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					                                                     AL
                                                 RI
INDEX



                                            TE
active earth pressure, 309
                                        MAequations, 268–273
   concept of, 313, 314                   of clay, 272–274
   coefficient of, 310                     of sand, 276–278
                               ED

activity, 4, 36, 37                       ultimate, 262, 267
aging of soils, 3                       Bishop method of slices, 360–366
air voids, 15                           block sampling, 241
                         HT


allophone, 4, 5                         boreholes, 235
allowable bearing capacity,             braced excavations, 321–322
      262                               bulk density, 15, 22
                     IG




allowable settlement, 170–172           Burland-Burbidge sand settlement
angle of shearing resistance                 method, 176–178
      (“friction angle”), 58, 186,
               R




      226–227                           Casagrande construction, 166
            PY




angular distortion, 171                 classification methods, 37, 38, 40
anisotropy, 216, 218, 219                  for residual soils, 44–47
area ratio, 240                            Unified soil classification system
      CO




at rest earth pressure, 57                      (USCS), 38
Atterberg limits, 5, 31, 41             clay, 27
   definition of, 31, 32                    definition of, 28
   test for, 31–33                         particle size, 28
   use in soil classification, 34, 35,      plasticity of, 40
         38, 39                         clay fraction, 29
                                        clay minerals, 2–6, 47
bearing capacity, 259, 261, 262,        coarse-grained soils, 27, 28, 39, 42,
     267–274                                  52,
  allowable, 262                           classification of, 38
  eccentric and inclined loads,            definition of, 27
       270–272                             particle size of, 28


                                                                         425
426    INDEX


coefficient of consolidation, 144      critical state, 205, 206
  determination from odometer         critical hydraulic gradient, 104–106
        test, 147                     critical circle, 358
  odometer test time intervals, 148
  typical values of, 150              Darcy’s law, 92, 93
coefficient of one dimensional         degree of consolidation, 145–146
     compressibility (mv ), 82, 124   degree of saturation, 14, 15,
coefficient of permeability                  406–408
     (hydraulic conductivity)         density, 15
  definition, 92                       de-structured soil, 10
  measurement of, 93, 94              dilatancy, 28
  typical values of, 93               dilatant behavior, 28
coherent gravity block method,        direct shear box test, 190, 191
     339–343                          discharge velocity, 92
cohesion, 28                          drained behavior, 80, 81, 123
cohesion intercept, 186               drained triaxial test, 192,198
compaction, 121, 391–404              drilling, 235–239
  control using shear strength and       hand auger, 236
        air voids, 398–400               machine, 236, 237
  difficulties in compaction, 401,        rig, 237
        402                              rotary, 238
  standard compaction tests,             wash, 239
        391–396                          percussion, 239
  traditional control method, 397     dry density, 15, 392,
compressibility, 121                        393
compression index, 133                dry unit weight, 15
confined flow, 100                      Dupuit’s assumption, 114, 115
consolidation, 121, 129               Dutch cone penetrometer test
  average degree of, 145                    (CPT), 246–248
  magnitude, 122–128
  oedometer test, 129                 earth dams, 100, 108, 109
  primary, 143                        earth pressure, 307–316
  rate of, 142–146, 152, 153             active, 309
  secondary, 143                         at rest, 57, 312
  Terzaghi one-dimensional theory,       Coulomb earth pressure,
        142–147                               307–312
  Terzaghi consolidation equation,       active coefficient of, 312–316
        144                              passive coefficient of, 312–316
  time rate, 142–154                     passive, 309
core barrel, 237, 238                 earth retaining walls –see retaining
correlations from in situ tests,            walls
     250–254                          effective stress, 6, 50, 77–87
Coulomb earth pressure method,           principle of , 77–87
     307–312, 324, 325                   equation for , 50, 77
CPT test, 246–248                        practical examples of , 83–87
                                                                INDEX      427

elastic (immediate) settlement,           pile (deep), 278–289
      126–129                          friction angle (angle of shearing
elastic theory, 68, 124                      resistance), 58
   for stresses beneath point load,       correlations with index
        69                                      parameters, 226–227
   for stresses beneath line (strip)      definition of, 186
        load, 71                          measurement of, 190–200
   for stresses beneath circular          typical values of, 226–227
        loaded area, 72                friction piles, 278
   for stresses beneath rectangular    fully saturated soils, 13
        loaded area, 73
equipotential lines, 98, 100–102       gap graded soils, 29, 30
excavated slopes, 369–371              geogrid reinforcement, 338, 347
excess pore pressure, 145              gravel, 27
expansive soils, 415–421               gravity retaining walls, 322–328
   basic concept, 415, 416             groundwater, 113
   swelling pressure and magnitude,      basic equation for, 97, 114
        416–419                          Dupuit assumption used in
                                               analysis of, 114
factor of safety, 107, 108
   definition of, 260                   halloysite, 4,5
   for bearing capacity, 262,          hand augur, 236
        272–273                        head (total head), 90, 91
   for slope stability, 260            horizontal stress, 57
   for retaining wall design, 263,     hydraulic gradient, 92, 106–108
        264                            hydrostatic pressure, 51–54
failure criterion, 224, 225
failure mechanisms/modes,              illite, 2–5
      257–265                          immediate (elastic) settlement,
filters, 109–111                               126–129
fine-grained soils, 27, 29, 38, 43      index tests, 27
   definition, 28                       inclined foundation loads, 270–272
   classification of, 39, 40            in situ testing, 242–249
flow (seepage) in soils, 95–109         internal stability (of reinforced
   confined and unconfined,                     earth walls), 339
        115–116                        investigation pits, 242
flow lines, 98–102                      isotropic, 215–218
flow nets, 97, 99–104                   isotropically consolidated soil, 217
   concept, 98
   construction of, 101                kaolinite, 2–5
   example of, 103                     Ko coefficient of at rest pressure,
   rules for flow net sketching, 102         57, 58, 312
   use of in design, 103, 106–108
foundations, 267–289                   Laplace equation, 97
   shallow, 67, 267–278                  derivation of, 95–97
428    INDEX


Laplace equation (Continued )          partially saturated soil, 13, 51,
   form of solution, 97                      406–415
   physical meaning of solution, 98,   particle size, 28
         99                               distribution curves, 29
lateral earth pressure, 57–60             use in classification of soil, 28,
laterite, 5                                     39, 40
limit equilibrium methods, 258            measurement of, 29
line (strip) load, 70,71               particle density (solid density), 15
liquidity index, 35, 36                passive earth pressure
liquid limit, 31                          concept of, 313, 314
   apparatus, 32                          coefficient of, 310
   definition of, 32                    peak shear stress, 205, 207
   measurement of, 32, 33              peat, 41
                                       permeability, 89
maximum dry density, 392, 393             coefficient of, 92, 93
method of slices , 357–366                measurement of, 93, 94
Meyerhof’s factors for inclined and    phases, 13
    eccentric loads, 70–72             phase relationships, 13, 14, 16–21
mobilized shear strength, 260          phreatic surface, 56
Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion,        piezometers, 90, 91
    186, 200                           pile foundations, 278–281
Mohr’s circle, 193, 195
                                          bearing capacity, 281, 282
moisture content. See water content
                                          bearing capacity in clay,
montmorillonite, 2–5
                                                282–284
                                          bearing capacity in sand, 285,
normally consolidated soil, 7, 134
                                                286
                                          construction methods, 279–181
odometer test, 129
                                          end resistance (point resistance),
  apparatus, 129, 130
                                                278, 283, 285
  on slurry sample, 130, 131
  on normally-consolidated clay,          groups, 286–288
       134–136                            lateral load capacity, 289–303
  on over-consolidated clay, 136,         principle of, 278–281
       137                                settlement, 287, 288
  on residual soil, 137–139               skin friction (shaft adhesion),
  determination of compressibility              283–285
       parameters, 131–133                types, 279–281
  determination of coefficient of       plasticity, 28, 31, 41
       consolidation, 147–149          plastic limit, 31
one-dimensional consolidation, 124,       definition of, 33
     142                                  measurement of, 33
optimum water content, 392. 393        plasticity chart, 34
over-consolidated soil,, 7, 134, 140   plasticity index, 34
over-consolidation ratio (OCR),        poorly graded soils, 29,30
     134, 214, 215                     Poisson’s ratio, 58, 123
                                                                INDEX    429

pore water pressure (pore pressure),       formation, 2,3
      49–57                                shear strength, 221–224, 227,
   during consolidation, 164, 165                231
   excess pore pressure, 145               undrained strength, 231
   in principle of effective stress,    residual strength, 206–209, 228
        50, 77–79                       residual angle of shearing resistance
   parameters A and B, 211, 222               (friction angle), 207, 228
   response to total stress, 81–83      retaining walls, 307–351
porosity, 14,15                            construction methods, 319–321
pre-consolidation pressure, 134, 135       design methods, 322–328
pressure head, 90                          gravity block, 322–325
primary consolidation, 142                 reinforced earth, 337–351
principle of effective stress, 6, 50,   root time method to determine
      77–87                                   coefficient of consolidation,
Proctor compaction test, 391–394              146, 147

quick behavior, 28                      safety factor –see factor of safety
quick clay, 37                          sand, 27
quicksand, 106                          sand drains, 172
                                           Barron theory of, 173
radial drainage, 172–174                   concept, 172, 173
Rankine earth pressure, 312–316            rate of consolidation, 174
   active pressure, 313                 Schmertman construction for
   method for determination of,               sample disturbance, 166
        313–316                         Schmertman sand settlement
   passive pressure, 313                      method, 175
rapid drawdown in earth dams            secondary consolidation, 142, 147
rate of consolidation, 142–146,         sedimentary soils, 8, 9, 57, 130
      152, 153                             consolidation behavior, 130–137
reinforced earth retaining walls,          formation, 3, 7
      337–351                              shear strength, 214–221
   concept, 337, 338                       undrained shear strength,
   design procedures, 339–349                   228–230
   pore pressures and drainage          seepage, 89–91
        measures, 349–351                  governing equation, 95–97
   reinforcement types, 338                flow rate, 92–94
   two-part wedge (DIBt) design            steady state, 95
        method, 343–349                    non-steady state (transient), 95
   Vidal coherent gravity method,       sensitivity, 36
        339–343                         settlement, 86, 121–181
relative density (density index), 35,      allowable, 170–172
      36, 252, 253                         estimation using elastic theory,
remolded soil, 10                               122, 123, 126
residual soils, 8, 9, 59, 137–139          estimation assuming 1-D
   consolidation behavior, 150–152              behavior, 124, 125
430    INDEX


settlement (Continued )                    influence of weather and climate,
   estimation in clays, 154–164                  381–385
   estimation in sands, 174–181,           long term stability, 368–377
         276–278                           methods of analysis, 259, 260,
   immediate, 126–129                            357–366
   long term, 126–129                      of earth dam slope, 377–382
   of piles, 287–289                       short term stability, 368–377
   primary, 142                            total stress (undrained) analysis,
   secondary, 142                                359–360
   time rate, 142–146, 152, 153         solid density (particle density), 22
   uncertainties in estimates,          specific gravity, 15, 22, 23
         165–169                        steady state flow, 97–109
shear strength, 86, 185–233, 251,       soil skeleton, 13
      252, 259                          soil stiffness, 253
   general effective stress equation,   standard penetration test (SPT),
         186                                  243–246
   measurement of, 190–193              stress distribution from applies
   of remolded clay, 212–214                  loads
   of sedimentary clays, 214–221        stress history, 7,9
   of residual soils, 221–224           stress paths, 127, 209–211
   of sand, 204–206                     submerged unit weight, 14
   residual value, 206–208              swell (rebound) index, 133
   typical shear strength parameters,
         225–228                        test pits, 242
   undrained, 43, 187, 228–232          time rate of consolidation,
sheet pile retaining walls, 329–336           142–154
   free standing (cantilever) and       transient (non-steady state) flow, 95
         propped walls, 329, 330        Terzaghi bearing capacity equation,
   factor of safety, 331–335                  268
   seepage and pore pressure            Terzaghi theory of consolidation,
         influence, 335–336                    144
silt, 28                                time factor, 145, 149, 174
   particle size, 28                    total head, 80, 81
   silt fraction, 29                    total stress, 49, 50
site investigations, 235–250            total stress path, 127–129
skin friction, 278, 283–286             translational slides, 355–356, 366,
slope stability, 259–261                      377
   Bishop method, 360–366               transported soils, 3
   determination of safety factor,      trench supports, 321–322
         260                            triaxial tests, 191
   effective stress analysis,              apparatus, 192
         360–366                           consolidated undrained, 192, 198
   failure types/mechanisms, 260,          drained, 192, 198
         356                               extension test, 216–217
   infinite slope, 366–368                  undrained, 192
                                                                INDEX    431

  use of Mohr’s circle, 193–197       Vidal reinforced earth design
  volume change correction, 199,           method, 339–343
       200                            virgin consolidation line, 130–133
two-dimensional seepage flow, 99       vertical stress from applied loads,
                                           67–76
ultimate bearing capacity, 262, 267   void ratio, 8, 14, 15
unconfined flow, 100, 108, 109
undisturbed sampling, 239–241         wall friction, 316
undrained behavior, 80, 81, 123       water content, 15, 22
undrained shear strength, 43, 187,    water table, 49–57
     228, 251                         weathering, 1–3, 5
Unified Soil Classification System        chemical, 1
     (USCS), 38–40                      physical, 1
uniformly graded soils, 29, 30        well graded soils, 29, 30
unit weight, 15
unsaturated soils, 13                 yield pressure (vertical yield stress),
uplift force, 84–85                        134
                                      Young’s modulus , 123
vane test, 249
velocity of seepage flow, 92, 93       zero air voids line, 393, 394

				
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