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									Groundwater and Surface
  water in a Watershed
      Human Activity
      Model of a Watershed
 Draw what you see on the left side page.
 Record your thoughts on the following ?’s:
 Think about rain falling in your model
  watershed. Where would the rainwater go?
 Where would rivers and streams form?
 Would there be any waterfalls? Where would
  water form lakes or ponds or wetlands?
 How did this change impact the lakes,
  streams, and rivers?
      Learning Objectives:
 7.8C- model the effects of human
  activity on groundwater and surface
  water in a watershed.
 Review the water cycle.
     What is Groundwater?
 Groundwater is water that comes from
  the ground. Sounds easy, doesn't it?
  Amazingly, many people use
  groundwater but don't even know it. In
  fact, half of everyone in the United
  States drinks groundwater everyday!
  Groundwater is even used to irrigate
  crops which grow food for tonight's
  dinner.
   Where Does Groundwater
        Come From?
 Groundwater comes from rain, snow, sleet,
  and hail that soaks into the ground. The water
  moves down into the ground because of
  gravity, passing between particles of soil,
  sand, gravel, or rock until it reaches a depth
  where the ground is filled, or saturated, with
  water. The area that is filled with water is
  called the saturated zone and the top of this
  zone is called the water table. Makes sense,
  doesn't it? The top of the water is a table! The
  water table may be very near the ground's
  surface or it may be hundreds of feet below.
Do YOU Live on a Watershed?
 Do ya? Huh? Do ya???

 What do you think of when you hear
  the term “watershed”?
Watershed Diagram
         What is a Watershed?
 Watershed- the land area
  from which surface runoff
  drains into a stream channel,
  lake, reservoir, or other
  body of water; also called
   a drainage basin.

  A BASIN is the entire
  geographical area drained by a major river and its
  intersecting streams.
 In every watershed, small streams flow into larger
  streams, which flow into rivers, lakes, and bays. The
  smallest streams at the outer limits of a watershed are
  called headwaters. Headwaters are the source and
  upper part of a stream.
      What is a Watershed?
 These headwater streams have no
  tributaries and are called first order
  streams. All other streams have
  tributaries. Second order streams form
  when first order streams meet.
  A tributary is a stream that flows into a
  larger stream or other body of water.
 Do WE Live on a Watershed?
 All land is a part of some watershed!
  Not only do streams and rivers flow to a
  collecting basin, but so too do the
  impacts that humans have upon those
  waterbodies. Human activities that
  impact the quality of the river water
  flowing into a basin also impact the
  basin itself.
         YOUR Watershed!
 http://cfpub.epa.gov/surf/huc.cfm?huc_
  code=12030102
          Think About This:
 Think about this: have you ever dug a hole in
  sand next to an ocean or lake? What
  happens? As you're digging, you eventually
  reach water, right? That water is
  groundwater. The water in lakes, rivers, or
  oceans is called surface water...it's on the
  surface. Groundwater and surface water
  sometimes trade places. Groundwater can
  move through the ground and into a lake or
  stream. Water in a lake can soak down into
  the ground and become groundwater.
  Where is Groundwater Stored?
 Groundwater is stored in the
  ground in materials like gravel
  or sand. It's kind of like the
  earth is a big sponge holding
  all that water. Water can also
  move through rock formations
  like sandstone or through
  cracks in rocks.An area that
  holds a lot of water, which can
  be pumped up with a well, is
  called an aquifer. Wells pump
  groundwater from the aquifer
  and then pipes deliver the
  water to cities, houses in the
  country, or to crops.
How Does Groundwater Fit in
     the Water Cycle?
 The water cycle is also known as the
  hydrologic cycle- the same water is
  cycled on earth since the beginning of
  time.
 Where does this water come from?
      Steps of the water cycle:

 1) Evaporation- happens when heat is added to
  water molecules and causes them to slowly transform
  from liquid into vapor.
 What phase change occurs?
 2) Condensation- water vapor travels up into the
  atmosphere and condenses, forming clouds.
 3) Precipitation- Water vapor in the clouds
  condense more and more until they form water
  droplets. The clouds get heavy and cause the droplets
  to fall as rain, sleet, snow, or hail.
      Steps of the water cycle:
 4) Infiltration/Runoff- Infiltration means water soaks into
  the ground (called recharge). Runoff is when water flows
  from high points of ground to low points, due to gravity.
 Down, down, down the water goes through the soil until it
  becomes groundwater and is stored in the aquifer
  below.Once the water has joined the aquifer, it doesn’t stop
  there. The groundwater slowly moves through the spaces
  and cracks between the soil particles on its journey to lower
  elevations. This movement of water underground is called
  groundwater flow.Eventually, after years of underground
  movement, the groundwater comes to a discharge area
  where it enters a lake or stream. There, the water will once
  again be evaporated and begin the cycle again. Water has
  been transported through the water cycle for millions of
  years and will continue this cycle forever. In the water cycle,
  water is constantly on the move.
     Draw and Label:
Animation of the Water Cycle
       What Happens to
        Groundwater?
 Most groundwater is clean, but groundwater can
  become polluted, or contaminated. It can
  become polluted from leaky underground tanks
  that store gasoline, leaky landfills, or when
  people apply too much fertilizer or pesticides on
  their fields or lawns. When pollutants leak, spill,
  or are carelessly dumped on the ground they can
  move through the soil.Because it is deep in the
  ground, groundwater pollution is generally
  difficult and expensive to clean up. Sometimes
  people have to find new places to dig a well
  because their own became contaminated.
            Human Activity
 Human activities commonly affect the
  distribution, quantity, and chemical quality of
  water resources.
 Human activity can include: agriculture,
  urban development and industry, drainage of
  low-lying areas, construction of levees, dams,
  or reservoirs and removal of vegetation from
  flood plains.
             Agriculture
 Irrigation removes groundwater or
  surface water for use on crops then
  carries it away.
 Chemicals, pesticides or fertilizers, are
  applied to croplands and eventually
  make their way into watersheds can
  lead to an overgrowth of algae in water.
        Urban Development
 Discharge from sewage-treatment
  plants, industrial facilities, and storm
  water drains, leaking fluid storage
  tanks, septic tanks, and landfills can
  also add to the contamination.
Quiz Time

								
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