Authentic material by waterwolltoremilion

VIEWS: 54 PAGES: 69

									1. INTRODUCTION

I have always been interested in alternative and untraditional ways of
teaching, since they have not been used for long time in current educational
systems at primary and secondary schools. I think that some of them are
really profitable and useful. I gained some experience abroad, where I saw
alternative approaches and methods in practise. I was fascinated by them as
well as with the results. Since that time, I am trying to get proficient in
using at least some of the methods in my teaching.


Therefore I decided to look closely at one of the alternative ways, use of
authentic materials. I think that they are underestimated. I believe that if
they were used more, English teaching would be not only more effective,
but also more interesting.


In the first part of my diploma thesis, I am going to explore literature
dealing with usage of authentic materials and with some other important
components that should be included in teaching language which are
somehow connected with authenticity.


In the second part of this work, I am going to describe my teaching project.
I created it especially for trying to implement authentic materials into
teaching at higher primary school in the Czech Republic. There are three
projects with three different classes of different levels. I will also describe
the results.


It is my first opportunity to use my ideas in practise. I will work under
experienced teachers, who can help me to discard my unrealistic ideas, if
there were some and give me some valuable pieces of advice. I hope to
gain a good base for my future teaching career, because I am definitely
going to use some of my ideas, which will show up to be good, in my next
practice.




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2. AUTHENTIC MATERIALS


Authentic Materials: An Overview (2002) by Alejandro G. Martinez deals with
the term authentic materials itself and with advantages and disadvantages of
their use as well as possible sources of them.


Authentic materials: “Sometimes called “authentic” or “contextualized”, real-
life materials are those that a student encounters in everyday life but that
weren’t created for educational purposes. They include newspapers,
magazines, and Web sites, as well as driver’s manuals, utility bills, pill bottles,
and clothing labels.”1


Martinez mentions Widdowson’s differentiation between authentic and
genuine materials. Authentic materials are materials created for native speaker
of the language and use in a class in its original form and design. In other
words, they are not changed in any way. Whereas genuine materials are
authentic materials adapted for a class, e. g. jumbled paragraphs, cut out
headlines etc.


Martinez listed following pluses and minuses:
Advantages:
    -   Students are exposed to real language
    -   There is factual acquisition from most of them
    -   Textbooks do not include inaccurate language
    -   Authentic materials may be inspirational for some students
    -   One piece of text may be used for various activities and tasks
    -   There is a wide choice of styles, genres and formality in authentic texts
    -   They can motivate students to read for pleasure


Disadvantages:
    -   Authentic texts may be difficult to understand because of a culture gap

1
 MARTINEZ, Alejandro. Authentic Materials: An Overview [online]. Mexico City: 2002.
Available at <www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/authenticmaterials.html>



                                           2
    -   The vocabulary may be not exactly what the students need
    -   They are rather difficult for beginners
    -   Preparation of the texts and activities is often demanding and time
        consuming
    -   There are many various accents and dialects in listenings
    -   The materials become outdated quickly (news)


Sources of authentic materials
Newspapers, menus, magazines, the Internet, TV programs, movies, CDs,
songs, brochures, comics, literature (novels, poems and short stories),
catalogues, leaflets, tickets, postcards, bills, receipts, wrappings, recipes,
business cards, labels, stamps, etc.


Where to get authentic materials
    -   the Internet
    -   library
There is usually an English department in every city or university library.
There can be found not only books, but also magazines and music.
    -   a foreign country
When visiting an English speaking country, one should think about the great
opportunity to get authentic materials.


Difficultness
On British Council web pages, there are described some aspects of using
authentic materials. One of them is difficultness of such materials. There is said
that they are difficult, but that is the point. Moreover, the trick is to set the task
according to the level of the students, not to choose the material according to
the students’ level.


However, for lower levels are suitable leaflets, menus, timetables, video and
audio advertisements, short reports, short news. The tasks should be rather
simple and vocabulary should be introduced in advance. Excessive materials
for intermediate levels can be longer articles and news or reports, whole TV



                                          3
programmes. The vocabulary should be pre-taught, too. With advanced
students, any authentic material can be used. Pre-teaching is not necessary, but
it is good to have some explanations and definitions prepared.


Claire Kramsch had a different view on authentic materials. In her book
Context and Culture in Language Teaching (1996), she devoted one chapter to
authentic texts and contexts. She agrees with Widdowson’s definition: “It is
probably better to consider authenticity not as a quality residing in instances of
language but as a quality which is bestowed upon them, created by the
response of the receiver. Authenticity in this view is a function of the
interaction between the reader/hearer and the text which incorporates the
intentions of the writer/speaker… Authenticity has to do with appropriate
response.”2


As an example, she mentions a German menu, which would not be authentic
text if it was used in an English lesson to practice reading prices or learning
adjective endings. It would be an authentic piece of text if it was used as a
German menu.


Next she says that cultural competence does not include the obligation to
behave according to conventions of given speech community and that we
should not want our student to behave like somebody else or plagiarize
behavioural patterns. Behaving like someone else is not a guarantee that the
community that speaks the language will accept the person.




2
    Kramsch, Claire. Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press, 1996.
p. 178




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3 . PROJECTS

In Introduction to Project Work (1992) by Tom Hutchinson, specifics of
project working are described. A project is a result of hard work, because the
authors have to find information for their project, get pictures or draw some,
make a draft containing their ideas, then put everything together and complete
the text, the result of which is a presentation.


“A project is an extended piece of work on a particular topic where the content
and the presentation are determined principally by the learners.”3
The teacher can provide the topic, but the authors decide themselves what
exactly are they going to write and how will they present it.


Because a project is a creative task, it is also personal.
The reason for doing project work are based on the fact that there is a strong
communicative aspect, which enables the students to use the language in
something real, not in an artificial exercise. Principal elements of
communicative approach are a concern for motivation, a concern for relevance
and a concern for educational values. Motivation is a crucial key for successful
learning. Project work is especially useful for developing positive motivation.


As mentioned above, projects are personal. The students write about their lives,
their families, their cities or their researches into topics that interest them.
Because of such personal approach, both sense of the project and its
presentation are important for students. Projects are not simulations. They are
real.


Projects are also very operative. It is actually a play. The learners have to
collect information, draw pictures, maps or charts, cut out pictures, carry out
interviews and surveys and make recordings.


3
    Hutchinson, Tom. Introduction to Project Work. Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 10




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Diane Phillips, Sarah Burwood and Helen Dunfold say in their publication
Projects with Young Learners (2003) that projects develop children’s whole
personality:
   -   intellectual skills (describing, drawing, imagination, reading, planning)
   -   physical / motor skills (colouring, painting, folding, cutting etc.)
   -   social skills (sharing, cooperation, making decisions, appreciating
       individual contributions)
   -   learner independence (making responsible choices, getting information,
       evaluating results)


According to Hutchinson, project work enables all students to produce a
worthwhile product. Therefore it is highly suitable for mixed ability classes and
for students with special educational needs. The brighter students can work
faster while at the same time, the slower students can work in their own pace
and produce something they can be proud of. They can use more visual aid to
compensate their language imperfection.


The advantages of projects according to Phillips, Burwood and Dunfold are:
   -   The project focus is on all aspects of children’s life, not only on their
       linguistic competences. Therefore they can easily relate what they know
       from their lives to concrete problems.
   -   Projects encourage students to be responsible for their work and their
       learning.
   -   Projects allow students with different competences cooperate when
       working out the project. It is a kind of solution for mixed – ability
       classes.
   -   Personal involvement is high, which support students’ motivation for
       further learning.


Hutchinson says that projects are good for integration of foreign languages into
learner’s communicative competence. “It encourages the use of a wide range
of communicative skills, enables learners to exploit other spheres of
knowledge, and provides opportunities for them to write about things that are




                                        6
important in their own lives.”4 The language used in projects is more relevant
to students´ needs. They can rehearse use of language, which would be the
most useful for them in real life.


There is a big culture part in project work. The learner can not only mention
their own culture, but also explore into foreign cultures and compare them with
each other.


Project work supports independent work, cooperation, imagination and self-
discipline. These are some of the basic aims in the most curricula. Recently, the
requirement of cross-curricular learning has been raised and anchored in Czech
Framework Educational Programme. Project work obviously encourages using
knowledge gained in other subjects such as Geography, History, civics etc.


There are also some disadvantages in project working.
Firstly, there may be more noise in the classroom when the students are
working out their projects. However, Hutchinson claims that there is not really
a problem of noise, but a problem of control. The teacher has to be able to
manage the class during such an alternative way of work as well as during
common teaching. There will always be some noise, because the students need
to discuss some thing with their classmates and need to borrow some tools or
books. But it is a natural noise, which is comparable with noise made during
common teaching: teacher’s strong voice or whole class repeating after the
teacher can be even noisier.


Secondly, time management is definitely a thing to consider. If a project is a
group work, most of it must be done at school. But students can work outside
the class, too. They can have some partial or individual tasks to work out.


Lastly, the teacher has to decide whether he prefers the students to speak only
English all the time or whether they can use their mother tongue, too.
Hutchinson says that is does not matter when they use mother tongue. We
4
    Hutchinson, Tom. Introduction to Project Work. Oxford University Press, 1992. p. 12




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should rather consider its merits than to see it as a problem. The product will be
English anyway, so we can allow the learners to use their mother tongue during
working it out.




For teachers, project work has a wide use. It is a flexible methodology, which
can be applied on every level except of complete beginners. It is suitable for all
ages.


The teacher should choose the topic according to the age of his students, their
interests, level of English, available sources and the amount of time which can
be devoted to the project.




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4. VIDEO

Susan Stempleski and Barry Tomalin suggest in their book Video in Action,
(1990) some good reasons why to use video in teaching and some important
and useful points to concentrate on.


Why to use video?
First of all, it is a big motivation. Students become interested faster when
experiencing the language in a lively and amusing was, i. e. through pictures,
in this case moving pictures (films, documents, broadcasting etc.). In
combination with sounds, video interprets the language in a comprehensive and
realistic way.


Secondly, video often makes students more communicative in target language.


Thirdly, non – verbal aspects of communication are presented, too. Robert
Merabian, the American psychologist, said that 80 percent of human
communication is non-verbal. Our expressions, gestures, posture and clothing
is equal to what we say. We can see those aspects in motion on a video.
Moreover, the teacher can freeze any moment he wants to and discuss it with
the students.


Finally, cross-cultural comparison is an indivisible feature of authentic
materials. Observing differences in culture is essential for understanding other
nations. Awareness of cultural background is important in learning a language.
Therefore it is essential to highlight cultural habits, too.


When to use video
Stempleski and Tomalin say that video can be used at any level. It can be used
as a supplementary material time to time, e. g. one a week, or it can be a part of
every lesson if the course is based on it. Because video is a highly motivating
devise, it is useful for beginners and elementary levels as the good motivation
at the beginning is crucial.




                                          9
Usage of video depends, of course, on sources, technical equipment and
amount of time, which can be devoted to it.


What to focus on
Active viewing
The students should be actively involved when watching. They should know in
advance what are they going to watch before they get some tasks connected
with watching. Active watching is especially important in watching recipes.


Vocabulary
Revision of vocabulary – students’ vocabulary can be exercised and reviewed
Building vocabulary – new vocabulary or lexical units can be introduced and
acquired from a certain sequence


Grammar
Revision of grammar – grammar already known to students can be toughen up
Grammar presentation – certain grammatical structures are presented


Pronunciation
Sounds, stress and intonation exercises


Listening / speaking skills
Viewing understanding – comprehension of visual component
Listening – focus on spoken utterances
Oral retelling – saying the story orally
Speaking – spoken presentation to the topic of the sequence
Discussion – discussing the topic in a group


Reading and writing
Reading – reading activities connected with the video sequence
Taking notes – taking notes during watching
Writing – summary writing or creative writing




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Cross – cultural matters
Cultural apprehension – cultural concerns, effects
Cross – cultural comparison – comparing learner’s native culture with culture
of the country of which the language are they learning


Testing


Examination based on video sequence
There are two types of video material – educative video and authentic video.
Educative materials are CDs and DVDs which come together with textbook or
which had been created for educative purposes. Authentic video is material
primarily intended for native speakers, e. g. TV programmes, broadcasting,
news, advertisements or films.


Suggestions for lesson planning
According to Tomalin and Stempleski, it is important to prepare the lesson plan
and the material thoroughly. It might be time – consuming, but once it is done,
it can be used again next year in other class and other teachers can use it, too.


The teacher should consider the needs of his students.


When selecting a sequence, the teacher should choose a suitable part, which the
students will be interested in. They usually do not consider a video to be an
educational material. It is rather entertainment for them. If it were a boring
sequence for them, they would not be willing to learn through it.


The length should be adequate to the length of the lesson, to the level of the
students and their age. The shortest sequence may be about thirty seconds long.
It should be possible to use the sequence for more than one activity. Otherwise
it may be waste of time. The teacher has to consider his pupils’ skills carefully.
The level of language in the sequence should be neither too low nor too high
for them. However, it is not a crucial parameter when choosing a sequence.




                                        11
The teacher can still provide the script and the video will provide the context,
which is a basic clue to understand it.


Next he should consider whether there are the relevant language items that he
intends to present to the students. If his intention is a revision of vocabulary, it
is necessary the sequence to contain it.


The teacher is recommended by the authors to use scripts with the video itself
as well. He should use it not only in the lesson, but also during the preparation,
because it will show him what language is used. The video itself will show
behaviour and context. The video and the script complement each other.


Once the teacher has chosen a sequence, he may need to prepare some
worksheets. He may need and overhead projector presentation, extra activities,
transcripts of dialogues, commentaries etc. He should leave himself a lot of
time, because it may be extremely time-consuming.




Some basic techniques for using video
   1. Sound off / vision on (silent viewing)
   This technique can be used to imitate the language activity about happening
   on the screen or to concentrate on language production through guessing or
   prediction tasks.


   2. Sound on / vision off
   The pupils can guess the characters, setting, conditions etc.


   3. Pause / freeze – frame control
   -   With sound on, the teacher can pause the starting point of every
       exchange and ask the pupils to predict words or utterances.
   -   With sound on, the teacher can pause important moments in the plot
       and ask the pupils questions about the situation. They can comment on
       previous actions and predict following ones, too.




                                          12
   -   The teacher can pause shots of characters’ faces and the pupils can
       comment on their facial expressions, their feelings, thoughts etc.


   4. Sound and vision on (listening and viewing comprehension)
   -   the pupils get worksheets beforehand and have to fill it in during
       viewing
   -   the pupils get worksheet after the viewing and have to fill in the correct
       answers or answer questions etc.
   -   the pupils are looking for rhymes / something in a certain colour /
       something beginning with a certain letter in the sequence
   -   the pupils are said what are they going to watch and are asked to guess
       what will they see / hear. After viewing, they can compare their
       guesses.
   -   the pupils are given the script and are asked to mark the direct speech


   5. Jumbling sequences
   The pupils watch pieces of a sequence in jumbled order and should decide
   what is the correct order.


   6. Split viewing
   One half of the pupils see the sequence without sound, the other half can
   only hear the sound without pictures. Various activities can follow.


Reading and use of film and TV
In teacher’s resource material Penguin Readers Teacher’s Guide to Using Film
an TV (1999) by Carolyn Walker, there are useful information about reading,
using video in teaching and combining those two methods.


The learners can experience the spoken language in action through watching
video. They can see the settings as well as the movements, body language and
the characters’ appearances. They can watch the importance of gestures, facial
expressions and eye contact in communication. It can be a good background to
cross-cultural comparison, too. In comparison with pictures, that are very often




                                      13
use in language teaching, video has the main advantage in extensity of
movement and time.


TV and films are not intended as teaching materials. It means that it is a good
source of authentic material. However, it is important to remember that there
might appear language difficulties.


Students should be aware of active watching, i. e. they are not supposed to
relax during watching, but actively respond. There are a lot of activities that
can be done before, during or after watching.


Technical equipment
   -   The teacher should familiarize himself with the equipment. He should
       know how to use the controls.
   -   Before the class, the teacher should have enough time to set the
       equipment. He has to check whether everything is switched on and
       working correctly.
   -   He should play the cassette / DVD to check the sound and picture.
   -   Check whether the sound is audible at the back of the room.
   -   The teacher should ensure that everybody will be able to see the screen
       and that there are no lights reflecting on the screen.
   -   He should find a good place for himself – where he will be during
       watching so that he can control both video and students.




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5. THE INTERNET

The book How to Use the Internet in ELT (2000) by Dede Teeler and Peta
Gray is a very useful handbook for teachers who would like to learn how to use
the Internet, where to find information and materials for their lessons and how
to manage the computer, too.


The authors say that it is not possible to say how many people use the Internet.
But definitely, some of them are teachers and they seem to be using it almost
for everything: updating language skills, searching for materials, learning about
computer technology, keeping in touch with other teachers and friends,
teaching, working on projects and another activities, or just enjoying
themselves.


According to them, the Internet is probably the biggest library in the world. It
is still changing and therefore it is not possible to make an index for it. But
there are another ways how to search in it – the gateways.
The gateways sites are common web sites. There are listed links to other web
sites or documents. They are regularly updated.


Using the Internet for distance-learning
Teeler and Gray mention some good tips how to use the Internet not only as an
individual, but also in a group. As mentioned above, the teacher can keep in
touch with colleagues and friends, either through email or through chat
(conversation in real time) or discussions and forums. The Internet can be also
used for distant learning. There are several courses on-line, which one can
attend. The teacher can become a learner and extend his knowledge; or can be
a leader and lead an on-line course for his students.


Suggestions for further resources
   Stempleski and Tomalin suggest following:
   -   Information for research: thanks to the Internet, planning and working
       out a research have become quicker and more amusing. You can search



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        in a database and find out not only information for your research, but
        also another researches.
    -   Practical ideas for classroom use: you can find both materials on
        various topic and grammar materials such as theory, exercises, games
        etc. You just have to know how to adapt it for your pupils.
    -   Publishers: you can find the offers of various publishers on-line as well
        as some teaching tips and list of upcoming seminars and conferences.
    -   Dictionaries and encyclopaedias: a lot of books are now available in an
        electronic version on-line. You can even download some of them into
        your computer or you can have a link on your desktop.
    -   Scholarships and grants: you can find a way to fund you project /
        conference / travel expenses etc.


Why to use the Internet for materials
According to Tomalin and Stempleski, one of the advantages is topicality – of
course a lot of materials are old, but there are new ones added monthly, weekly
or daily. The teacher does not have to buy the publications and can download
them from the Internet or print them straight from the web page. Other one is
personalization – the teacher cannot change the textbook he is working with,
but he can find suitable materials on the Internet and modify them if needed.


There are some disadvantages, too.
Firstly, it is a lack of index.


Secondly, a lot of school still do not have facilities and students cannot access
the Internet easily, not even in lessons. The teacher can, of course, print papers
for students, but it is not possible to include active working on-line into a
lesson plan.


The teacher has to be aware of the fact that most of the materials on the
Internet have not been produced for learners of English. The authors of most of
the materials are native speakers, who often tend to use idiomatic expressions
and sometimes there are grammatical mistakes, too.




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How to adapt materials
Stempleski and Tomalin give some advice how to adapt materials for certain
students. Technically, it is an easy process. The teacher can just copy and paste
the pieces he wants to use. The only thing he has to be careful about is the
copyright law. He should check the legal notice on the website he uses.




Internet based activities
Before the teacher decides to use an Internet-based activity in his lesson, he
should consider following points:
   -   What do you suppose the students to get from this activity?
   -   Why is it better to do this activity on the Internet rather than through
       another media?
   -   How long will be the activity? (part of a lesson, one lesson, a few
       lessons, a month, whole year)
   -   Will the students communicate with someone? Who with? (each other,
       another class, another school, foreign school, native speakers, some
       organizations or companies)
   -   Can you use this activity only with one class or can you adapt it for
       other classes and grades?


The teacher should look in the course book he uses and consider whether the
activity will be challenging for his students or useless and boring. He has to set
some criteria for choosing appropriate websites. There is no use in doing an on-
line activity which could be as well done off-line, only for that the Internet is a
novelty factor.


In the publication The Internet and Young Learners (2004), the author Gordon
Lewis suggests following learning purposes: pure communication, searching
for information and producing content. He says that for on-line
communication, e-mails and chats are the most useful. Chat is a talk on-line, in
real time. It means that two people have to be connected at the same moment,
which might be difficult, especially when communicating with foreign people.




                                        17
Such communication requires prompt answering, which may be a difficult task
for beginners. E-mail has an advantage – pupils can write it in advance and
then send it. It is similar to a letter, but it can be sent immediately and the
answer comes sooner, too. Formulating an e-mail is a good homework task.


Searching for information requires a web browser. It is essential to offer to
students a list of web pages already approved. Otherwise they may get lost in
information mass.


When the students become familiar with the Internet, they might want to
produce their own web page. It can be a class web page with children’s
portfolios. A course class work can be presented there as well.


Lewis gives tips for criteria when choosing a web site to work with. The web
site should have interesting graphics and should not be complicated. Nice
colours and pictures or animations will catch children’s eyes. The navigation
should be clear, too. The best navigation is an iconic one, i. e. there are pictures
to click on instead of words. The teacher should check in advance whether the
site is quick to be loaded. Slow loading can completely damage the lesson. He
is strongly recommended to check what is hidden behind the web site. There
are a lot of innocent looking web pages, which finally turn out to be advertising
something or being a religious or erotic sites.


As safety is concerned, Lewis warns against some potential dangers. The
teacher has to keep eye on the children all the time. They cannot give their
personal information, such as the address or telephone number to anyone. The
teacher should check the e-mails before they are sent away and they should
used only e-mail addresses already approved. The teacher should also check
every unknown e-mail that comes. The teacher and the child’s parents must
approve all the materials published on web.




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   6. USING PICTURES

The book Pictures for Language Learning (1994) by Andrew Wright is a very
useful source for teachers, who want to use pictures in teaching.


As Wright says, pictures in teaching are especially suitable for learners with
special needs. They are also very useful when introducing new topic. The
teacher can thanks to them provoke the students to express themselves
emotionally. Pictures can be used with as well beginners as advanced students
of all ages. There is usually minimal preparation and low costs.


It is important to expose students to various stimuli so that they can develop
their skills broadly. According to Wright, teacher’s resources must include
pictures. We are not exposed only to spoken language, but we perceive a lot of
context visually. Students have to learn to predict, induce and deduce. Pictures
play a key role in motivating students and contribute to interest and awareness
of context.


Preparation
The teacher should consider some aspects before preparing the lesson.
   -   Demandingness of preparation: if the preparation is difficult in relation
       to what the outcome should be, then it is no worth doing it
   -   Class organization: if the class organization would be difficult, it is no
       use to do it
   -   Interest: the activity should be interesting for students and the teacher,
       too.
   -   Meaningfulness and authenticity: the language should be authentic to
       the activity. There should be some outcome, so that the student can
       reflect on their work and see, whether they use the language correctly
       or not.
   -   Amount of language: there should be sufficient amount of language in
       the activity, otherwise it is no use to do it




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Through pictures, various language skills can be practised: structures (tenses,
transitive / intransitive verbs, interrogative etc.); vocabulary (topic-based
vocabulary, opposites, adjectives etc.); functions (making request, describing
things, expressing likes and dislikes etc.); situations (describing the situation,
situation dialogues, role play etc.); skills (listening, reading, writing, speaking).


It should be clear to the students what are they going to do and why are they
going to do it. They should have the language to be able to do it.


Wright says that pictures can motivate students in such a way that they want to
pay attention and be included. Pictures bring the world or a street scene or
other environments to the classroom. Describing pictures can be objective or
subjective (This is a train. / I like travelling by train.) Pictures can stimulate
and provide material to be discussed in a conversation or discussion.


What kind of pictures can be used? Wright recommends pictures of one person
or of several people, people in action, places, from history, with a lot of
information, the news, fantasies, maps and symbols, pairs of pictures, pictures
and texts, sequences of pictures, related pictures, single stimulation pictures,
ambiguous pictures, bizzare pictures, explanatory pictures and student and
teacher drawings.




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      7. SIMULATIONS

The book Simulation in Language Teaching (1990) by Ken Jones is a useful
handbook for teachers, who are planning to use simulations in teaching.


“A simulation is and event. It is not taught. The students become participants
and shape the event. They have roles, functions, duties and responsibilities – as
ecologist, king, manager, explorer, reporter, survivor, administrator – within a
structures situation involving problem solving and decision making.”5


The teacher’s role in simulation is a controller. He introduces the simulation
and then observes and assess. He does not interfere. It is a good position for
monitoring the language, communicative skills and behaviour of the students.


There is no pretence in simulations – it is a reality of function in a simulated
environment. Simulations and language are inseparable. Spoken language,
written language or both can be used.


The language in simulations has two main characteristics – it is functional and
cohesive. It has certain functions because the participants have their role and
their problems to solve, jobs to do, tasks to fulfil. Therefore they have to
choose appropriate language to achieve what they want to. It is a matter of the
students to suit the language to the situation. Because there are usually a lot of
opportunities for interaction, action and reaction in simulations, the other
participants can deal with their colleague’s inappropriate use of language.
Although two participants start with opposite view, the situation brings them
together. Because of the structure, the language is cohesive.


Motivation
Motivation is an integral part of simulations. It is one of the most important
and interesting reasons for using simulation in teaching. The functions, duties


5
    Jones, Ken. Simulations in Teaching. Cambridge University Press, 1990. p. 12




                                               21
and responsibilities given to the participants arise motives. The intensity of
motivation depends on the quality of simulation. If the simulation is good, well
prepared, stimulative and provocative, there is likely to be strong emotional
component, which leads to motivation. The motivation may be strengthened by
the participants’ appreciation of being powerful, responsible for decision-
making. They “own” the simulation.


Motivation can help to break down shyness, differences of sex, race, colour or
status.


Jones mentions that simulation is a good event for students to get know to each
other and for a teacher get to know the students. A good simulation can be an
icebreaker and can provide an interesting experience, which is good for social
relations.


Icebreaking may be needed not only at beginnings, but also always when a
frosty situation occurs. Routine can be one of the reasons. Not all the
simulations are good for breaking ice. A suitable simulation for that must be
fully participatory, must not have any passive or part – roles and should
involve a lot of interaction among the students.


Simulations also can help to break down cultural or ethnical prejudices.


Benefits of simulations according to Randall S. Davis:
    -     appease students’ demand of realism in learning language
    -     increase of motivation, students’ one as well as teachers’ one
    -     typical teacher – student relationship breakdown (students are
          responsible for reaching their goals themselves)
    -     cross-cultural comparison and identification
    -     reduction of stress (it is one of the crucial points in successful language
          learning)
    -     possible noteless teacher’s monitoring




                                          22
8. SELF-INSTRUCTION


Leslie Dickinson focused on self-instructed learning in her book Self-
instruction in Language Learning (1988).


Authentic texts are a valuable source for self-instructed learners. They allow
the learner to meet his needs accurately and economically. They can choose
texts they suit the best to their requirements. Frequent problem of second
language learners is that they do not understand the context. Using authentic
text can help them to minimize this deficiency.


According to Leslie Dickinson, learning must always be an individual and
personal act. Normally the teacher is responsible for the set up, organization
and managing lessons. At least some responsibilities should be shared with
learners, e. g. setting goals, choosing materials or evaluating progress.




                                        23
      9. CULTURE

Culture Bound – Bridging the cultural gap in Language teaching (1992),
edited by Joyce Merrill Valdes, deals with place of culture in learning foreign
languages.


Second language learning is connected with second culture learning. A
language is a mean of communication among members of a culture. It is the
most evident expression of the culture.
          When learning a second language, there can be three different contexts:
          a) learning a foreign language within the culture of this language,
          b) learning a foreign language within learner’s own culture if the
               foreign language is accepted as a lingua franca in this environment,
          c) learning a foreign language in one’s own culture with some
               opportunities to use the language within the environment of one’s
               own culture. (e. g. learning English in the Czech Republic)
Each of these types involves different degrees of acculturation, the process of
adapting to a new culture. In learning a foreign language in native culture,
degree of acculturation of a learner is influenced by cultural and sociopolitical
status of the language and motivation of the learner.


Social distance is proximity of two cultures that individuals come into contact
with. The word ‘distance’ is used in abstract sense here. It should express
diversity of two cultures.


“At the base of intercultural understanding is a recognition of the way in
which two cultures resemble one another as well as the ways on which they
differ. Resemblances usually surface through an examination of the
differences.”6


Comparisons of a language and its culture open great views for teachers and
present basis for understanding a person from other environments. New


6
    VALDES, Joyce Merrill. Culture Bound. Cambridge University Press, 1992. p. 49



                                             24
insights into second language teaching approaches are found there, too. It is
obvious that no one can learn everything about cultures; what is more, no one
knows everything about his own culture. Sweeping universal aspects of
cultures may be helpful, but one cannot expect all the people to fir the
generality.


There are usually some native culture habits transferred into learning the
second culture and therefore we can expect some trouble spots. E. g. members
of a culture expect their culture patter and behaviour to be the correct one and
patterns of other cultures to be the wrong one. It does not have to be a wrong
one, but a different one.


Language cannot be translated word by word. There are idiomatic expressions
in almost every language. The intonation carries the meaning, however, there
are different patterns of intonation in different languages. Loudness is a
characteristic of a language, too. Meaning is conveyed by body language and
gestures well, but not all the movements mean the same in different cultures.
The language uses different elements and expressions for description of
physical world. There are also some taboo topics in every language. We should
know what can we say and what cannot we say on what occasion. Addressing
people is also different. We should know whether to use first name or second
name and titles.


In teaching English as a foreign language should be followed these
recommendations:
   -   teachers hired should have good comparative analysis skills and (or)
       training in intercultural communication,
   -   teachers with overseas experience and those familiar with non-Indo-
       European languages should be preferred,
   -   for current stuff, there should be opportunity to be trained in
       intercultural communication,
   -   current staff should be informed about cultural and linguistic
       background of course participants every semester,
   -   syllabus should include intercultural education next to the language,



                                      25
-   materials selected for teaching should encourage intercultural point of
    view,
-   it is essential to develop some strategies for teaching culture,
-   a special course focused on some cultural topics should be established,
-   students should be provided by a number of excursions, tours, films,
    sport programmes and if possible homestay with a foreign family,
-   programs against ghettos should be established, especially at
    universities.


Teachers should choose textbooks according to following guidelines:
1. A new book should be examined carefully to check whether it provides
    sufficient cultural point of view.
2. The teacher should make a list of cultural aspects in each lesson and
    check whether they are positive or negative.
3. The teacher should look in detail at the exercises and consider whether
    they will support his intercultural activities.
4. He should check whether the vocabulary, examples, grammar structures
    etc. are placed on some meaningful cultural background.
5. Check whether the pictures and photographs are culturally related.
6. Examine dialogues for cultural context.
7. Re-examine textbooks that may be culturally biased. Check whether
    they are objective.




                                     26
PRACTICAL PART




      27
   10.         INTRODUCTION TO PRACTICAL PART


I decided to create some projects for higher – primary pupils.


The projects are not strictly intended for certain grades; they can be used with
younger children as well as with older ones according to their skills, level of
English and interests.


These projects have various features, which I would like to highlight.
Firstly, they should mediate knowledge through an interesting topic and
alternative way of teaching.


Secondly, they should present useful facts and teach skills such as cooperation,
communication,      searching   for   information,   selecting sources,   giving
presentation etc.


Thirdly, I would like to show how important and useful is using authentic
materials in foreign language teaching. Those materials are very interesting for
the pupils - they are catchy, original and untraditional.


Lastly, they meet cross-curricular topics, namely multicultural education,
media education and education to thinking in European and global context.


I believe that a complex project can give children more than simple learning
from a textbook since there are a lot of activities and many things to do
condensed in relatively short time that is devoted to the project. The time given
depends on the schedule possibilities and pupils’ skills.


Optimally, there should be time for introduction, motivation and pre-teaching
vocabulary before the project itself starts. There is also a demand for suitable
facilities and materials such as maps, the Internet connection, video / DVD
player, CD player, data projector etc.




                                         28
I wanted to find out the current situation in Czech schooling in connection with
untraditional methods. Unfortunately, not all the schools are prepared and
equipped for such work. However, my work cannot be considered a research,
because I only visited one school. It is just my presumption that the situation is
similar at most of the primary schools.


I recorded the presentations on a video camera with kind agreement of the
pupils. I enclose a DVD with the recording to this work.




                                          29
    11.        TRAVELLING
    8th grade (13 – 15 years old pupils)


Nowadays, thousands of people are travelling abroad every day. Young people
and students get a lot of opportunities to visit foreign countries, meet new
people and new cultures, which is crucial for their social development and
general awareness. This is one of many other reasons why to learn languages. I
think that it is important to draw pupils’ attention to this fact, show them, how
are English classes important, because the language can open doors for them.

Motivation is very important in any learning. The more complicated subject to
learn, the stronger the motivation should be. I believe that motivating through
personal experience and catchy materials is highly efficient.


I prepared a project about travelling for four groups of students. They were
asked to suggest a route in Great Britain and Ireland, visiting interesting places
on their way, giving reasons why to visit a certain place and what is interesting
there.


The first group was to suggest a route in Ireland, the second one a route in
Great Britain, travelling only on routes and highways, the third one a route in
Great Britain, travelling only on railways and the fourth one route in Great
Britain using only waterways.


Their budget was limited (5.000 CZK per person) and the week for virtual
realization of this journey was set the first week in May 2008. They were
supposed to find a flight ticket on the Internet, note departure times too, public
transport in foreign country and accommodation. I pointed out not to forget
about food, entrance tickets and another extra costs. Finally, they were
supposed to present their proposal to their classmates.


I supported the pupils with a lot of materials that I brought over from Ireland
and Great Britain and some books about those countries written in Czech
language. These included: various leaflets, postcards and magazines brought



                                           30
from Ireland and Great Britain, county Wiltshire, and books, namely Beautiful
Ireland, Salisbury, Trowbridge, Stonehenge, Irish Tales and Sagas, Celtic
Inspirations, The Celtic Image, Irsko, Velká Británie. All of the books except
the last two are written in. Beautiful Ireland is a picture book, 90% are
photographs of nature, people and cities. Salisbury is a city guide, with lots of
pictures, too. Trowbridge is a city guide as well, including interesting historical
facts. Stonehenge is a book about ancient monument, rather for people
interested in history and such heritage sites. Irish Tales and Sagas by Ulick
O’Connor is a book of Irish legends. It is completed by beautiful drawings and
contains legends such as St Patrick, Cuchulain, Children of Lir and others.
Celtic Inspirations and The Celtic Image are books about Celts and their
culture. They are very interesting and nicely graphically worked out. The two
Czech books are detailed travel guides with hundreds of pictures, photos and
descriptions. As they are travel guides, they are designed to help tourist to plan
their journey and give them important information. Therefore I chose those
books although they are written in Czech.


Another source of information I asked the pupils to work with was the Internet,
atlas of the world and any other books in libraries they visit.


I wanted the pupils to learn not only how to cooperate with other people (group
work), but primarily to learn to plan a journey, to look up information on the
Internet, plan finances and choose best options out of many presented in
advertisements and on the Internet. These are skills they will probably use in
their future lives.


Expected problems
I expected the pupils to tell me that they did not have the Internet at home and
could not look the information up. I also thought that they would have
difficulties to work in groups – arguing, division of work etc.
I expected the pupils not to like the presentation. I think that Czech pupils are
capable of working out a task, write a piece of work, but they are not used to
presenting in front of the class, not mentioning public.




                                        31
Expected outcome
I had imagined the groups to present their routes on wall charts, showing lots
of pictures and describing not only the routes, but also mainly the sites and
places that are worth stopping on. I expected almost mistake-free speech
because they had enough time for preparation and consultation with their
classmates and the teacher (me). I supposed the presentations to be vivid,
colourful and interesting.


I hoped the pupils would like the topic because travelling is one of the most
frequent hobbies among young people. The authentic materials should have
support them and show them that it is not impossible to visit a foreign country
for some time, although it may look like that to them.


Unexpected problems
I did not expect the class’s English teacher to be ill when I was there. As a
result, I had no one to refer to me about the pupils and help me with division
into groups. I prefer mixing better pupils with worse ones in groups, so that the
talented ones can support, guide and motivate the worse ones or those who
struggle in languages.


I did not expect the school not to have appropriate wall charts, not even atlases
of the world. The school was not be able to offer much materials or pictures
connected with culture and geography of Great Britain and Ireland; thus I had
to rely on my private sources.
I have studied the Masaryk kindergarten and primary school. School
educational programme and I found out that the pupils of upper primary
school, i. e. sixth to ninth grade, have three English lessons a week. It says that
they are divided into groups. The subject is focused on improving
communication and language skills, vocabulary extension and learning about
English speaking countries. They use various methods, such as individual and
group projects, dialogues, listening and working with authentic texts.




                                        32
According to this School Educational Programme, the pupils learn numerals in
the third grade and sentence word order in the sixth grade.


In my lesson plans, there are also “organizational parts”, which take about two
minutes and they are dedicated to administrative work and organizational
instructions for pupils.


The first lesson plan
   1. Organizational part
   (3 minutes)
   2. Introductory questions
           -     Do you like travelling?
           -     How often do you travel abroad?
           -     Who with?
           -     Have you ever been to any English speaking country? Which
                 one? When?
           -     Do you know in which countries is English the official
                 language?
(5 minutes)
   3. Motivation part
           -     Displaying the supporting materials on a desk. Pupils come to
                 see them.
(5-10 minutes)
   4. Introduction of the project
           -     We are going to talk about travelling and we will virtually travel
                 to Ireland and Great Britain. … etc.
           -     Setting the rules and requirements
           -     Division into groups
   5. Working in groups, discussing the way of working out the task, division
       of work among pupils, asking the teacher questions or for help. Using
       materials displayed and atlases of the world.
   (the rest of the lesson)
   Homework: to look some information up on the Internet




                                           33
     The first lesson
     I went according to my lesson plan. I asked children the introductory questions.
     They cooperated well. I found out that they travel mostly to Croatia for
     holiday. Only one girl was in Great Britain some time ago.


     Then I displayed my materials on a table and invited the children to come there
     and see them. They were surprisingly interested and spent on them about 10
     minutes.


     After that, I told them about my project and explained what were they going to
     do. I let them divide into groups as they wished.


     In the rest of the time, they were supposed to start working on the project. I
     helped them with choosing materials useful for their tasks.


     At the end, I asked them to look some information up on the Internet at home.
     As I supposed, there were huge protests. They argued against my task that they
     did not have the Internet connection at home. I told them to visit a library and
     use some books then.




     The second lesson plan
1.           Organizational part
     (3 minutes)
2.           Working on the presentation in groups, using the same material as in
     the first lesson.
     (the rest of the lesson)


     The third lesson plan
     1.      Organizational part
     (5 minutes)



                                            34
2.         Presentations of the groups
Materials used: the same materials as in the previous lessons, wall chart of
Ireland and Great Britain



Presentation
Unexpected problems
Before the second lesson, I asked the Geography teacher for atlases of the
world in which there are detailed maps of Ireland and Great Britain. He
surprised me with the answer that there were no atlases at that school, because
there had not been money yet to buy some. I was also unsuccessful asking
English teachers for a wall chart of those countries. In the classroom, there was
only a wall chart of Europe; Great Britain itself was about 5 cm long on this
map. I must have helped myself: copy a map from my book on my private copy
machine and distribute them among pupils.


Because there was not a map in the third lesson when the presentations took
place, I decided to give some task to the pupils to keep their attention. I asked
them to listen to carefully, follow the presentations and note down the routes
that the other groups proposed in three different colours into the maps they had
gotten. Although the task was set as individual work, they still had an
opportunity to chat and copy from their partners.


Assessment
I assessed attitude (A), speaking (S), content (C) and overall presentation (P).
Attitude: goodwill, activity during work, effort, contribution to teamwork,
cooperation with classmates within the group and with other groups, working
with materials (literally manipulation with materials – children sometimes tent
to damage things which are not theirs), attitude to the teacher (me as a student
teacher)


Speaking: distribution of speech among pupils, accuracy and fluency, fillers,
speech power, pace




                                         35
Content: choice of information, sequence of information


Presentation: overall presentation, mainly number of pictures and another
materials used, posture of the pupils regarding their listeners, movements, body
talk, gestures + speaking and content


I did not have any scale set before the lesson. I had some expectations
according to the School Educational framework. I compared the groups one
with another.


The first presentation – Ireland
There were four girls in this group. They started working on their presentation
the first lesson and seemed to be really interested. They did not need any help
from me. I only showed them which postcards and pictures they should use.
They also worked very well in the second lesson.


The presentation was not finally as good as I supposed it to be judging from
their hard work. One of the girls started to describe the route, but spoke slowly
with a lot of mistakes. She used a map that she found in a magazine from
Ireland, but it was too small for whole class to see it, although it was A4
format. Time to time, another girl helped her with a few words and some
pictures. Then, the third girl described the financial part, but she had serious
difficulties with numerals. I checked their notes in their notebooks. They were
well worked out. The fourth girl did not say a word during their presentation
and the answer for on my question why was that she was too shy and that she
had helped with the preparation.


I liked the way the girls worked on their presentation, but I did not like the way
they spoke. It was obvious that they had not tried it in advance and did not
think about the numerals at all. Also the division of speech was not optimal. I
wanted them all to speak.




                                        36
They made mistake such as: *It cost / * in first May / *we come in the plane / *
in the Galway / * it’s costing. One girl also asked her colleague in Czech how
is one hundred in English, which proves that they had not prepare the speech in
advance.




The second presentation –Great Britain – roads
There were three people in the group. The boy who started speaking seemed
livelier and his speech was faster and louder than the first group’s one. He did
not make almost any mistakes. The only mistake was using both names - Praha
and Prague. They showed pictures from a book during their presentation. There
was not much hesitation, which I definitely cannot say about the first group.
The second boy took the speech over later and spoke about the budget. The
numerals were correct. The girl did not say anything and gave me the
explanation that she had helped with the preparation more than the boys. But
again, I wanted them all to speak, so it was their minus. Apart from that this
presentation was nice.


The third presentation – Great Britain – waterways
This group was the worst one. It was my fault that those not really excellent
pupils met in one group - I did not know that they were the worst. Otherwise I
would not let them work together. There were two girls and three boys. They
were disturbing since the first minute I entered the classroom and their
distractive behaviour was affecting the whole class, especially during the
presentations.
I watched them during the lessons more that the other groups, because I soon
realized that they were not working very well. All the time I came to their
desks, they pretended to be highly concentrated on the work and even asked me
some questions concerning the project.


The third lesson, before their presentation, they were chatting so loudly that I
had to ask one boy to change his place.




                                      37
Their presentation was really poor. Each of them said about two sentences and
none of them was correct. They seemed to be there for the first time and never
see the project before. The girls were giggling and hiding their faces behind
sheets of paper. They spoke with lots of mistakes. They only used one leaflet,
which I told them to use, because there was a map of water canal in the south
of England. They showed it to the class, but did not explain what was in the
picture and why it was important for their journey.


At the end, when I assessed their performance, they argued with me that it was
not true they had not done enough and so on. It was the worst presentation.


The cause of this failure was that there were not very good pupils in the group.
Next time, I would ask their English teacher or a teacher who knows them, how
good students they are and make the groups according to this information. I
would mix high ability pupils with low ability ones. If I happened not to have
this information, which was actually this case, I would check them more during
the work and did not give them so much responsibility as I did. I only checked
that they were working, but next time I would like to see some results after
every lesson and would check taking notes during the lessons, too. I would also
try to motivate them more in case I have more time. The motivation was
sufficient for high ability and average ability students, but obviously not for
those low ability ones. Maybe it would be essential to motivate them
individually. It is, however, complicated in such a big group of pupils.


The fourth group – Great Britain – railways
There were three girls in the group. Their presentation was very nice. They
used their own materials – English magazines and a map, which seemed to be
printed from the Internet. They showed a lot of pictures. Their speech was nice
and grammatically and lexically correct.
I saw them working hard and silently since the first lesson.




                                       38
Final assessment
1st group      A: 1    C: 1   S: 3/4 P: 2/3
2nd group      A: 2    C: 1   S: 2    P: 2
3rd group      A: 4/5 C: 3/4 S: 4/5 P: 4
 th
4 group        A: 1    C: 1+ S: 1     P: 1


I chose the best group and compared the others with it. The best group worked
adequately according to their School Educational Framework. The pupils asked
me to tell them the grades they got, they were not interested in the mistakes
they made. I would like to have one more lesson and talk about their mistakes
and tell them what should they improve and what to concentrate on.
Unfortunately, I only had five minutes, so I told them a few sentences at least. I
spoke in Czech, because they would not understand fast English and some of
them probably would not understand even slow English assessment.


First I told them grades they got for their attitude. I praised the first group for
hard work since the beginning and reminded the second group that they did not
work in the first lesson. The third group started arguing with me, which made
me angry, because not only it was rude, but also it was unfair to the other
groups.


Then I assessed content and commended the fourth group for bringing and
using their own materials.


I commented speech, too. I said to the first group to pay more attention to
numerals and told the third group that it was a disaster, that they were not able
to say a single sentence correctly.
The first group got 2/3 for overall presentation because of the mistakes they
made, uneven distribution of speech and limited number of pictures they
showed to the spectators. The second group got grade 2 for uneven speech
distribution and chatting in the first lesson. The third group did not need to be
commented, I think that they knew themselves that they deserved grade 4. The



                                        39
last group was the best one and I did not find anything serious to point out.
They got grade 1.


I created this project two years ago when I was on an exchange programme in
the Netherlands. I had school practice there in a bilingual class, i. e. the pupils
had their lessons mostly in English, only some of them in Dutch. I chose 12 –
year – old children and cooperated with their Geography teacher.
Unfortunately, he got ill and I had to manage the class on my own. However, it
was not any problem at all. The children had completely different way of
working in comparison with Czech children. They used the same excuse as my
pupils here in Czech – they said they did not have the Internet access; they did
not go to any library etc. But they all finally fulfilled the tasks and did their
homework. They worked independently and were interested in the work. Their
approach to education was to be different – they seemed to know that they
were learning for themselves, not just fulfilling teacher’s tasks.


The result - the presentation was very nice. Firstly, we had a nice big wall
chart. Secondly, they spoke English very well, fluently and accurately, too.
Lastly, they worked hard and therefore the presentations were nice and
interesting.


I think their main advantage is that they had been taught how to make project
since early stages at primary schools. They have project in all the subjects and
they have a lot of them every term. They know how to do it, where to find
information, what should be the outcome like and are used to speak in English
and in front of the class.




                                        40
12. CHARLIE AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY
6th grade (11 – 12 years old pupils)


Roald Dahl, one of the most famous British novelists, is definitely worth to be
introduced to children. His most popular books for children are Charlie and the
Chocolate Factory, Matilda, The Witches and James and the Giant Peach, but
he wrote many more. These are lovely, funny and readable stories, catching not
only children’s attention. I chose the story Charlie and the Chocolate Factory,
because it has been filmized in 1995, starring Johny Depp. I therefore supposed
at least some children to know the story.


I did not work with the book, but the film instead. I had only three lessons to
work with the class (finally only two lessons), so I actually had to choose the
film instead of the book, because if I wanted to work with almost the whole
story, we would not manage to read the book in such a short time. We probably
would not manage to read even extracts, because the pupils in the sixth class
are eleven or twelve years old and some of them are really slow readers. What
is more, I do not expect children to read a lot nowadays. They do not like
reading. It does not mean that I agree with this attitude, I think they should
read. But they do not and in my opinion a good film can motivate them to read.
I killed two birds with one stone – I managed to fit in the time given and I tried
to motivate the pupils to read through amusing activity.


Expected problems
I expected the pupils not to be willing to dance as Oompa – Loompas, because
they might have been ashamed. (Oompa – Loompas are bantams, Willi
Wonka’s workers, who are about 30 – 40 cm tall and come from Oompaland.
They can be seen everywhere in the factory. They like singing and dancing,
usually when a child makes something bad).


I also expected them not to understand the movie very well as I played it in
English with English subtitles. I thought that they would be noisy during




                                       41
watching and that they would welcomed my lessons with playing a film as a
nice pause from learning.


Unexpected problems that appeared
There is only one classroom in the school that is equipped with a DVD player.
Although I announced a week in advance that I was going to use it, the class I
was teaching was not moved in there. The pupils had to wait for me to come
for them and move with them into the audiovisual classroom, where the other
class was waiting for our coming to move into our classroom instead of us.
Those two classrooms were quite far from each other, we had to go down the
stairs, through the assembly hall, up the stairs, to the end of the hall, wait until
the other class would go out, move in, sit down, prepare the DVD. It took
almost 15 minutes out of the whole lesson. The problem is that I cannot move
the children during the break. I have to wait for the bell, and then wait for all
the pupils until they come back to the classroom. I have to give them
instructions how to behave in the corridors (no running, no shouting etc.). I
could not prepare the DVD player during the break either. It is locked in a
wardrobe and only teachers have the key from it. Because it is in a common
classroom, the children may damage the recorder. Teacher, who is using the
recorder, has to be there all the time and keep an eye on it.


After my first lesson in this class, their English teacher asked me to have only
two lessons instead of three. She said she would have problems to catch up.


Last, but not least, the second lesson happened the same as in the first one – I
had to move with the class again, which took again a lot of time out of it.




The first lesson plan
   1. Organizational part
   (2 minutes)
   2. Introducing Roald Dahl
   Do you know Roald Dahl? Have you ever heard about him?




                                        42
   Have you read any book by him?
   Have you seen any movie? (Charlie and the Chocolate factory, Matilda)
   Brief biography.
   (5 minutes)
   3. Watching a part of video
   (25 minutes)
   First 25 minutes from the film. There is introduced Willy Wonka and his
   factory, Charlie and his family. The competition with golden tickets starts.
   Four spoilt children find golden tickets; Charlie finds the golden ticket, too.
   They are preparing for the visit of the factory.
   4. Questionnaire
   (10 minutes)
           -   Is Charlie’s family rich or poor?
           -   How many grandparents does Charlie have?
           -   Do they have a nice house? What is their house made of?
           -   What do they eat every day?
           -   How many children are going to visit the factory?
           -   Where are they from?
           -   Can you remember their names?
           -   Are the children nice?
           -   Choose one child and describe him / her. (character)
   5. Checking the answers
   (5 minutes)
   6. Organizational part
   (2 minutes)


The first lesson
Because I had not counted with the time loss, I had to improvise a little.


I started the first lesson with questions about the author. I mentioned above that
I think children do not real a lot nowadays, which is widely known. But it does
not apply on 100% of children. Some are on the contrary interested in reading a
lot. They are, unfortunately, rather exceptions, as pupils’ Czech language




                                        43
teacher told me. However, there is usually at least one such pupil in a class.
Therefore I tried to ask about Roald Dahl and his books. All the children said
that they had heard about him and two of them even named some more stories
by him. Children knew Matilda when I asked them. They had probably seen it
on television.


The crucial point on the lesson was the movie, because without watching it the
pupils would not be able to fill in the questionnaire. I managed to play the
whole part of it that I had planned, but it finished in the moment the bell was
ringing. So I asked the pupils to complete the papers (the questionnaire) for
homework. Children loved the lesson, not only because they did not have to
learn and work with textbook, but also because they liked the story a lot.


I had to talk to them in Czech, because they did not react on English. If I were
their English teacher, I would not use Czech, at least not so much, but because
I was short of time, I had to move on and use Czech to provoke some reactions.




The second lesson plan
   1. Organizational part
   (2 minutes)
   2. Watching next part of the movie
   (20 minutes)
   The visit of the factory. Naughty children are punished for their bad
   behaviour. Introduction of Oompa – Loompas.
           -     using DVD extras – dancing
           -     reading and translation of a song
           “Augustus Gloop! Augustus Gloop!
           The great big greedy nincompoop!
           How long could we allow this beast
           To gorge and guzzle, feed and feast
           On everything he wanted to?
           Great Scott! It simply wouldn’t do!




                                        44
           However long this pig might live,
           We’re positive he’d never give
           Even the smallest bit of fun
           Or happiness to anyone.
           So what we do in cases such
           As this, we use the gentle touch,
           And carefully we take the brat
           And turn him into something that
           Will give great pleasure to us all-
           A doll, for instance, or a ball,
           Or marbles or a rocking horse.7
           -   learning dancing and singing according to DVD extra material
       (20 minutes)
    3. Organizational part, homework (Write a prediction of about 6
       sentences. What will happen next in the movie? How will the story
       end?)
    (3 minutes)


The second lesson
I had to press two lessons in one. We had to move from one classroom to
another again. As a result, I had to omit some activities because of lack of time.
Firstly, I checked the homework. Only a few pupils did it in paper, but another
pupils were able to answer the questions, too. Then we watched next part of the
movie and finally we did the activity with pictures and learned to dance. I was
surprised how they liked dancing. Unfortunately, we only had about 7 minutes
for this activity, then the bell rang and there was no space for any feedback. It
was caused by time loss, which happened because of moving. If we had not
had to move, I would have had enough time to fulfil my plan. I think that there
is imperfect organization in school inner rules. They should find a way to
change classrooms without loosing time of a lesson.




7




                                          45
I felt a little disappointed after those two lessons, because the class was nice
and I could have done much more with them if I had had time. The
introduction was poor and there was not time for any feedback, which was a
big mistake. The pupils did not learn much, because everything had to be done
in hurry. I really missed the third lesson. I would like them to make some notes
in their notebooks and spend some time on revision exercises. We did not have
time to do any exercises or activities based on the film practicing vocabulary or
grammar. If there was enough time, we could do some of them spontaneously
and the pupils would not even recognise that they were not watching the film
and playing, but learning.


It was not my mistake and I cannot blame their teacher either. She has to
follow her long-term plan and I should be grateful that she let me work with
the class those two lessons.


At least the pupils had two lively lessons and tried different way of work. They
liked the lessons and it is one of the most important things in teaching.


The third lesson plan
   1. Organizational part
   (2 minutes)
   2. Checking homework, discussion
   (5 – 10 minutes)
   3. Watching next part of the movie + the end
   (20 minutes)
   4. Playing with pictures – every pupil gets a picture (copied from the book
       Charlie and the Chocolate factory) and their task is to stand in a row in
       chronological order and say which scene is in the picture.
   (5 minutes)
   5. Discussion
           -   Did you like the movie? Why / why not?
           -   Who was your favourite character?
           -   What was nice / was not nice about the children?




                                        46
       -     Would you like to such a factory? Why / why not?
       -     Would you like to read the book now? (+ motivating pupils to
             read – the book is much better, because the content is more
             dense, there are pictures, you can read in your pace, you can
             read some parts again and again etc.)
(13 – 18 minutes)
6. Organizational part
(1 minute)




                                    47
13. COOKING
9th grade (14 – 15 years old pupils)


Food is one of the crucial needs for human beings next to the air and water.
Every person eats some food since the day one. Food is a phenomenon.
Thousand of books about food have been written; a lot of people dedicated
their life to cooking. People love food and its preparation might be lots of fun!


Therefore I decided to prepare a project about cooking. Boys are generally less
interested in this topic. That is why I chose to introduce a famous British cook
Jamie Oliver. He is young and as he is male, he may be more inspiration for
boys. Girls may adore him as a handsome guy.


I used a DVD, which was enclosed to the Mlada fronta newspaper issue last
spring. I chose a recipe for pork chops and traditional Irish champ. The criteria
for choosing the recipe were the kind of food prepared – I wanted something
traditional or typical British or Irish meal; length and language. I played it in
English with Czech subtitles, because the two Englishmen were speaking
quickly and with such an accent, which I supposed not to be understood easily
by the pupils. The video was 20 minutes long. I did not play the whole episode,
because it would be too long. At the beginning of the episode, Jamie is coming
to a restaurant to visit his friend who works as a chef. Then they go together to
Jamie’s home on a motorbike. There is an introductory song playing on
background. It is a kind of pop music. I hoped that this modern image of the
film would motivate the pupils and show them that cooking is a job not only
for their mothers and grandmothers.


I decided to make a simple simulation with the pupils. I chose five different
recipes from book Jamie’ Dinners, which was published in 2004. Pupils got the
recipes and therefore were divided into five groups. They were supposed to
prepare a presentation together: to pretend cooking, describing the process and
trying to introduce or teach new vocabulary their classmates. They were
supposed to become cooks and possibly teachers. They did not have to learn




                                       48
the recipes by heart - they could read them. I suggested using pictures or tickets
with words during the show. I chose recipes for tomato soup, thai watermelon
salad, farfalle with carbonara and spring peas, summer tray-baked salmon and
bakewell tart. I brought the original book with me so that the pupils can have a
look at it, see it in colours and see the photos of Jamie, his family, pictures of
his restaurant, the fifteen boys and food and meals, too. I also brought his latest
book called Jamie at home, which was published in 2007.


Expected problems
I supposed pupils not to understand the listening very well. That is the reason
why I decided to play Czech subtitles. Jamie and his Irish friend speak together
quite quickly, because the material is not made to be a study material, but a
show for basically British people. Their accent is strong. One has to be
concentrated and know English quite well to understand everything. However,
it is not so difficult completely and some parts are clear even for pre-
intermediate students.


I expected boys not to be interested in cooking. My prediction was correct with
a little detail missing – the girls were not interested, either.


Unexpected problems
I did not expect to move the class from their classroom to the audio-visual
classroom as well as the sixth class and loosing time on it.


I expected the pupils to know basic vocabulary connected with cooking:
ingredients, food, some basic verbs such as grate, stir, pour etc., tools such as
pan, pot, oven etc. Some pupils did not know much and had to look everything
up in dictionaries. Some pupils were good and did not need my help or
dictionaries so much, but there were only a few of them.


My lesson suddenly happened to be using grammar-translation method,
although it was not my intention, and tent to be boring in some groups, where
were not any good students and pupils had to translate the text word by word




                                          49
with dictionaries. I tried to help them, but I did not want to translate the text
instead of them, so my advice was rather sporadic.



The first lesson plan
1.     Organizational part
(2 minutes)
2.     Introductory questions
What do you thing we are going to talk about? → miming
Do you like cooking?
Can you cook?
Is it a good / interesting job to be a cook?
Do you know some cook?
Etc.
(3 minutes)
3.     Introducing Jamie Oliver
       Jamie Oliver is a young Englishman established a restaurant called
Fifteen in London. Every year, he hires fifteen young people living in streets
and provides one-year-education course. They become cooks. He has published
a few cookery books; the latest is called Jamie at home. (They can have a look
at the book - I have the English original.) He also has a popular TV show. He is
married and has two small children.
(2 minutes)
4.     Brainstorming – cooking
(3 minutes)
5.     What do you like to eat? What would you like to be able to cook?
6.     Watching DVD, filling in the questionnaire
(20 minutes)
7.     Checking the answers (with partner, then with teacher)
(3 minutes)
8.     Explaining the project task, showing the scene with pictures, division
into groups, distributing recipes.
(10 minutes)
9.     Organizational part (2 minutes)




                                         50
Homework: translate the recipes so that you know new vocabulary and you can
understand the procedure of preparation.


The first lesson
After we moved to audio-visual classroom and lost about 10 minutes from the
lesson, I went according to my lesson plan. I tried to motivate the pupils and
describe Jamie Oliver in the best way, but I heard them saying that he was
stupid boy and that it was silly. Most of them also said they did not like
cooking and did not know any cook. Generally, the response was negative all
over. Nevertheless, I played the DVD hoping that they might get interested. I
asked them to fill in the questionnaires, but soon I recognized that they would
not be able to. They seemed not to listen to the video at all and I think they
only read the subtitles. At the moment they read the answer they needed, they
started to listen to the English, but it was already gone. The result was sad.
What is more, they were not happy with the recipes I gave them. I was
disappointed after the first lesson with this class.


The second lesson plan
1.      Organizational part
(2 minutes)
2.      Working out the presentation in groups (drawing pictures, division of
roles among pupils, asking questions the teacher etc.)
(40 minutes)
3.      Organizational part
(3 minutes)


The second lesson
The second lesson was much better than the first one. The pupils seemed more
interested in the topic or were at least somehow reconciled with it. However,
only one group had translated the recipe at home, the rest pull them out of their
bags, some of them badly creased. Some pupils did not even bring it, but those
were exceptions. I brought dictionaries to the class and distributed them among




                                         51
children. They started translating. Some pupils divided the work among
themselves within the group, which means that some of them translated and
some were drawing pictures for presentation and helping with the translation if
they understood something from the recipe. I was monitoring all the time and
helping student with difficulties. I was shocked when I found that they had to
look up in the dictionaries words like a pot, a slice or even a peanut.


At the end of the lesson, I asked the pupils to divide the rest of work among
them and finish it before the next lesson, when the presentation would take
place. I meant to finish the translation and prepare the presentation, draw
pictures or another way how to present the recipe.


The third lesson plan
1.      Organizational part
(2 minutes)
2.      Presentations of the groups
(42 minutes)
3.      Organizational part
(1 minute)




The third lesson
The presentation lesson was little bit hectic, because in two minutes after the
beginning of the lesson, an English teacher teaching in the neighbouring class
entered out classroom and told me that we had to be joined together with the
other group, because of some reason I do no remember. The only possible
answer was yes, so I waited until the group come in and sat down and then we
could start.


The first group presented the recipe for farfalle with carbonara and spring peas.
Two pupils from the group were chosen to present it. They had nice pictures of
the ingredients and one of them showed the picture during the other one read
the recipe. After this introduction, one of the pupils continued reading, but the




                                        52
show stopped. It was obvious the he read it for the fist time loud. I could not
understand him very well because he did not pronounced correctly. I stopped
him in a while because it was no use listening to him. I am sure that neither his
classmates could understand him, because if they did not know basic words,
they definitely could not understand the more difficult ones.


The second group was supposed to present thai watermelon salad. When I
asked them to come in front of the class and start, they did not move. It took
me a second to understand that they were not prepared. I did not know why,
because they had translated the whole recipe the previous lesson. I asked them
to come and read the recipe at least, but they had left it at home. I was
disappointed and angry. I told them to rewrite the translation of the recipe at
home and bring it to their English teacher the next lesson.


The next group presented the recipe for tomato soup. There were only two girls
in the group, but they did very well. They had prepared some pictures and
showed not only the ingredients, but also pretended cooking. Unfortunately,
they wished not to be recorded, so I do not have them on my video.


The fourth group showed us preparing salmon. I knew that those boys had been
translating the recipe last lesson and did not manage to prepare any pictures. I
did not supposed them to do it at home, either, although it was their homework.
So I brought some plastic food from home and lent them a pan and a spatula
too. Their presentation was nice and humorous and everybody liked it.
However, they were not good at reading and I stopped them after short time.
But their attitude was good.


The last group spoke about bakewell tart. I really liked their pictures – they
were A4 format papers folded in half so that they made “roof” and could stand.
Pupils could see all the pictures displayed. They read the recipe well.


At the end of the lesson, we still had some time left because of the one group,
which did not do the presentation. I asked the pupils to take a piece of paper
and write al the words connected with food and cooking they could remember



                                       53
from the last three lessons. I was positively surprised with the result. I left them
of about five minutes and some of them asked me for extra time, they still
knew some words they wanted to write down. Some pupils did very well, they
managed to write down a lot of words and add translation, too. The maximum
number was twenty-four and all the words were translated. Two children wrote
twenty-two words, one of them with translation. Two pupils eighteen, one
seventeen with translation, one sixteen, one fifteen with translation, three
thirteen words, one twelve, one eleven, two ten and one boy wrote only six
words. I monitored the class during writing because I wanted them to sign their
papers and not to copy from their recipes. They surprised me with words such
as sea salt, fresh mint, gas stove, extra virgin oil, smoky bacon, tablespoon or
large pan.


In the last five minutes we played a game called “The alphabet game.”
Children were asked to say words connected with cooking and food in
alphabetical order, i. e. a word beginning with a, then b etc. Who knew one
could stand up and write it on the board. They were quite creative and used
some words they could remember from their recipes, e. g. farfalle or gas.




                                        54
14. FEEDBACK

To get some feedback, I asked all the pupils anticipating in the projects to fill
in questionnaires. They were anonymous, because I wanted to know the truth.


   TRAVELLING
   GENERAL QUESTIONS
   1. What do you prefer:
           a) learning from a textbook
           b) learning from another materials such as books, movies, leaflets,
               magazines


   2. Have you ever done a project in English class? ……………………..


   → If yes, how many times? ……………………….


   → Was it easy or difficult for you? ……………………


   → what was the most difficult part of the project?
   a) preparation – searching for information
   b) working out the presentation – cooperation with your classmates,
       summarizing the information, choosing information etc.
   c) presentation – speaking, standing in front of the class




   TRAVELLING PROJECT QUESTIONS
   3. Did you like the project about travelling to England and Ireland? Why
       yes or why not?
   ………………………………………………………………………………
   ………………………………………………………………………………
   ………………………………


   4. Circle the statements you agree with:




                                       55
-   I learned new things
-   I didn’t learn any new things


-   I liked working with materials such as leaflets, books,
    maps
-   I didn’t like working with materials which were
    different to my textbook


-   I liked working with the Internet
-   I didn’t like working with the Internet


-   I liked presenting the results orally in front of the class
-   I didn’t like presenting the results orally in front of the
    class


-   The whole task was rather easy for me
-   The whole task was not easy nor difficult for me
-   The whole task was difficult for me


-   I was interested in the topic
-   I wasn’t interested in the topic


-   It was better that working with textbook
-   It wasn’t better than working with textbook


-   I wish we had more time for this project
-   There was enough time for this project




                   56
CHARLIE AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY
  GENERAL QUESTIONS
  5. What do you prefer:
         a) learning from a textbook
         b) learning from another materials such as books, movies, leaflets,
               magazines


  6. Do you use additional materials in English language lessons? (books,
     magazines, songs etc.) If yes, what materials?
  ………………………………………………………………………………
  ………..


  CHARLIE AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY
  7. Had you known the story before we watched it at school?


  4. Did you
         a) understand spoken English in the movie
         b) understand the subtitles in the movie
         c) didn’t understand at all, watched the pictures only


  5. Did you learn anything new or not?


  6. Did you like dancing like Oompa – Loompas?
         a) Yes, I did.
         b) Yes, I did. I like when I can move in lessons.
         c) No, I did not.
         d) I don’t care.


  7. Would you like to read the book now? Why?
  ………………………………………………………………………………
  ………………………………………………………………………………
  ………………………………………………………………………………
  ………………………………………………




                                    57
  8. Do you wish we had more time for working with Charlie and the
  Chocolate Factory or was it enough?




COOKING
GENERAL QUESTIONS
  1.                          What do you prefer:
          a) learning from a textbook
          b) learning from another materials such as books, movies, leaflets,
              magazines


  2. Do you ever listen to spoken English?
          a. no, not at all
          b. yes, at school, listenings in my textbook
          c. yes, on TV, in movies (video DVD) etc.


  2. Have you ever done a project in English class? ……………………..


  → If yes, how many times? ……………………….


  → Was it easy or difficult for you? ……………………


  → what was the most difficult part of the project?
  d) preparation – searching for information
  e) working out the presentation – cooperation with your classmates,
       summarizing the information, choosing information etc.
  f) presentation – speaking, standing in front of the class


  JAMIE OLIVER, COOKING
  3. Had you heard about Jamie before we spoke about him at school?


  4. Do you like him?




                                      58
   5. Did you like the video we watched?
          a. yes, I did, it was interesting
          b. yes, I did, but I didn’t understand it
          c. no, I didn’t, it was silly
          d. no, I didn’t, I don’t like cooking
          e. other:
              …………………………………………………………………
              …………………………………………………………………
              ………………………………………………
   6. Circle the statement you agree with:
                    - I learned some new things
                    - I didn’t learn anything new


                    - I liked presenting the results orally in front of the class
                    - I didn’t like presenting the results orally in front of the
                    class


                    - I was interested in the topic
                    - I wasn’t interested in the topic


                    - It was better that working with textbook
                    - It wasn’t better than working with textbook


                    - The whole task was rather easy for me
                    - The whole task was not easy nor difficult for me
                    - The whole task was difficult for me


                    - I wish we had more time for this project
                    -   There was enough time for this project


I did not ask the pupils to fill in the questionnaires immediately after our
lessons, but I left some time for them to settle down and asked their English
teachers to do it with them in about three weeks. I wanted the pupils to come
back to their common lessons and think about my teaching with the benefit of



                                          59
hindsight. I was afraid that some pupils, especially the worse ones, might have
judged the lesson too emotionally immediately after them and might have tried
to be completely negative just to tell me I was a bad teacher, because I gave
them bad marks. I also supposed some pupils to think about my lessons at
home and maybe discussed them with friends, classmates of teachers.


The teachers helped them with translation, too. I told them that I would accept
answers in Czech, because I appreciated the information more than knowledge
in this case.




                                      60
15. RESULTS

Travelling
I got 18 completed questionnaires. I found out that two thirds of the pupils
prefer working with supplementary materials to working with textbooks. All of
them had done a project at school before and two thirds found it easy.


The next question dealt with demandingness of a project. Eleven pupils of
eighteen found the presentation itself the most difficult part of the project. Five
of them did not like working out the presentation and two of them preparation.


The next part was about my project. Seven pupils did not like it. Two of those
said that they did not like doing projects, another two wrote * It is bored.
Eleven pupils liked it.


Eleven pupils think that they learned some new things; seven did not learn
anything new. Fourteen pupils liked working with additional materials, four did
not. All the pupils liked working with the Internet, although part of them told
me in the lesson that they did not have the Internet at home and therefore could
not have done the homework. Only two pupils liked presenting the project in
front of the class, the rest did not. That is what I had expected. They were able
to work with materials I gave them very well; they chose the needed or the
most important information and made notes in their notebooks. But they did
not like speaking and being watched by their classmates and the teacher. Two
pupils found the whole task rather difficult, one pupil easy and the rest think
that it was adequate. Two thirds of the pupils were not interested in the topic,
but the same number of them think that it was better than working with a
textbook. Half of the class thinks that there was enough time for the project and
the other half thinks there should have been more time for it.


Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
I got sixteen completed questionnaires, which means that all the pupils who did
the project filled it in.




                                        61
Seven children prefer learning from a textbook to learning from supplementary
materials. It is a huge difference between them and higher grades, where
almost all the pupils answered that additional materials are better. Most of the
children wrote that they use additional material seldom. I think that the teacher
translated this word for them from Czech and they used it, because they did not
know any other suitable word. It is strange when one gets the same answer
from 70% of respondents. Fifteen pupils had known the story; it was new only
for one pupil. Most of the children said that they had understood both spoken
English and subtitles. I wanted them to choose one answer only, but they
circled two of them. I think they wanted to say that they had been listening and
reading the subtitles and therefore had understood. Seven pupils think they
learned something new, nine of them did not learn anything. Five children do
not think anything special about dancing, they did not care, but the rest liked it
and some of them mentioned that they like moving in lessons. Ten children do
not even think about reading the book, because they do not like reading. Four
of them would like to read it and two would like to read it in Czech. Fifteen
children wish to have more time for this project, but I am afraid that they only
liked watching the film. If we did more grammar and exercises, they probably
would not have liked it so much.


Cooking
I got 17 filled questionnaires. Fifteen pupils prefer learning from different
materials than textbooks according to them. Eleven children meet spoken
English on TV, in movies etc, six of them only at school in listening exercises
from their textbooks. There was not any child who would not come in contact
with spoken English at all. All the pupils had experience with making a project,
but they could not remember the exact number. One pupil wrote *I don’t no.
One half (nine) found it easy, the rest difficult. The next question about the
most difficult part of the project was not so one-sided as in other classes.
Whereas children in other classes unambiguously did not like presentation
itself, it was different here. Five children did not like preparation, four children
working out the presentation and eight of them the presentation.




                                        62
Twelve pupils had heard about Jamie Oliver. Fourteen pupils do not like him.
Most of the children liked the video I played for them, but they did not
understand it. Four pupils though it was silly. Only one pupil said it was
interesting.


One half of the class thinks that they learned something new and the same
amount of pupils was interested in the topic. Thirteen pupils did no like
presenting in front of the class. Fourteen children think it was better than
working with a textbook and twelve pupils did no find the task to be neither
easy nor difficult. Nine children wish to have more time for this project.




                                       63
16. CONCLUSION OF THE PRACTICAL PART

The use of authentic materials in ELT is mentioned in almost all the modern
teaching approaches and methods. I used them in practice at a primary school
with sixth, eights and ninth graders. The result was positive and it only
confirmed its irreplaceableness. The main advantage of this approach is the
wide range of materials that can be used. I mostly worked with leaflets,
pictures and audio – video material, but there are many more possibilities. The
main method I used was a project method.


We can generally say that the preparation for a lesson with a use of authentic
materials is more demanding for teachers, but the yield for pupils is much
higher that from a common lesson. In addition, they are learning to use a
language for life more than from most textbooks. The also develop a lot of
skills next to learning the language itself, e. g. working with the Internet,
searching for information, social – cultural understanding, long-term planning
etc.


I chose three topics for my practice, which I thought would be the most
interesting and most beneficial for the pupils. The topics were travelling,
cooking and film. I was not difficult to find materials. I used my own materials,
which I had brought from Ireland and Great Britain, but those topics should be
easy to prepare for all teachers. The pupils were delighted with the change
from their textbook. However, I found out that they were not used to making
projects. They can work out a very good piece of work, but they cannot present
it very well. Their knowledge background was not as it should have been in
most cases; they made a lot of mistakes. Most of the pupils also liked the topics
I had chosen. Surprisingly, they did not like the topic cooking. In spite of their
lack of interest, they worked well in most parts of the project.


I would recommend using authentic materials and modern alternative teaching
approaches and methods to all the language teachers. It is important to have
good class management skills and be able to inspire the pupils. The positive
results will definitely delight both teachers and their students.



                                        64
17. CONCLUSION

In this chapter I will sum up the conclusions I have come to during my working
on the topic and my practical work at school.


During my work, I have found out that authentic materials play an important
role in teaching a second language. They enrich the traditional lessons and are
interesting for students, too. However, the pupils are not used to learning from
alternative sources. They do not have much responsibility for their learning. In
my opinion, they should be taught independence since early age.


I see the problem in fossilized image of lessons, which have been in Czech
since Austro – Hungarian era. There are some attempts for a change, but the
alternative approaches still have to recede to traditional systems. There is a
lack of experience with alternative methods among teachers, who cannot use
them effectively or do not consider them to be useful.


It is demanding to prepare a lesson with use of authentic materials and it is also
not easy to get the materials, too. It may be one of the reasons why they are not
used much.


I very appreciate the possibility to try to implement authentic materials into
teaching. In future, I will be aware of some difficulties, which may
unexpectedly appear. I will not condemn authentic materials at all. I still
consider them to be very useful and enriching. I will keep collecting them and
finding ways of using them.


I hope that my work will be an inspiration for teachers of future teachers,
although the result of my teaching practice was not completely positive. Hard
work, which is connected with alternative teaching, should not discourage
teachers. On the contrary, they should take it as a challenge of better teaching.




                                        65
18. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dickinson, Leslie. Self-instruction in Language Learning. Cambridge
University Press, 1988.


Gill, Simon; Čaňková, Michaela. Intercultural Activities. Oxford University
Press, 2002.


Hutchinson, Tom. Introduction to Project Work. Oxford University Press,
1992.


Jones, Ken. Simulations in Teaching. Cambridge University Press, 1990.


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Internet sources:
www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/authenticmaterials.html
(01/04/2008)


http://www.proliteracy.org/downloads/litscape/LitScapeWinter06.pdf
(15/03/2008)


http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/using-authentic-materials
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http://www.esl-lab.com/research/simul.htm
(03/04/2008)




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19. SUMMARY

       The work deals with use of authentic materials, such as books, video,
music etc. in teaching English language. It refers to specialized sources and
gives reasons for authentic materials usage. Particular attention is drawn to
multicultural background. Another important feature which the work deals with
is practical use of authentic materials in real environment of a primary school.
The work describes the process and elaborates the results.




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ATTACHMENTS




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