Chapter 11, Global Stratification Global Stratification Consequences of Global Stratification Theories of Global Stratification World Poverty The Future of Global Stratification Rich and Poor Using annual per capita GNP, we can categorize nations into four categories: Highest ($9361 or more per capita GNP) Upper middle ($3031-9,360) Lower middle ($761-3030) Low ($760 or less) The Core and Periphery The countries of the world can be divided into three levels based on power: Core countries Semi-peripheral countries Peripheral countries Consequences of Global Stratification: Population 60% of the people in the world live in countries with an average income of less than $760/year. The richest countries have only 15% of the world’s population. As countries develop, their fertility levels decrease and their population growth levels off. Consequences of Global Stratification: Health High income countries have: Lower childhood death rates. Higher life expectancies. Fewer children born underweight. Clean water and adequate sanitation. Consequences of Global Stratification: Education In the richest nations, education and literacy are almost universal. In middle and lower income nations, elementary school enrollment is less common. 18% of the world’s nations have literacy rates below 50%. 6% report a school enrollment rate below 50%. Consequences of Global Stratification: Gender Around the world, women feel poverty more than men do. Women in all three levels experience gender inequality. Women in the wealthier countries have better health and education than women in poorer countries. Theories of Global Stratification Modernization theory Dependency theory World systems theory Modernization Theory Economic development is a process by which traditional societies become more complex. To develop, countries must embrace new technologies and market driven values. Poverty results from adherence to traditional values and customs that prevent competition in a modern global economy. Dependency Theory Exploits the least powerful nations to the benefit of wealthier nations. Poverty of the low-income countries is a direct result of their political and economic dependence on the wealthy countries. World Systems Theory Economic development is explained by understanding each country’s place and role in the world economic system. Poverty is the result of core nations extracting labor and natural resources from peripheral nations. Who Are the World’s Poor? 26% of the world’s population is poor according to the world bank’s measure of world poverty. Women perform 2/3 of all working hours, receive 1/10 of the income, and own less than 1% of the world’s wealth.
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