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Chapter 17 Applications of Molecular Genetics


									  Production of Eukaryotic
    Proteins in Bacteria
Human insulin, human growth hormone, and
 other valuable eukaryotic proteins can be
   produced economically in genetically
           engineered bacteria.
Expression of Human Growth
     Hormone in E. coli
               Key Points
Valuable proteins that could be isolated from
 eukaryotes only in small amounts and at
 great expense can now be produced in large
 quantities in genetically engineered bacteria.

Proteins such as human insulin and human
 growth hormone are valuable
 pharmaceuticals used to treat diabetes and
 pituitary dwarfism, respectively.
      Transgenic Animals
Synthetic, modified, or other foreign genes can
 be introduced into animals and plants, and the
 resulting transgenic organisms can be used to
study the function of the genes, for example, by
   insertional mutagenesis, to produce novel
   products, or to serve as animal models for
      studies of inherited human diseases.
Production of Transgenic Mice
 by DNA Injection into Eggs
Transgenic Mice Expressing
 Human Growth Hormone
       Reverse Genetics:
Dissecting Biological Processes
 by Inhibiting Gene Expression
  Reverse genetic approaches make use
    of known nucleotide sequences to
   devise procedures for inhibiting the
       expression of specific genes.
         Reverse Genetics
Reverse genetic approaches use the
 nucleotide sequences of genes to devise
 procedures for isolating null mutations in
 them or shutting off their expression.

The function of a gene often can be deduced
 by studying organisms lacking any functional
 product of the gene.
Knockout Mice
  Production of Gene-targeted
Embryonic Stem Cell Technology

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