considered having an industrial where hazardous chemicals are present? evaluate your operation? J Is PPE used and maintained whenever neces- sary? J If internal combustion engines are used, is car- bon monoxide kept within acceptable levels? J Are there the selection andoperating proce- dures for written standard use of respirators J Is vacuuming used rather possible for cleanup? sweeping dust whenever than blowing or where needed? J If you have a respirator protection the correct program, J Are materials that give offfumes asphyxiant, suffocating, or anesthetic toxic, stored in are your employees instructed on remote or isolated locations when not in use? usage and limitations of the respirators? Are the respirators National Institute for HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES COMMUNICATION Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)- approved for this particular application? Are they regularly inspected, cleaned, sani- J Is there a list of hazardous substancesavailable your workplace and an MSDS readily used in tized and maintained? for each hazardous substance used? J If hazardous substances are used in your pro- cesses, do you have a medical or biological J Is there a currentexposureexposure control plan for occupational written to bloodborne monitoring system in operation? pathogens and other potentially infectious materials, where applicable? J Arepermissible exposure limits of airborne con- or you familiar with the threshold limit values J Is there a written hazard communication pro- taminants and physical agents used in your gram dealing with MSDSs, labeling and workplace? employee training? J Have appropriate controlmaterials, including instituted for hazardous procedures been J Is each container for a hazardousetc.) labeled (i.e., vats, bottles, storage tanks, substance safe handling practices and the use of respira- with product identity and a hazard warning tors and ventilation systems? (communication of the specific health hazards and physical hazards)? J Whenever possible, designed and exhausted handled in properly are hazardous substances J Is there substances that includes: for haz- an employee training program booths or similar locations? ardous J Do you usesystems to control dusts,exhaust ventilation general dilution or local vapors, I an explanation of what an MSDS is and how to use and obtain one; gases, fumes, smoke, solvents, or mists that may be generated in your workplace? I MSDS contents for each hazardous substance or class of substances; J Is operational ventilation equipment provided for removal of contaminants from production I explanation of “A Right to Know”; grinding, buffing, spray painting, and/or vapor degreasing? I identification of where an employee can see OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 35 the written hazard communication program; I information on post-exposure evaluations and follow-up; and I location of physical and health hazards in par- ticular work areas and the specific protective I an explanation of signs, labels and color measures to be used; and coding. I details of the hazard communication program, including how to use the labeling system and J Are employees trained in: I how to recognize tasks that might result in MSDSs. occupational exposure; J Does the employee training program on the bloodborne pathogens standard contain the I how to use work practice, engineering con- trols and PPE, and their limitations; following elements: I an accessible copy of the standard and an I how to obtain information on the types, selec- explanation of its contents; tion, proper use, location, removal, handling, decontamination and disposal of PPE; and I a general explanation of the epidemiology and symptoms of bloodborne diseases; I who to contact and what to do in an emer- gency. I an explanation of the modes of transmission of Bloodborne Pathogens; ELECTRICAL I an explanation of the employer’s exposure control plan and the means by which employ- J Do youfor all contract electrical work? stan- dards require compliance with OSHA ees can obtain a copy of the written plan; I an explanation of the appropriate methods for J Are all employeesor property in connection ous hazard to life required to report any obvi- recognizing tasks and the other activities that with electrical equipment or lines as soon as may involve exposure to blood and other possible? potentially infectious materials; I an explanation of the use and limitations of J Are employees instructed to make preliminary inspections and/or appropriate tests to deter- methods that will prevent or reduce exposure, mine conditions before starting work on elec- including appropriate engineering controls, trical equipment or lines? work practices and PPE; J When electrical equipment or linesare neces- serviced, maintained, or adjusted, are to be I information on the types, proper use, location, sary switches opened, locked out or tagged, removal, handling, decontamination and dis- whenever possible? posal of PPE; I an explanation of the basis for selection of J Are portable electrical toolsinsulated type? grounded or of the double and equipment PPE; I information on the hepatitis B vaccine; J Are electrical appliances suchmachines, etc., cleaners, polishers, vending as vacuum grounded? I information on the appropriate actions to take and persons to contact in an emergency in- J Do extension cords have a grounding con- ductor? volving blood or other potentially infectious materials; J Are multiple plug adaptors prohibited? I an explanation of the procedure to follow if an exposure incident occurs, including the meth- J Areeach temporary 15 orinterrupters installed on ground-fault circuit 20 ampere, 120 volt ods of reporting the incident and the medical alternating current (AC) circuit at locations follow-up that will be made available; where construction, demolition, modifications, Occupational Safety and Health Administration 36 alterations, or excavations are being per- formed? J Are all electrical raceways and enclosures securely fastened in place? J Are all temporary circuits protected by suitable disconnecting switches or plug connectors at J Are all energized parts of electrical circuits and the junction with permanent wiring? equipment guarded against accidental contact by approved cabinets or enclosures? J Do you have electrical installations in haz- ardous dust or vapor areas? If so, do they J Is sufficient access and working space provid- meet the National Electrical Code (NEC) for ed and maintained around all electrical equip- hazardous locations? ment to permit ready and safe operations and maintenance? J Are exposed insulation repairedwithreplacedor deteriorated wiring and cords or frayed J Are all unusedelectrical enclosures and fittings openings (including conduit promptly? knockouts) in closed with appropriate covers, plugs, or J Are flexible cords and cables free of splices or taps? plates? J Areflexible cords or cables at plugs, recepta- clamps or other securing means provided J Are electrical enclosures such as switches, re- ceptacles, junction boxes, etc., provided with on tight-fitting covers or plates? cles, tools, equipment, etc., and is the cord jacket securely held in place? J Are disconnectingofswitches for electrical to motors in excess two horsepower able J Are alland secure? and raceway connections intact cord, cable open the circuit when the motor is stalled without exploding? (Switches must be horse- J In wet or damp appropriate forelectrical tools and equipment locations, are the use or loca- power rated equal to or in excess of the motor rating.) tion or otherwise protected? J Is low voltagemotors driving machines orcon- protection provided in the J Is the location of electrical powerunder and cables (overhead, underground, lines floor, trol device of equipment that could cause injury from inad- other side of walls, etc.) determined before vertent starting? digging, drilling, or similar work is begun? J Is each motor disconnectingof the motor con- switch or circuit J Aresimilar devices withtapes, ropes, hand-lines or metal measuring metallic thread woven breaker located within sight trol device? into the fabric prohibited where they could come in contact with energized parts of equip- J Is eachor is thelocated within sight of its con- troller motor controller disconnecting means ment or circuit conductors? able to be locked open or is a separate discon- J Is the use of metal ladders prohibited where the ladder or the person using the ladder necting means installed in the circuit within sight of the motor? could come in contact with energized parts of equipment, fixtures, or circuit conductors? J Is thehorsepowerfor each motor or above the two controller rated equal to that exceeds J Are all disconnecting switches and circuit rating of the motor it serves? breakers labeled to indicate their use or equip- ment served? J Are employees who regularly work on or lines around energized electrical equipment or J Are disconnecting means always opened before fuses are replaced? instructed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)? J Do allfor grounding metal parts of electrical sions interior wiring systems include provi- J Areenergized lines or equipmentworking alone on employees prohibited from over 600 raceways, equipment and enclosures? volts? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 37 NOISE J In fueling operations,containeralways metal is there J Are there areas in the workplace where contin- uous noise levels exceed 85 decibels? contact between the tank? and the fuel J Is there an ongoing preventivelevels ofprogram to educate employees in safe health noise, J Are fueling hoses designed to handle the spe- cific type of fuel? exposures, effects of noise on their health and the use of personal protection? J Are employees prohibited from handling or transferring gasoline in open containers? J Have work areas where noise levels make dif- voice communication between employees J Are equipment prohibited nearsparking,or arc- open lights, open flames, or ing fueling ficult been identified and posted? transfer of fuel operations? J Are noise levels measured with a sound level meter or an octave band analyzer and are J Is smoking prohibited in the vicinity of fueling operations? records being kept? J Have engineeringnoise levels? Wheretoengi- controls been used J Areother enclosed areasprohibitednot buildings or fueling operations that are in specifical- reduce excessive ly ventilated for this purpose? neering controls are determined to be infeasi- ble, are administrative controls (i.e., worker rotation) being used to minimize individual J Where fueling or transfer of fuelare done through a gravity flow system, is the nozzles employee exposure to noise? self-closing? J Is approved hearing protective equipment (noise attenuating devices) available to every IDENTIFICATION OF PIPING SYSTEMS employee working in noisy areas? J When nonpotable water ispostedthrough a piped J Have you tried isolating noisy machinery from the rest of your operation? facility, are outlets or taps to alert employees that the water is unsafe and not to be used for drinking, washing, or other per- J If you use and protectors,in their use? prop- erly fitted ear instructed are employees sonal use? J Are employees intestingnoise areas that you high given peri- J When hazardous substances are transported through above-ground piping, is each pipeline odic audiometric to ensure identified at points where confusion could have an effective hearing protection system? introduce hazards to employees? FUELING J When pipelines are the bandsby color painted bands or tapes, are identified or tapes located J Are employees prohibited from fueling an internal combustion engine with a flammable at reasonable intervals and at each outlet, valve, or connection, and are all visible parts liquid while the engine is running? of the line so identified? J Are fueling operations performed to minimize spillage? J Whencode posted atidentified by color, isconfu- color pipelines are all locations where the sion could introduce hazards to employees? J When is the spilled fuel washed awayopera- spillage occurs during fueling tions, com- pletely, evaporated, or are other measures J When theor name abbreviation,arethe informa- by name contents of pipelines is identified taken to control vapors before restarting the tion readily visible on the pipe near each valve engine? or outlet? J Are fuel the engine? and secured before starting tank caps replaced J When pipelines carrying hazardousconstructed are identified by tags, are the tags substances of durable materials, the message printed Occupational Safety and Health Administration 38 clearly and permanently, and are tags installed at each valve or outlet? J Are securing chains, ropes, chockers, or slings adequate for the job? J When pipelines external source, are suitable steam, or other are heated by electricity, J Are provisions made to ensureor equipment? that no one is warning signs or tags placed at unions, valves, below when hoisting material or other serviceable parts of the system? J Are MSDSssubstances? employees handling hazardous available to MATERIALS HANDLING TRANSPORTING EMPLOYEES AND MATERIALS J Is there safe clearance for equipment through aisles and doorways? J Do employees have operate vehicleslicenses? thoroughfares who valid operator’s on public J Are aisleways unhindered passage? and kept permanently marked clear to allow J When sevenin amore bus, or truck, is regularly transported or van, employees are the oper- J Are motorized vehicles and mechanized equip- ment inspected daily or prior to use? ator’s license appropriate for the class of vehi- cle being driven and are there enough seats? J Are vehicles shut off and brakes set prior to loading or unloading? J Are vehicles used to transporthorns, mirrors, employees equipped with lamps, brakes, J Are containersstacked while being moved, mables, when of liquid combustibles or flam- windshields and turn signals, and are they in good repair? always protected by dunnage (packing materi- al) sufficient to provide stability? J Are transport vehicles provided with handrails, steps, stirrups, or similar devices, placed and J Are dockorboards (bridge plates) usedtaking loading unloading operations are when arranged to allow employees to safely mount or dismount? place between vehicles and docks? J Are trucks and trailers secured from move- J Aretimes with at least two reflective-type at all employee transport vehicles equipped ment during loading and unloading opera- flares? tions? J Are dock plates and loading ramps construct- J Is a fully charged fire extinguisher, in main- condition, with at least a 4 B:C rating good ed and maintained with sufficient strength to tained in each employee transport vehicle? support imposed loading? J Are hand trucks maintained in safe operating J When cutting passenger compartmentsedges are carried in tools or tools with sharp of condition? employee transport vehicles, are they placed J Are chutes equipped with sideboardsbeing cient height to prevent the materials of suffi- in closed boxes or containers that are secured in place? handled from falling off? J Areany load thatprohibited from riding other- employees on top J Are chutessecured to prevent sections firmly placed or and gravity roller displacement? of could shift, topple, or wise become unstable? J Arethe handled materialsbrake the movementof of provisions made to at the delivery end CONTROL OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES BY VENTILATION rollers or chutes? J Are palletsmoved? inspected before being usually J Is the volume sufficient to gatherin each ex- haust system and velocity of air the dusts, loaded or fumes, mists, vapors, or gases to be controll- J Are safety latches and othermaterialsbeing used to prevent slippage of devices off of ed, and to convey them to a suitable point of disposal? hoisting hooks? OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 39 J Are exhaust inlets, ductssupported to prevent signed, constructed and and plenums de- J When clothing intoare requiredclothing, is from street employees protective to change a collapse or failure of any part of the system? clean change room with a separate storage facility for street and protective clothing pro- J Are clean-out ports12 feet (3.6576 meters)inter- vals not to exceed or doors provided at in all vided? horizontal runs of exhaust ducts? J Are employees required to shower aand wash their hair as soon as possible after known J Wherecontrolled through the operations are being two or more different same exhaust contact with a carcinogen has occurred? system, could the combination of substances involved create a fire, explosion, or chemical J Wheninto or removed from aorcarcinogen-reg- taken equipment, materials, other items are reaction hazard in the duct? ulated area, is it done in a manner that will not contaminate non-regulated areas or the exter- J Is adequate makeup air provided to areas where exhaust systems are operating? nal environment? J Is theonly clean, fresh air, free ofair located so that source point for makeup contaminants TIRE INFLATION will enter the work environment? J Where tires are mounted and/or inflated on drop center wheels or on wheels with split J Where two orismore ventilationsuch that serve a work area, their operation systems one rims and/or retainer rings, is a safe practice procedure posted and enforced? will not offset the functions of the other? SANITIZING EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING J Does each tireleast 2.54 hose have a clip-on chuck with at inflation inches (6.45 centime- ters) of hose between the chuck and an in-line J Is required personal protective clothing or equipment able to be cleaned and disinfected hand valve and gauge? easily? J Doesshuttire inflation control valve valve is cally the off the air flow when the automati- J Are employees prohibited fromequipment, personal protective clothing or interchanging released? unless it has been properly cleaned? J Is aotherrestrainingmeans used while cage, rack, or tire effective device such as a inflating J Are machines and equipment that process, handle, or apply materials that could injure tires mounted on split rims or rims using retainer rings? employees cleaned and/or decontaminated before being overhauled or placed in storage? J Are employees prohibited afrom while it is directly over or in front of tire standing J Are employees prohibitedcontaminants are eating in any area where from smoking or being inflated? present that could be injurious if ingested? Occupational Safety and Health Administration 40 ASSISTANCE IN SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR SMALL BUSINESSES OSHA Assistance needs and set up a visit date based on the priority assigned to your request, your work schedule and OSHA’S OFFICE OF SMALL BUSINESS ASSISTANCE the time needed for the consultant to prepare ade- OSHA created the Office of Small Business quately to serve you. OSHA encourages a com- Assistance to help small business employers plete review of your firm’s safety and health situa- understand their safety and health obligations, tion; however, if you wish, you may limit the visit access compliance information, provide guidance to one or more specific problems. in regulatory standards, and to educate them about Opening Conference. When the consultant cost-effective means for ensuring the safety and arrives at your worksite for the scheduled visit, he health of worksites. or she will first meet with you in an opening con- OSHA’s Office of Small Business Assistance can ference to briefly review the consultant’s role and be contacted by telephone at (202) 693-2220 or by the obligations you incur as an employer. writing to the U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Walk-through. Together, you and the consultant Constitution Avenue, NW, Room N-3700, will examine conditions in your workplace. OSHA Washington, DC 20210. strongly encourages maximum employee partici- pation in the walk-through. Better informed and ON-SITE CONSULTATION alert employees can help you identify and correct Using the free and confidential on-site consulta- potential injury and illness hazards in your work- tion service largely funded by the Federal OSHA, place. Talking with employees during the walk- employers can find out about potential hazards at through helps the consultant identify and judge the their worksites, improve their occupational safety nature and extent of specific hazards. and health management systems, and even qualify The consultant will study your entire workplace, for a one-year exemption from routine OSHA in- or only those specific operations you designate, spections. and discuss applicable OSHA standards. The con- The service is delivered at your workplace by sultant also will point out other safety or health state governments using well-trained professional risks which might not be cited under OSHA stan- staff. Most consultations take place on-site, though dards, but which nevertheless may pose safety or limited services away from the worksite are avail- health risks to your employees. He or she may able. suggest and even provide measures such as self- Primarily targeted for smaller businesses, this inspection and safety and health training that you safety and health Consultation Program is com- and your employees can apply to prevent future pletely separate from OSHA’s enforcement efforts. hazardous situations. It is also confidential. No inspections are triggered A comprehensive consultation also includes: (1) by using the Consultation Program and no citations appraisal of all mechanical and environmental haz- are issued or penalties proposed. ards and physical work practices; (2) appraisal of Your name, your firm’s name and any informa- the present job safety and health program or help tion you provide about your workplace, plus any in establishing one; (3) a conference with manage- unsafe or unhealthful working conditions that the ment on findings; (4) a written report of recom- consultant uncovers, will not routinely be reported mendations and agreements; and (5) training and to the OSHA enforcement staff. assistance with implementing recommendations. Your only obligation will be to commit to cor- Closing Conference. The consultant will then recting serious job safety and health hazards dis- review detailed findings with you in a closing con- covered -- a commitment that you are expected to ference. You will learn not only what you need to make prior to the actual consultation visit. If haz- improve but what you are doing right, as well. At ards are discovered, the consultant will work with that time you can discuss problems, possible solu- you to ensure they are corrected in a reasonable tions and abatement periods to eliminate or control timeframe agreed upon by all parties. any serious hazards identified during the walk-through. Getting Started. Since consultation is a volun- In rare instances, the consultant may find an tary activity, you must request it. Your telephone “imminent danger” situation during the walk- call or letter sets the consulting machinery in through. In that case, you must take immediate motion. The consultant will discuss your specific action to protect employees. In certain other situa- OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 41 tions–those that would be judged a “serious viola- that may introduce new hazards. Employers who tion” under OSHA criteria–you and the consultant meet these specific SHARP requirements may be must develop and agree to a reasonable plan and removed from OSHA’s programmed inspection list schedule to eliminate or control that hazard. The for one year. consultant will offer general approaches and op- tions to you. He or she may also suggest other The on-site consultants will: sources for technical help. Abatement and Follow-through. Following the I help you recognize hazards in your workplace, closing conference, the consultant will send you a detailed written report explaining the findings and I suggest general approaches or options for confirming any abatement periods agreed upon. solving a safety or health problem, The consultant may also contact you from time to I identify kinds of help available if you need fur- time to check your progress. You, of course, may ther assistance, always contact him or her for assistance. Ultimately, OSHA does require hazard abate- I provide you with a written report summarizing ment so that each consultation visit achieves its findings, objective–effective employee protection. If you fail to eliminate or control identified serious hazards I assist you in developing or maintaining an (or an imminent danger) according to the plan and effective safety and health program, within the limits agreed upon or an agreed-upon extension, the situation must be referred from con- I provide training and education for you and sultation to an OSHA enforcement office for appro- your employees, priate action. This type of referral is extremely rare. I recommend you for a one-year exclusion from Benefits. Knowledge of your workplace hazards OSHA programmed inspections, once pro- and ways to eliminate them can only improve your gram criteria are met. own operations–and the management of your firm. You will get professional advice and assistance on The on-site consultants will not: the correction of workplace hazards and benefit from on-site training and assistance provided. The I issue citations or propose penalties for viola- consultant can help you establish or strengthen an tions of OSHA standards, employee safety and health program, making safe- ty and health activities routine rather than crisis- I report possible violations to OSHA enforce- oriented responses. ment staff, I guarantee that your workplace will “pass” an In many states, employers may participate in OSHA inspection. OSHA’s Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP). This program is For a list of consultation projects in each state, designed to provide incentives and support to see the OSHA website at www.osha.gov/dcsp/ smaller, high-hazard employers to develop, imple- smallbusiness/consult_directory.html. ment and continuously improve effective safety and health programs at their worksite(s). SHARP OTHER COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS provides recognition of employers who have Information about OSHA’s different cooperative demonstrated exemplary achievements in work- programs is available from any OSHA Regional place safety and health, beginning with a compre- Office, OSHA Area Office, or by contacting OSHA’s hensive safety and health consultation visit, correc- Directorate of Cooperative and State Programs at tion of all workplace safety and health hazards, the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety adoption and implementation of effective safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution and health management systems, and agreement Avenue, NW, Room N-3700, Washington, DC to request further consultative visits if major 20210, phone (202) 693-2200. changes in working conditions or processes occur Occupational Safety and Health Administration 42 VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS (VPP) These state plans operate under authority of state OSHA’s VPP provide an opportunity for labor, law and are required to be, in structure and per- management and government to work together formance, “at least as effective as” the Federal cooperatively to further the goal of providing effec- OSHA Program. Although many states have tive safety and health protection in the workplace. adopted standards and procedures identical to The VPP grant recognition to worksites that provide Federal standards, states may have different or or are committed to providing effective protection additional requirements parallel to those described for their employees through implementation of in the Federal program. systematically managed safety and health pro- To determine which set of standards and regula- grams. The Star Program is for worksites that have tions apply to you, you need to know whether you at least one year’s experience with an effectively are covered by a state plan or subject to Federal implemented safety and health program. The OSHA. Please visit http://www.oshaslc.gov/fso/osp Merit Program is for worksites working toward an /index.html, call the OSHA Area Office nearest you, effectively implemented program. The Star or (800) 321-OSHA to obtain this information. Demonstration Program is for worksites with pro- If you are subject to state enforcement, the grams at Star quality but with some aspect of their OSHA Area Office will refer you to your state office program that requires further study by OSHA. All which can provide all relevant information, such as participants work in partnership with OSHA and whether the state is using the Federal standards, provide models for OSHA and for their industries. information on the poster and recordkeeping requirements, and special services available to OSHA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM (OSPP) small businesses. The state office also can provide OSPP is designed to enable groups of employ- you with further assistance, including directing you ers, employees and employee representatives to to the free, on-site consultation services described partner with OSHA and enter into an extended, vol- above. untary, cooperative relationship in order to encour- See the list of OSHA-approved state plans at age, assist and recognize efforts to eliminate seri- www.osha.gov. ous hazards and achieve a high level of worker safety and health. OSHA Publications A single free copy of the following materials can be OSHA ALLIANCE PROGRAM obtained from the OSHA Area or Regional Office, Alliances are goal-oriented written agreements or contact the OSHA Publications Office, U.S. between OSHA and organizations to work together Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, to prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. Organ- NW, N-3101, Washington, DC 20210, or call (202) izations include employers, employees, labor unions, 693-1888, or fax (202) 693-2498. trade or professional groups, educational institu- Access to Medical and Exposure Records – tions and government agencies. Alliances focus on OSHA 3110 one or more of the following goals: training and education, outreach and communications, and pro- All About OSHA – OSHA 3302 moting the national dialogue on occupational safe- Asbestos Standard for the Construction Industry – ty and health. OSHA 3096 States with Approved Plans Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) – The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 OSHA 3120 encourages states to develop and operate their Employee Workplace Rights – OSHA 3021 own job safety and health programs. OSHA approves and monitors state plans and provides up Employer Rights and Responsibilities Following to 50 percent of an approved plan’s operating costs. an OSHA Inspection – OSHA 3000 Twenty-four states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin (Spanish version 3195) Islands currently operate approved state plans. Hand and Power Tools – OSHA 3080 OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 43 How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and For further information on any OSHA program, Evacuations – OSHA 3088 contact your nearest OSHA Area or Regional Office or call (800) 321-OSHA. Job Safety and Health Protection Poster – OSHA 3165 Other Sources of Assistance Job Hazard Analysis – OSHA 3071 VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS Model Plans & Programs for the OSHA Bloodborne PARTICIPANTS’ ASSOCIATION (VPPPA) Pathogens and Hazard Communications Standards The VPPPA is a private organization made up of – OSHA 3186 VPP participant companies. The VPPPA has mem- Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act – bers in most states where the Federal OSHA pro- OSHA 2001 gram operates and in many states where state Personal Protective Equipment – OSHA 3151 plans are in force. The VPPPA is willing to provide information, outreach, and mentoring to help work- Servicing Single-Piece and Multi-Piece Rim Wheels – sites improve their safety and health programs. OSHA 3086 Chapters of the national association have been The following publications are available from formed in most OSHA regions. Members of these the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), chapters also are willing to provide the kind of Superintendent of Documents, Washington, DC assistance provided by the national organization. 20402, phone toll-free (866) 512-1800, fax (202) 512- To contact your regional chapter of the VPPPA, call 2250. Include GPO Order Number and make or write the OSHA Regional Office listed in the back checks payable to Superintendent of Documents. of this publication for the address and telephone All prices are subject to change by GPO. number of the chapter in your region. To contact the VPPPA national organization, please call (703) Hazard Communication: A Compliance Kit – 761-1146 or write to the following address: OSHA 3111 Order No. 029-016-00200-6. Cost: $21.00 Voluntary Protection Programs Participants’ Construction Industry Digest – OSHA 2202 Association Order No. 029-016-00212-0. Cost: $8.00 7600 East Leesburg Pike, Suite 440 Falls Church, VA 22043 Materials Handling and Storing – OSHA 2236 (703) 761-1146 Order No. 029-016-00215-4. Cost: $3.75 Internet—There is an enormous amount of compli- SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS ance assistance information on OSHA’s website The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) that can be useful to the small business owner, administers the Small Business Development found at http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_ Center Program to provide management and tech- assistance/index.html. OSHA standards, interpreta- nical assistance to current and prospective small tions, directives and additional information are business owners. There is a Small Business also available at http://www.osha.gov/ and Development Center (SBDC) in every state, the http://www.osha-slc.gov/. District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, with more than 1,000 CD-ROM—A wide variety of OSHA materials, service centers across the country. SBDC assis- including standards, interpretations, directives, and tance is tailored to the local community and the more, can be purchased on CD-ROM from the U.S. needs of individual clients and designed to deliver Government Printing Office, Superintendent of up-to-date counseling, training, and technical assis- Documents, phone toll-free (866) 512-1800. tance. Services could include helping small busi- Emergencies—For life-threatening situations, call nesses with financial, marketing, production, (800) 321-OSHA. Your call will be directed to the organization, engineering, and technical problems. nearest OSHA Area or state office for help. Occupational Safety and Health Administration 44 NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL THE NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL AND SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH) LOCAL CHAPTERS NIOSH is a research agency in the U.S. The National Safety Council (NSC) has a broad Department of Health and Human Services. (OSHA range of information services available. If you is a regulatory agency in the U.S. Department of have a local chapter of the NSC in your area, you Labor). NIOSH conducts research and makes rec- can call or visit to see how you can use materials ommendations to prevent work-related illness and pertaining to your business. If there is no chapter injury. NIOSH has produced a useful guide, Safety nearby, you can write to: and Health Resource Guide for Small Businesses, with telephone numbers, e-mail and Internet ad- National Safety Council dresses, and mailing information to enable small 1121 Spring Lake Drive businesses to contact government agencies, pri- Itasca, IL 60143-3201 vate organizations, consultants, and others who can help with occupational safety and health is- PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS sues. The NIOSH toll-free phone number is (800) The following professional associations are an 356-4674, and its website address is www.cdc. additional resource that may be able to provide gov/niosh. assistance to you: WORKERS’ COMPENSATION CARRIERS AND American Society of Safety Engineers OTHER INSURANCE COMPANIES 1800 East Oakton Street Many workers’ compensation carriers, as well Des Plaines, IL 60018-2187 as many liability and fire insurance companies, conduct periodic inspections and visits to evaluate American Industrial Hygiene Association safety and health hazards. Managers of small and 2700 Prosperity Avenue medium-sized businesses need to know what serv- Suite 250 ices are available from these sources. Contact your Fairfax, VA 22031-4319 carrier and see what it has to offer. American Conference of Governmental TRADE ASSOCIATIONS AND EMPLOYER GROUPS Industrial Hygienists Because of the increase in job safety and health 1330 Kemper Meadow Drive awareness resulting from OSHA activities, many Cincinnati, OH 45240 trade associations and employer groups have put a new emphasis on safety and health matters to bet- SPECIFIC MEDICAL CONSULTATION ter serve their members. If you are a member of Talk to your local doctors or clinics for advice on such a group, find out how it is assisting its mem- workplace medical matters on a consulting basis. bers. If you are not a member, find out if these Contact your local Red Cross chapter for assistance groups are circulating their materials to nonmem- in first-aid training. If you cannot identify a local bers, as many do. chapter, call (800) 667-2968 or write to: TRADE UNIONS AND EMPLOYEE GROUPS American National Red Cross If your employees are organized, set up some National Headquarters communications, as you do in normal labor rela- Safety Programs tions, to get coordinated action on hazards in your 2025 E Street, NW business. Safety and health is one area where Washington, DC 20006 advance planning will produce action on common goals. Many trade unions have safety and health YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY expertise that they are willing to share. Many local or university libraries contain infor- mation on specific safety and health subjects per- OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES 45 taining to your business. These materials are usu- Interest rate information on SBA loans may be ally in reference rooms or technical subject areas. obtained from any SBA office. They fluctuate but Ask your librarian what is available. The library are generally lower than you can obtain elsewhere. may be able to obtain materials for you through You may wish to consult your own bank. It pays to inter-library loan, purchase, etc. shop around for loans. Two basic publications of the National Safety Don’t forget to check with your accountant at Council will give you many sources of technical income tax time, since safety and health improve- information. The Accident Prevention Manual for ments can often be expensed or depreciated. Industrial Operations is a basic reference book for all safety and health work. The second book, ADDITIONAL WEB PAGES OF INTEREST Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene, contains excel- TO SMALL BUSINESSES lent information on toxic materials and recom- (Internet websites change frequently; these list- mended health and hygiene practices. Both of ings may not be current.) these references list other sources at the end of each chapter that may help you in solving specific http://www.firstgov.gov problems. A website for all agencies of the Federal govern- ment. FINANCING WORKPLACE IMPROVEMENT The SBA is authorized to make loans to assist http://www.sba.gov small businesses with meeting OSHA standards. The U.S. Small Business Administration’s home Because SBA’s definition of a “small” business page. varies from industry to industry, contact your local SBA field office to determine whether you qualify. http://www.businesslaw.gov A helpful hint: if you decide to apply for an SBA Legal and regulatory information for small busi- loan, experience indicates that most delays in pro- nesses by state. cessing SBA/OSHA loans are because applications (1) do not adequately describe each workplace con- http://www.regulations.gov dition to be corrected and identify one or more A site to enable small business owners to find all OSHA standards applicable to the condition to be Federal regulations that are open for comment, to corrected, or (2) do not provide a reasonable esti- read them and to submit their views. mate of the cost to correct each condition. In most cases, safety hazards can be corrected http://www.assistancecenters.net/ without financial assistance. Health hazards may For help with understanding environmental regula- be more costly to correct. The age and condition tions that relate to the operation of your business. of the building and equipment are major factors to be considered. http://www.irs.gov/businesses/small/index.html This Internal Revenue Service website offers indus- try- and profession-specific tax information and guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Administration 46 Appendix A: Overall Action Plan Worksheet Major Action Steps to be Taken Priority Projected Actual (Assign each Completion Completion Step a Number) Date Date 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES Action Steps 47 Description of Action to be Taken: Specific Steps Required Persons Projected Problems/ Actual Assigned Completion Delays Completion Date Encountered Date 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Occupational Safety and Health Administration 48 Appendix B: Model Policy Statements The following statements provide examples that “Our safety and health program will include: can be used or modified by employers to help pre- vent employee injury and illness. I Providing mechanical and physical safeguards to the maximum extent possible. “The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 clearly states our common goal of safe and health- I A program of safety and health inspections to ful working conditions. The safety and health of identify and eliminate unsafe working condi- our employees continues to be the first considera- tions or practices, to control health hazards, tion in the operation of this business. ” and to comply fully with the safety and health standards for every job. “Safety and health in our business must be a part of every operation. Without question it is every I Training all employees in good safety and employee’s responsibility at all levels. ” health practices. “It is the intent of this company to comply with all I Providing necessary personal protective laws. To do this we must constantly be aware of equipment and instructions for its use and conditions in all work areas that can produce in- care. juries. No employee is required to work at a job he or she knows is not safe or healthful. Your cooper- I Developing and enforcing safety and health ation in detecting hazards and, in turn, controlling rules and requiring that employees cooperate them is a condition of your employment. Inform with these rules as a condition of employ- your supervisor immediately of any situation ment. beyond your ability or authority to correct. ” I Investigating, promptly and thoroughly, every “The personal safety and health of each employee accident to find out what caused it and to cor- of this company is of primary importance. The rect the problem so that it won’t happen again. prevention of occupationally-induced injuries and illnesses is of such consequence that it will be I Setting up a system of recognition and given precedence over operating productivity awards for outstanding safety service or per- whenever necessary. To the greatest degree possi- formance. ” ble, management will provide all mechanical and physical facilities required for personal safety and “We recognize that the responsibilities for safety health in keeping with the highest standards. ” and health are shared: “We will maintain a safety and health program con- I The employer accepts responsibility for lead- forming to the best practices of organizations of ership of the safety and health program, for its this type. To be successful, such a program must effectiveness and improvement, and for pro- embody the proper attitudes toward injury and ill- viding safe conditions. ness prevention on the part of supervisors and employees. It also requires cooperation in all safe- I Supervisors are responsible for developing ty and health matters, not only between supervisor the proper attitudes toward safety and health and employee, but also between each employee in themselves and in those they supervise, and his or her co-workers. Only through such a and for ensuring that all operations are per- cooperative effort can a safety program in the best formed with the utmost regard for the safety interest of all be established and preserved. ” and health of all personnel involved, including themselves. “Our objective is a safety and health program that will reduce the number of injuries and illnesses to I Employees are responsible for compliance an absolute minimum, not merely in keeping with, with all rules and regulations and for continu- but surpassing, the best experience of operations ously practicing safety while performing their similar to ours. Our goal is zero accidents and in- duties. ” juries. ” OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES Appendix C: Codes of Safe Practices 49 This is a suggested code. It is general in nature lines in a manner not within the scope of their and includes many types of small business activi- duties, unless they have received instructions from ties. It is intended only as a model that you can their supervisor/employer. customize to describe your own work environment. 10. All injuries shall be reported promptly to the supervisor/employer so that arrangements can be General Policy made for medical and/or first-aid treatment. First- 1. All employees of this firm shall follow these safe aid materials are located in ____________; emer- practice rules, render every possible aid to safe gency, fire, ambulance, rescue squad, and doctors’ operations, and report all unsafe conditions or telephone numbers are located ___________; and practices to the supervisor/employer. fire extinguishers are located at ___________. 2. Supervisors shall insist that employees observe Suggested Safety Rules and obey every rule, regulation, and order neces- sary to the safe conduct of the work and take such I Do not throw material, tools, or other objects action necessary to obtain compliance. from heights (whether structures or buildings) until proper precautions are taken to protect 3. All employees shall be given frequent accident others from the falling object hazard. prevention instructions. Instructions, practice drills, and articles concerning workplace safety and I Wash thoroughly after handling injurious or health shall be given at least once every _____ poisonous substances. working days. I Gasoline shall not be used for cleaning purposes. 4. Anyone known to be under the influence of alco- I When using a ladder, always face the steps hol and/or drugs shall not be allowed on the job and use both hands while climbing. while in that condition. Persons with symptoms of alcohol and/or drug abuse are encouraged to dis- Use of Tools and Equipment cuss personal or work-related problems with the supervisor/employer. I Keep faces of hammers in good condition to avoid flying nails and bruised fingers. 5. No one shall knowingly be permitted or required to work while his or her ability or alertness is im- I Files shall be equipped with handles; never paired by fatigue, illness, or other causes that use a file as a punch or pry. might expose the individual or others to injury. I Do not use a screwdriver as a chisel. 6. Employees should be alert to see that all guards I Do not lift or lower portable electric tools by and other protective devices are in proper places the power cords; use a rope. and adjusted, and they shall report deficiencies. Approved protective equipment shall be worn in I Do not leave the cords of tools where cars or specified work areas. trucks will run over them. 7. Horseplay, scuffling, and other acts that tend to Machinery and Vehicles endanger the safety or well-being of employees are prohibited. I Do not attempt to operate machinery or equipment without special permission unless 8. Work shall be well planned and supervised to it is part of your regular duties. prevent injuries when working with equipment and handling heavy materials. When lifting heavy I Loose or frayed clothing, dangling ties, finger objects, employees should bend their knees and rings, etc., must not be worn around moving use the large muscles of the legs instead of the machinery or other places where they can get smaller muscles of the back. Back injuries are the caught. most frequent and often the most persistent and I Machinery shall not be repaired or adjusted painful type of workplace injury. while in operation. 9. Workers shall not handle or tamper with any electrical equipment, machinery, or air or water Occupational Safety and Health Administration 50 Appendix D: OSHA Job Safety and Health Standards, Regulations and Requirements OSHA has four separate sets of standards: General knows that the standard does not adequately Industry (29 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] address the hazard. 1910), Construction (29 CFR 1926), Maritime Employment (29 CFR 1915-1919), and Agriculture General Industry, Maritime, and Construction (29 CFR 1928). OSHA has regulations on posting OSHA standards are available at www.osha.gov. and other administrative matters in 29 CFR 1903 and on recording and reporting of injuries and ill- After you have obtained a copy of the current stan- nesses in 29 CFR 1904. dards, identify those that apply to your business by a process of elimination. Read the introduction to The OSH Act also has a general duty clause, sec- the subpart heading, and then analyze the possible tion 5(a)(1), 29 U.S.C. 654(b)(1), which provides hazards in terms of your workplace, your equip- that: ment, your materials and of your employees. For example, if you are engaged in retail trade or serv- (a) Each employer – – ice and you do not have compressed gases, flam- mables, or explosives on your premises, you can (1) shall furnish to each of his employees employ- eliminate Hazardous Materials (Subpart H) as not ment and a place of employment which are free applying to your business. from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to If you have any questions in determining whether a his employees. standard is applicable to your workplace, you may contact the nearest OSHA Area Office for assis- A recognized hazard is a danger recognized by the tance. Staff there should be able to answer any employer’s industry or industry in general, by the questions you may have about standards and pro- employer, or by common sense. The general duty vide general guidelines on methods of implemen- clause does not apply if there is an OSHA standard tation in your workplace. Small businesses are dealing with the hazard, unless the employer encouraged to participate in the development of standards. OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES Appendix E: Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (SBREFA) 51 In 1996, Congress passed the Small Business an electronic comment/complaint with the SBA Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act, or SBREFA, Ombudsman over the Internet at: in response to concerns expressed by the small http://www.sba.gov/ombudsman/comments/com- business community that Federal regulations were mentform1.html too numerous, too complex and too expensive to Or you may contact the SBA's Office of the implement. SBREFA was designed to give small National Ombudsman by: businesses assistance in understanding and com- plying with regulations and more of a voice in the I Toll-Free Phone: (888) REG-FAIR (734-3247) development of new regulations. Under SBREFA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration I Fax: (202) 481-5719 (OSHA) and other Federal agencies must: I E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org I Produce Small Entity Compliance Guides for I Mail: Office of the National Ombudsman some rules; U.S. Small Business Administration 409 3rd Street, S.W., MC2120 I Be responsive to small business inquiries Washington, DC 20416-0005 about compliance with the agency’s regula- tions; To view the SBREFA Act in its entirety, please visit the following web link: I Submit final rules to Congress for review; http://www.sba.gov/advo/laws/sbrefa.html I Have a penalty reduction policy for small busi- nesses; and For more information on SBREFA the following web links may prove helpful: I Involve small businesses in the development http://www.sba.gov/ombudsman/ of some proposed rules through Small http://www.sba.gov/ombudsman/dsp_overview.html Business Advocacy Review Panels. http://www.sba.gov/ombudsman/dsp_faq.html http://www.sba.gov/advo/ Commenting on Enforcement Actions http://www.sba.gov/advo/laws/is_oshapanel.html Under a law passed by Congress in 1996, the Small NOTE: Filing a complaint with the SBA Business Administration (SBA) has established an Ombudsman does not affect any obligation that SBA Ombudsman and SBA Regional Fairness you may have to comply with an OSHA citation or Boards to investigate small business complaints other enforcement action. Nor does it mean that about Federal agency enforcement actions. you need not take other available legal steps to If you are a small business and believe that you protect your interests. have been treated unfairly by OSHA, you may file Occupational Safety and Health Administration 52 OSHA Regional Offices Region VIII (CO, MT, NO, SO, UT,* WY*) Region I 1999 Broadway, Suite 1690 (CT,* ME, MA, NH, RI, VT*) PO Box 46550 JFK Federal Building, Room E340 Denver, CO 80202-5716 Boston, MA 02203 (720) 264-6550 (617) 565-9860 Region IX Region II (American Samoa, AZ,* CA,* HI,* NV,* and Guam, (NJ,* NY,* PR,* VI*) the Northern Mariana Islands and American 201 Varick Street, Room 670 Samoa) New York, NY 10014 90 7th Street, Suite 18-100 (212) 337-2378 San Francisco, CA 94103 (415) 625-2547 Region III (DE, DC, MD,* PA, VA,* WV) Region X The Curtis Center (AK,* ID, OR,* WA*) 170 S. Independence Mall West 1111 Third Avenue, Suite 715 Suite 740 West Seattle, WA 98101-3212 Philadelphia, PA 19106-3309 (206) 553-5930 (215) 861-4900 * These states and territories operate their Region IV own OSHA-approved job safety and health pro- (AL, FL, GA, KY,* MS, NC,* SC,* TN*) grams and cover state and local government 61 Forsyth Street, SW, Room 6T50 employees as well as private sector employees. Atlanta, GA 30303 The Connecticut, New Jersey, New York and (404) 562-2300 Virgin Islands plans cover public employees only. States with approved programs must have stan- Region V dards that are identical to, or at least as effective (lL, IN,* MI,* MN,* OH, WI) as, the Federal OSHA standards. 230 South Dearborn Street Note: To get contact information for OSHA Area Room 3244 Offices, OSHA-approved State Plans and OSHA Chicago, IL 60604 Consultation Projects, please visit us online at (312) 353-2220 www.osha.gov or call us at 1-800-321-0SHA. Region VI Contact Information (AR, LA, NM,* OK, TX) 525 Griffin Street, Room 602 The most complete and current information and e- Dallas, TX 75202 mail addresses for OSHA Regional and Area (972) 850-4145 Offices and the state Consultation Projects can be found on OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov/html/ Region VII oshdir.html or by contacting: (IA,* KS, MO, NE) Two Pershing Square U.S. Department of Labor 2300 Main Street, Suite 1010 Occupational Safety and Health Administration Kansas City, MO 64108-2416 Directorate of Cooperative and State Programs (816) 283-8745 Office of Small Business Assistance 200 Constitution Ave., NW Washington, DC 20210 (800) 321-OSHA OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES OSHA’s Non-Retaliation Policy The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has a long-established policy that informa- tion inquiries received by the agency regarding safety and health regulations or other safety-related subjects shall not trigger an inspection. This policy is outlined in OSHA Instruction CPL 02-00-103 (CPL 2.103), Field Inspection Reference Manual, Section 5 - Chapter I, B.4.b. The exact wording is: Employer Contacts. Contacts for information initiat- ed by employers or their representatives shall not trigger an inspection, nor shall such employer inquiries protect them against regular inspections conducted pursuant to guidelines established by the agency. Further, if an employer or its represen- tatives indicates that an imminent danger exists or that a fatality or catastrophe has occurred, the Area Director shall act in accordance with established inspection priority procedures. While exceptions to this policy exist, such as the presence of an imminent danger or the occurrence of a fatality, OSHA policy is to provide assistance to help employers prevent and reduce workplace fatalities, illnesses and injuries.