Chapter 11, Global Stratification by 1sFxtI


									Chapter 11, Global Stratification

   Global Stratification
   Consequences of Global Stratification
   Theories of Global Stratification
   World Poverty
   The Future of Global Stratification
Rich and Poor

Using annual per capita GNP, we can
  categorize nations into four categories:
 Highest ($9361 or more per capita GNP)
 Upper middle ($3031-9,360)
 Lower middle ($761-3030)
 Low ($760 or less)
The Core and Periphery

The countries of the world can be divided into
  three levels based on power:
 Core countries
 Semi-peripheral countries
 Peripheral countries
Consequences of Global
Stratification: Population

   60% of the people in the world live in countries
    with an average income of less than $760/year.
   The richest countries have only 15% of the
    world’s population.
   As countries develop, their fertility levels
    decrease and their population growth levels off.
Consequences of Global
Stratification: Health

High income countries have:
 Lower childhood death rates.
 Higher life expectancies.
 Fewer children born underweight.
 Clean water and adequate sanitation.
Consequences of Global
Stratification: Education

   In the richest nations, education and literacy
    are almost universal.
   In middle and lower income nations,
    elementary school enrollment is less common.
   18% of the world’s nations have literacy rates
    below 50%.
   6% report a school enrollment rate below 50%.
Consequences of Global
Stratification: Gender

   Around the world, women feel poverty more
    than men do.
   Women in all three levels experience gender
   Women in the wealthier countries have better
    health and education than women in poorer
Theories of Global Stratification

   Modernization theory
   Dependency theory
   World systems theory
Modernization Theory

   Economic development is a process by which
    traditional societies become more complex.
   To develop, countries must embrace new
    technologies and market driven values.
   Poverty results from adherence to traditional
    values and customs that prevent competition in
    a modern global economy.
Dependency Theory

   Exploits the least powerful nations to the
    benefit of wealthier nations.
   Poverty of the low-income countries is a direct
    result of their political and economic
    dependence on the wealthy countries.
World Systems Theory

   Economic development is explained by
    understanding each country’s place and role in
    the world economic system.
   Poverty is the result of core nations extracting
    labor and natural resources from peripheral
Who Are the World’s Poor?

   26% of the world’s population is poor according
    to the world bank’s measure of world poverty.
   Women perform 2/3 of all working hours,
    receive 1/10 of the income, and own less than
    1% of the world’s wealth.

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