avian_influenza vaccines by shaiqhussain2025

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									Avian Influenza Update
          and
 Disease Prevention


          Anthony Pescatore
          University of Kentucky
Avian Influenza in the US
is NOT the same Virus as
    “Bird” Flu in Asia
Avian Influenza
Nomenclature

Birds: Influenza A type virus
Influenza A is divided into Subtypes based
  on their surface proteins:
Hemagglutin (HA): 16 subtypes
Neuraminidase (NA): 9 subtypes

                     H5N1
Influenza Virus (Flu)

   Mammals and birds always have flu viruses
    circulating in their respective populations
   Horses, Hogs, Humans, and Birds are just a few of
    the species that are susceptible to flu viruses
   Flu viruses generally stay within species
   There are some exceptions like Swine flu, which
    resides in hogs but can infect turkeys
   Flu viruses are always changing, that’s why the
    human vaccine changes yearly
Avian Influenza (AI)

   North America has always had Avian
    Influenza strains circulating in waterfowl, wild
    birds, and live bird markets
   “Asian Bird Flu”(H5N1) is one of many strains
    of Avian Influenza
   Poultry companies and all producers should
    be concerned about all avian influenza
    strains, not just “Asian Bird Flu”
       Some Perspective on Asian
       Bird Flu (H5N1)
   Less than 110 people have died from “Asian Bird Flu”
    and less than 200 are known to have gotten sick out
    of 3.7 Billion people in Asia
   It is not contagious between people
   People afflicted with this disease had very close
    contact with sick birds (live with them, butchered and
    ate products from sick birds.)
   It has been known to be in Asia since 1997 but
    recently has moved into Africa and Europe
Asian Bird Flu (H5N1) infects
birds easily but does not infect
people easily
Factors in Asia that have
facilitated H5N1 Infection

   Eastern Asia has the most poultry and people living
    in very close proximity
   Unsanitary conditions
   Live Bird (Wet) Markets are a primary source for
    poultry in cities
   Sick animals are likely to be eaten by impoverished
    people
   Consumption of uncooked meat or poultry products
    (such as raw blood)
   Cockfighting (highly mobile)
Asian Bird Flu(H5N1)

   This is not a subtle disease in birds
   It kills birds very quickly and in large
    numbers (90% plus)
   With few exceptions, cases have been in live
    markets, free roaming birds or birds kept in
    primitive conditions
             Areas outside Asia
                        EU
Most of the outbreaks have been single incidences
in wild birds (Swans, Tufted Ducks)
Record cold in Eastern Europe may have disrupted
normal winter nesting areas
Three outbreaks in poultry (France, Germany and
Sweden
EU approved vaccination of birds in France and
Netherlands
Move birds inside in affected areas
Areas outside Asia

Middle East
 Wild Birds and Poultry
 Change in Migratory routes
 Egypt hiding of sick birds lead to human
  illness
Africa
 Small village flocks
What is being done in US

 Voluntary (mandatory) surveillance program
Must test for exports
 Mandatory surveillance of live bird markets in NY, NJ and
  east coast
 Expansion of surveillance to all poultry events including
  shows, swap meets, flea markets and auctions
 Increase awareness among poultry health officials and
  state officials
 USDA increase information to small flocks producers
 Import ban on poultry from Asia and affected areas
Why aren’t we vaccinating our
chickens for Asian Bird Flu?

   Historically, vaccinating for AI meant that a country
    was not serious about eradication
   US Poultry relies heavily on exports: Breast meat
    stays in domestic markets, Leg quarters go overseas
   U.S. companies believe that trade barriers would be
    imposed if U.S. vaccinated for AI
   Overseas opposition to vaccination may vanish as
    more countries vaccinate for “Asian Bird Flu”
     Disease Prevention


Disease is any departure from
            normal
 How are diseases spread
•Infected Birds
•Carrier Birds
•Human vectors
•Mechanical vectors
•Contaminated Feed or Water
•Wild Birds and Animals
•Rodents and Insects
•Dead Birds
•Manure
Biosecurity



To protect from a biological threat
Biosecurity

The Benefits of Biosecurity
•Helps keep out diseases
•Reduces the risks
•Limits the spread of disease
•Improves overall health of the flock
•Reduces mortality losses
•Improves profitability
Biosecurity

Biosecurity is not all about AI, there are
many diseases that need to be prevented
Bursal Disease    Months   Coccidosis      Months

Fowl Cholera      Weeks    Fowl Coryza     Days

Influenza         Weeks    LT              Days

Marek’s Disease   Weeks    Newcastle       Weeks

Mycoplasmosis     Days     Salmonellosis   Weeks
Biosecurity

•Control the things that you can control
•Identify the things outside your control
•Let others know about the things outside
your control
Biosecurity

Biosecurity W’s
•Who is on your farm
•What is brought on to your farm
•When are they there
•Where have they been
•Why are they there
Biosecurity

Control the Facility
•Post warning signs
•Lock buildings
•Log book of visitors to the farm
•Do not be afraid to ask where they have
been
•Take measures to prevent contamination
(boots are the minimum)
•Family and friends are visitors
Biosecurity

Where have you been?
•You may be your own biggest risk
•Personal Hygiene (wash your hands)
•Designated Clothes and boots for the
poultry houses
•How clean are the floor boards of your
truck?
•The corner store/restaurants/hardware store
•Have you been near birds (hunting, farm
ponds, pet stores, zoos, parks)
Biosecurity

 Birds of a Feather
 •Waterfowl are a threat
 •Wild birds need to be kept out of the poultry
 houses and pens
 •Avoid other small flocks, shows, sales, flea
 market
 •Isolate birds returned or new to farm (30 days)
 •Hatching eggs or chicks less risk
 •If you know of a poultry show or sale in your area
 contact the Office of the State Veterinarian
 •Clean up spilled grain and feed
Biosecurity

Rodents, Animals and Insects
•The only animal that needs to be in a chicken
house and pens is a chicken
•Active rodent control (bait stations and fresh bait)
•Clean up spilled grain and feed
•Mow around the houses, pens and weed control
•Keep your dogs and cats out of the poultry houses
•Insects carry disease
Biosecurity

Mortality
•Be aware of changes in mortality patterns
•Observe the birds
•Collect dead birds frequently
•Dispose of them in a proper way
•Unusual mortality or disease symptoms seek
professional help
Biosecurity

Shared Equipment and Vehicles
•Clean and Disinfect shared equipment between
farms
•Establish a wash area away from the poultry
buildings
•Log the events
What can small producers do?

•Biosecurity
•Personal Hygiene
Wash your hands, Wash your hands, Wash your hands

•Separate clothes and boots for the poultry
•Protective gear if creating an aerosol
•Be aware of where you have been
•Get sick birds to a diagnostic lab
•If you have a poultry event schedule in your county
let the State Veterinarian Office know.
Biosecurity


“Doing the little things now may prevent
  the need to do major things later”

								
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