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Human Factors & Motivation

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					   Management
Human Factors and Motivation
        ( Leading)
         Lesson # 9
        Leading is ………
The process of influencing people so that
they will contribute to organizational and
group goals.
Managing requires the creation and
maintenance of an environment in which
individuals work together towards the
accomplishment of common objectives.
 Human Factors in Managing
Multiplicity of roles managers and the people they lead
are interacting members of a broad social system. Write
down your roles.
No average person managers need to understand the
complexity and individuality of people.
The importance of personal dignity people to be
treated with respect, no matter what their position in the
organization.
Consideration of the whole person mangers need to
understand that human being is a total person influenced
by external factors and cannot divest themselves.
                 Motivation
 Motivation is a need
or desire that energizes
behavior and directs it
    towards a goal.




                                             AP Photo/ Rocky Mountain News, Judy Walgren
  Alan Ralston was
 motivated to cut his
 arm to free himself
  from a rock that
 pinned him down.
                              Alan Ralston
“Motivation leading to Inspiration
          to Influence ”
 Motivation….. is taking a hold of an idea
 and go where you wanted to go.

 Inspiration….. is an idea which gets hold
 of you and takes you where you wanted to
 go.
 Influence….. Is the power to lead and
 take people where you wanted to go.
    A Simple Model of Motivation




   NEED-Creates desire to fulfill   BEHAVIOR-            REWARDS-Satisfy
   needs (food, friendship,         Results in actions   needs; intrinsic or
   recognition, achievement).       to fulfill needs.    extrinsic rewards.




FEEDBACK-Reward informs person whether behavior was appropriate and
should be used again.
Unsatisfied
  Need                                 Motivation
              Tension
                                        Process

                        Drives

                                  Search
                                 Behavior

                                            Satisfied
                                             Need

                                                        Reduction
                                                        of Tension
    Motivation is of Two Types:


Intrinsic motivation--satisfactions a
 person receives in the process of
 performing a particular action--given by
 oneself. (Internally generated)

Extrinsic motivation--given by another
 person. (Externally generated)
     Can you translate the following formula?

                  ExV=M
• “E” represents an individual's expectations
  about outcome.

• “V” represents valuing, with valuing
influenced by both what is valued intrinsically
and extrinsically. How I feel about my job.

Thus, in a general sense, motivation can be
thought of in terms of expectancy times valuing.
                ExV=
                0x5=0

low expectations (E) and high valuing (V)
produce relatively weak motivation.


     I know I won’t be able to do it.
               ExV=
               5x0=0

High expectations paired with low valuing
   also yield low approach motivation.

          It’s not worth doing!
Two common reasons people give for
not bothering to learn something are

         “It's not worth it"

   "I know I won't be able to do it."
 Understanding Motivation Factors
           ….Instincts
Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed
 patterns throughout species and are unlearnt.




                                                            Tony Brandenburg/ Bruce Coleman, Inc.
                              © Ariel Skelley/ Masterfile




    Where the woman can build different kinds of houses
           the bird builds only one kind of nest.
Understanding Motivation Factors
          Drive-Reduction
Physiological need creates an aroused tension
 state (a drive) that motivates an organism to
          satisfy the need (Hull, 1951).
          Drive Reduction
  Physiological aim of drive reduction is
homeostasis – maintenance of steady internal
  state, e.g., maintenance of steady body
                temperature.



                                     Drive
  Food
                                   Reduction
                 Empty Stomach
                  Stomach Full
                (Food Deprived)

                 Organism
 Understanding Motivation Factors
          ……Incentive
 Where our needs push, incentives (positive or
negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives.


  A food-deprived person who smells baking bread
        (incentive) feels strong hunger drive.
Understanding Motivation Factors
          …..Arousal
We seek an optimal level of arousal (just
the right level of arousal)
   arousal: general level of activation
   the right amount of arousal varies according
    to the type of activity we are engaged in and
    is different for everyone in different situations
   different people seek different levels of
    arousal
 Early Theories of Motivation

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
     Needs were categorized as five levels of
      lower- to higher-order needs.
        Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs
        before they can satisfy higher order needs.
        Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.
        Motivating a person depends on knowing at
        what level that person is on the hierarchy.
     Hierarchy of needs
        Lower-order (external): physiological, safety
        Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-
        actualization
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

                   Self-Actualization
                          Needs
                  represent the need for
                     self-fulfillment
                       Esteem Needs
              desire for a positive self-image
                  and to receive attention
                   Belongingness Needs
            desire to be accepted by one’s peers

                       Safety Needs
    safe and secure physical and emotional environment

                 Physiological Needs
           most basic human physical needs
                                           Joe Skipper/ Reuters/ Corbis   David Portnoy/ Getty Images for Stern
                     Hurricane Survivors




                                             Mario Tama/ Getty Images       Menahem Kahana/ AFP/ Getty Images
Hierarchy of Needs
  Early Theories of Motivation
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
     Theory X
        Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike
        work, avoid responsibility, and require close
        supervision.
     Theory Y
        Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction,
        desire responsibility, and like to work.
     Assumption:
        Motivation is maximized by participative decision
        making, interesting jobs, and good group
        relations.
     McGregor’s Theory X and
           Theory Y
Theory X Workers           Theory Y Workers
• Dislike work             • View work as natural
• Must be threatened       • Self-directed
  with punishment
                           • Exercise self-control
• Avoid responsibilities
                           • Accept responsibility
• Seek formal direction
                           • Seek responsibility
• Require security
                           • Make innovative
• Little ambition            decisions
Alderfer’s ERG Theory


             Growth Needs
            human potential,
      personal growth, and increased
               competence


            Relatedness Needs
   the need for satisfactory relationships
                 with others



            Existence Needs
    the needs for physical well-being
                  ERG THEORY
Satisfaction-
progression
principle            Growth Needs
                                      Frustration-
 Self-
                                      regression
  actualization
                                      principle
 Self-esteem
                      Relatedness
                        Needs
 Esteem
 Belongingness

 Security          Existence Needs
 Physiological
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

       Hygiene factors affect         Motivator factors affect
        job dissatisfaction              job satisfaction
  • Quality of supervision          • Promotional opportunities
  • Pay                             • Opportunities for personal
  • Company policies                  growth
  • Physical working                • Recognition
    conditions                      • Responsibility
  • Relations with others           • Achievement
  • Job security



High      Job Dissatisfaction   0         Job Satisfaction     High
  HERZBERG’S FINDINGS
                         Apathy


                                     Motivators

                           No                     Job
                           Job                    Satisfaction
                           Satisfaction

               Hygiene

     Job                   No
     Dissatisfaction       Job
                           Dissatisfaction


Thus satisfaction and dissatisfaction are
           really two factors!
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
    Area of Satisfaction
                      Motivators
                      Achievement
                      Recognition           Motivators
                      Responsibility
                      Work itself           influence level
                      Personal growth       of satisfaction.



    Area of Dissatisfaction
                       Hygiene
                       Factors
                     Working conditions   Hygiene factors
                     Pay and security     influence level
                     Company policies
                                          of dissatisfaction.
                     Supervisors
                     Interpersonal
                      relationships
        HERZBERG’S
     RECOMMENDATIONS:
1.Ensure that hygiene factors are adequate.
2.Focus on adding motivation factors into
  the jobs (enrich the job).

    The focus, above all, is on motivation
   factors. Excellent motivation factors can
    make up for poor hygiene factors. E.g.,
                   soldiers
     If You Cannot Enrich Jobs,
          HERZBERG Says:
1. Find people with less ability who will find a
    dull job challenging. (e.g., McDonald’s)
                 If can’t do, then:
2. Bribe workers with lots of hygiene factors to
   keep them quiet (GM & Ford).
                 If can’t do, then:
3. Learn to get used to low morale, high
    absenteeism, tardiness, union problems,
    and strikes!
McClelland's Theory of Needs
 Need for achievement (nAch) - drive to
 excel
 Need for power (nPow) - the need to
 make others behave in a way they
 would not have behaved otherwise
 Need for affiliation (nAff) - the desire
 for friendly and close interpersonal
 relationships
McClelland's Theory of Needs
 High achievers prefer jobs with personal
 responsibility, feedback, and intermediate
 degree of risk.
 High achievers are not necessarily good
 managers.
 Affiliation and power closely related to
 managerial success (Socialized Power)
 Employees can be trained to stimulate their
 achievement need.
 According to McClelland, a
 person’s need strength is a
     personality factor.

 Such needs thus are fairly
 constant over time, but are
acquired through experience.
  McCLELLAND’S NEED TO
        ACHIEVE
People with a high need to achieve:
 Like moderately-difficult goals and take
 calculated risks
 Seek competitive situations where
 personal effort counts and can get quick
 feedback
Entrepreneurs typically have a high n Ach
      Goal-Setting Theory
Specific goals lead to increased
performance.
Difficult goals, when accepted, result in
higher output than easy goals.
Holding ability and acceptance constant;
the more difficult the goals, the higher the
level of performance
Goals can be a major source of work
motivation.
 Reinforcement Theory


Behaviour that gets rewarded
gets repeated
Behaviour that gets punished
gets avoided
Reinforcement Perspective on
Motivation     Positive reinforcement in the
                        administration of a pleasant and
                        rewarding consequence.

                        Avoidance learning is the removal of
                        an unpleasant consequence following
                        a desired behavior.

Reinforcement Tools
                        Punishment is the imposition of
                        unpleasant outcomes on an employee.


                       Extinction is the withdrawal of a positive
                       reward, behavior is no longer reinforced and
                       hence is less likely to occur in the future.
REINFORCEMENT THEORY
        Increases
        Behavior       Positive       Negative
                    Reinforcement   Reinforcement
  Effect on
  Behavior

       Decreases     Extinction      Punishment
        Behavior
                     Encourages       Encourages
                      Maturity        Immaturity
                          Effect on Maturity
Reinforcement Guidelines

Don’t reward all individuals equally
Don’t fail to reward when it’s due
Say how rewards can be gained
Tell them what they are doing
wrong
Be seen to be fair at all times
                    2 Process Theories
A group of theories that explain how employees select behaviors with which to meet their
              needs and determine whether their choices were successful.


Equity Theory
       focuses on individuals’ perceptions of how fairly they are
        treated compared with others
       motivated to seek social equity in the rewards they expect
        for performance
Expectancy Theory
       motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about
        their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards
       concerned not with identifying types of needs but with the
        thinking process that individuals use to achieve rewards
       based on the effort, performance, and desirability of
        outcomes
        EQUITY THEORY
           (Adams)

      Outcome (self)       Outcomes (other)
                       =
       Inputs (self)        Inputs (other)


 If not equal, tension within self causes
  person to work to equalize the ratios

The focus in Equity Theory is on extrinsic
            rewards primarily
         EXPECTANCY THEORY



  E      P Expectancy          P   O Expectancy               Valence

 What is the probability      What is the probability   What value do I place
that I can perform at the   that my good performance      on the potential
     required level if          will lead to desired         outcome?
           I try?                   outcomes?




Effort             Performance                             Outcomes
     EXPANDED EXPECTANCY
        THEORY MODEL

  E P                                               Perceived
Expectancy                          O               Equitable
                                        Intrinsic   Rewards
                                    U
                                        Rewards
                                    T
                                    C
Valence      EFFORT   PERFORMANCE   O                           Satisfaction
                                    M
                                        Extrinsic
                                    E
                                        Rewards
  P O                               S
Expectancy

				
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