Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

At the conclusion of this workshop you will be able to demonstrate

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 67

									   At the conclusion of this today
   you will be able to demonstrate
            knowledge of:

• Why differentiated instruction is important
• A basic understanding of the key
  components of a differentiated classroom
• The rationale for using flexible grouping
• Strategies to try out in your classroom !!!
  Brainstorming Activity

1. What is differentiated
instruction?

2. What are the key principles
of differentiated instruction?
Differentiated Instruction defined…

Differentiated instruction is a philosophy that
enables teachers to plan strategically in order
to reach the needs of the diverse learners in
classrooms today. Differentiation is not just a
set of instructional tools but a philosophy that
a teacher and a professional learning
community embrace to reach the unique
needs of every learner.
                                       -Gregory,2003, p. 27,
          Differentiated Instructional Strategies in Practice
  Differentiated Instruction defined…

Differentiation can be defined as a way of
  teaching in which teachers proactively
  modify curriculum, teaching methods,
  resources, learning activities, and student
  products to address the needs of individual
  students and/or small groups of students to
  maximize the learning opportunity for each
  student in the classroom.
                         -Tomlinson et al., (In press)
  Differentiated Instruction…

Provides different avenues to acquiring
  content, to processing or making sense
  of ideas, and to developing products so
  that each student can learn.
                             Tomlinson, 2001
Differentiated Instruction is…
“Shaking up” what goes on in the
  classroom so that students have
  multiple options for taking in
  information, making sense of ideas, and
  expressing what they learn.
                             Tomlinson, 2001
               Key Principles of a
            Differentiated Classroom
• Teachers make the difference
• Students differ in learning preferences and need multiple
  and varied avenues to learning
• All students can learn what is important for them to learn
• Instruction must be meaningful
• Curriculum, instruction, and assessment are inseparable
• Diversity should be valued and respected
• Differentiating and adapting is critical to the success of
  all learners
• Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom
              Key Principles of a
           Differentiated Classroom
• Differentiating instruction and adapting curriculum
  must become the rule rather than the exception
• Goals are maximum growth and continued success
• Collaborative planning is essential
• Students and teachers are collaborators in learning
• Curricular adaptation is neither prescriptive
  nor precise
• Adaptations should maximize student participation in
  typical curriculum and instruction
• Adaptations should maximize student involvement
  with school peer groups
• The teacher understands, appreciates, and builds
  upon student differences.
  What is the rationale behind DI?
Often viewed as in conflict with many
   people’s purpose of education. A
   paradox exists…
One one hand
   Education should focus on teaching
   standards and all students master basic
   competencies
On the other hand:
   Education should focus on maximize
   student capabilities and focuses on the
   global definition of democracy.
         “Seeing the Water”

However, the dominant
paradigm of education
today is standards
based. This paradigm is
historically constructed
and firmly entrenched in
our schools’ cultures.
(i.e., schools have a
common set of
assumptions, rules,
beliefs)
      “Struggle for Authenticity”

• The big challenge is for teachers to become
  comfortable and confident in their abilities to
  differentiate instruction during our current era
  of high stakes accountability.
• Simultaneously, educators must find a way to
  be true to themselves while being honest and
  practical to their students and at least
  somewhat agreeable to the powers that be.

                            (Grimmet-Neufeld, 1994)
        Teacher Roles in a
     Differentiated Classroom

• In a differentiated classroom, the teacher
  proactively plans and carries out varied
  approaches to content, process, and
  product in anticipation of and response to
  students’ differences in readiness, interest,
  and learning needs.

                             - Tomlinson, 2001, p. 7
         Teacher Roles in a
      Differentiated Classroom
• Teachers must move away from the notion that
  they dispense information and knowledge and
  move towards seeing themselves as organizers
  of learning opportunities.
• While content knowledge is essential, teachers in
  differentiated classrooms focus less on “knowing
  the correct answers” and more on understanding
  their students abilities, learning style, and needs.
• These teachers create ways to learn that both
  capture students’ attention and lead to learning.
            Differentiated Instruction
                  is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs

                 guided by general principles of differentiation
                                  such as:
                                                                         ongoing assessment
respectful tasks                  flexible grouping                        and adjustment
           clear learning goals                positive learning environment

                              Teachers can differentiate:

                    Content             Process           Product
                                   Based on students’

                Readiness             Interests            Learning Profile
         Flexible Grouping
Students are part of many different groups
 (and also work alone) based on the match
  of the task to student readiness, interest,
    or learning style. Teachers may create
  skills – based or interest – based groups
  that are heterogeneous or homogeneous
   in readiness level. Sometimes students
      select work groups, and sometimes
 teachers select them. Sometimes student
    group assignments are purposeful and
              sometimes random.
          Flexible Grouping
 Initially use whole group
  for instruction
 Divide group for practice
  or enrichment
 Not a permanent
  arrangement
 Use for hour, day, week,
  etc.
          Planning for Grouping
•   How does flexible grouping benefit students?
•   When does grouping facilitate instruction?
•   How do you determine group membership?
•   Which activities lend themselves to group
    work?
How does flexible grouping benefit students?
  • Gives students and
    teachers a voice in
    work arrangements.
  • Allows students to work
    with a variety of peers.
  • Keeps students from
    being “pegged” as
    advanced or struggling.
  Group Membership

Can be determined by:
          • Readiness
          • Interest
          • Reading Level
          • Skill Level
          • Background Knowledge
          • Social Skills
 How to determine group membership?

Form Teams
• Remember
  – SKILL LEVEL USING FORMATIVE DATA
       • (H, HM, LM, L)
  –   GENDER
  –   ETHNICITY
  –   ESOL/ESE
  –   DISCIPLINE ISSUES
       Activities to Use in Groups
         Cooperative Learning Structures
• Structures are tools you can use in your classroom to
  build community, engage students, and make
  learning fun

• Some example structures are incorporated using:
   –   Timed Pair Share
   –   Rally Robin
   –   Round Robin
   –   Roundtable
   –   Shoulder and face partners
                   TAPS

•   Total Group
•   Alone
•   Partner
•   Small Group

    Effective instruction embeds each of these
    grouping methods into lessons to assist
    with student learning.
            Differentiated Instruction
                  is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs

                 guided by general principles of differentiation
                                  such as:
                                                                         ongoing assessment
respectful tasks                  flexible grouping                        and adjustment
           clear learning goals                positive learning environment

                              Teachers can differentiate:

                    Content             Process           Product
                                   Based on students’

                Readiness              Interests           Learning Profile
         According to students’
Readiness -
  Refers to readiness for a given skill,
  concept, or way of thinking.

Interests and Attitudes -
  Have to do with those things that learners find
  relevant, fascinating, or worthy of their time.
Learning Profile & Need -
  Refer to things such as learning style, intelligence
  preferences, how the student processes
  information, and how the learner sees himself in
  relation to the rest of the world.
                      Readiness

A task that’s a good match for student readiness
extends that student’s knowledge, understanding, and
skills beyond what the student can do independently…it
pushes the student beyond their comfort zone and
provides support in bridging the gap between the known
and unknown.

Encourage your students to “work up” - that is, be ready
to match students to tasks that will stretch them.


Examples include - varied texts, varied scaffolding,
supplemental materials.
               Interests and Attitudes

Planning engaging lessons that “hook” students
   on the topic at hand by:
1.   Helping students realize a match between school
     and their desires
2.   Using skills or ideas familiar to students to bridge
     ideas and skills less familiar to them
3.   Enhancing student motivation to learn

Examples include - interest centers or groups,
   exploratory studies (jigsaw, literature circles,
   webquests, etc.) using different modes of
   expression (oral, written, design/build, artistic, etc.)
                  Learning Profile

Learning profile refers to ways in which we learn best
as individuals. Be a student of your students and also
help your students understand their own learning
preferences.
Categories include - learning style preferences,
intelligences preferences, culture influenced
preferences, gender based preferences.
Examples include - varying teacher presentation
(auditory, visual, kinesthetic, whole-to-part, part-to-
whole), multiple modes of assessment
                              Laugh and Graph
Awesome


Quite Nice


I Get By


Not So Hot


Dismal


             Learn best    I need to eat    I like to act.   I learn best   Drawing        Once I hear   Putting
             with quiet.   while I learn.                    by reading.    pictures and   the infor-    together
                                                                            diagrams       mation, I     models and
                                                                            help me to     know it.      projects
                                                                            learn.                       helps me to
                                                                                                         learn.
                         Laugh and Graph
Awesome


Quite
Nice

I Get By


Not So
Hot

Dismal


           Learn best    I need to     I like to act.   I learn best   Drawing      Once I      Putting
           with quiet.   eat while I                    by reading.    pictures     hear the    together
                         learn.                                        and          infor-      models and
                                                                       diagrams     mation, I   projects
                                                                       help me to   know it.    helps me to
                                                                       learn.                   learn.
            Differentiated Instruction
                  is a teacher’s response to learners’ needs

                 guided by general principles of differentiation
                                  such as:
                                                                         ongoing assessment
respectful tasks                  flexible grouping                        and adjustment
           clear learning goals                positive learning environment

                              Teachers can differentiate:

                    Content             Process            Product
                                   Based on students’

                Readiness             Interests            Learning Profile
Ways to Differentiate:

Content:
    What is taught
Process:
     How it is taught
Product:
     How learning is assessed
                     to Differentiate Content
• Reading Partners / Reading Buddies
       •   Read/Summarize
       •   Read/Question/Answer
       •   Visual Organizer/Summarizer
       •   Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt
•   Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading
•   Flip Books
•   Split Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)
•   Books on Tape
•   Highlights on Tape
•   Digests/ “Cliff Notes”
•   Notetaking Organizers
•   Varied Texts
•   Varied Supplementary Materials
•   Highlighted Texts
•   Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview
                                                   Tomlinson – ‘00
    TO DIFFERENTIATE
        PROCESS
• Fun & Games
• RAFTs
• Cubing, Think Dots
• Choices (Intelligences)
• Centers
• Tiered lessons
• Contracts
                              RAFT
RAFT is an acronym that stands for
Role of the student. What is the student’s role: reporter, observer,
   eyewitness, object?

Audience.   Who will be addressed by this raft: the teacher, other
   students, a parent, people in the community, an editor, another object?

Format.    What is the best way to present this information: in a letter, an
   article, a report, a poem, a monologue, a picture, a song?

Topic.  Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous
   mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific
   event?
                           RAFT Activities
     Role                 Audience                      Format                            Topic
  Semicolon           Middle Schoolers                Diary entry                 I Wish You Really
                                                                              Understood Where I Belong
  N.Y.Times                 public                    Op Ed piece             How our Language Defines
                                                                                    Who We Are
  Huck Finn              Tom Sawyer              Note hidden in a tree         A Few Things You Should
                                                         knot                           Know
  Rain Drop            Future Droplets              Advice Column                The Beauty of Cycles
     Lung                   Owner                   Owner’s Guide              To Maximize Product Life
 Rain Forest           John Q. Citizen        Paste Up “Ransom” Note              Before It’s Too Late
   Reporter                 Public                      Obituary                      Hitler is Dead
 Martin Luther      TV audience of 2010                 Speech                   The Dream Revisited
     King
  Thomas            Current Residents of       Full page Newspaper Ad          If I Could Talk to You Now
  Jefferson               Virginia
  Fractions           Whole Numbers                     Petition              To Be Considered A Part of
                                                                                     the Family
A word problem     Students in your class          Set of Directions            How to Get to Know Me

Format based on the work of Doug Buehl cited in Teaching Reading in the Content Areas: If Not Me Then Who?
                                       Billmeyer and Martin, 1998
         to Differentiate Product

• Choices based on readiness, interest, and
  learning profile
• Clear expectations
• Timelines
• Agreements
• Product Guides
• Rubrics
• Evaluation
Map             Lecture           Book List          Puzzle
Diagram         Editorial         Calendar           Model
Sculpture       Painting          Coloring Book      Timeline
Discussion      Costume                              Article
                                  Game
Demonstration   Blueprint                            Diary
                                  Research Project
Poem            Catalogue                            Poster
Chart           Dialogue          TV Show
                                                     Magazine
Dance           Newspaper         Song
                                                     Photographs
Campaign        Scrapbook         Dictionary         Terrarium
Cassette        Questionnaire     Film               Petition
Quiz Show       Flag              Collection         Drive
Banner          Scrapbook         Trial              Prototype
Brochure        Graph             Machine            Speech
Debate          Debate                               Cartoon
                                  Mural
Flow Chart      Museum                               Biography
                                  Award
Puppet Show     Learning Center                      Review
Tour            Advertisement     Recipe
                                  Test               Invention
                  for
Interest – Readiness – Learning Profile
                  by
        Self – Peers - Teachers
           THINKING ABOUT
        ON-GOING ASSESSMENT
       STUDENT DATA               TEACHER DATA
             SOURCES                 MECHANISMS
1.    Journal entry         1. Anecdotal records
2.    Short answer test     2. Observation by checklist
3.    Open response test    3. Skills checklist
4.    Home learning         4. Class discussion
5.    Notebook              5. Small group interaction
6.    Oral response         6. Teacher – student
7.    Portfolio entry           conference
8.    Exhibition            7. Assessment stations
9.    Culminating product   8. Exit cards
10.   Question writing      9. Problem posing
11.   Problem solving       10. Performance tasks and
                                rubrics
Assessment Idea
                    Exit Cards

Exit Cards (AKA “Tickets Out The Door”) are used to
gather information on student readiness levels, interests,
and/or learning profiles.

The teacher hands out index cards to students at the
end of an instructional sequence or class period. The
teacher asks the students to respond to a pre-
determined prompt on their index cards and then turn
them in as they leave the classroom or transition to
another subject.

The teacher reviews the student responses and
separates the cards into instructional groups based on
preset criteria.
  Timed Pair Share
• Work with a single partner who is sitting next to you
• The person with the most recent birthday will begin
  and will be “Person A”
• Person A will share for one minute while Person B
  listens respectfully. Person B cannot talk, but can ask
  a single question if he/she needs clarification.
• At the signal, reverse roles. Person B will speak for
  one minute while Person A listens respectfully.
• Topic is: “Share your learning preferences from your
  laugh graph.”
               Gambits
• Person A, turn to Person B, and say,
  “Thanks for participating.”
• Person B, turn to Person A and say,
  “Thanks for participating.”
  Nine Types of Adaptations
   Input           Output          Size



   Time           Difficulty      Level of
                                  Support

 Degree of      Modified Goals   Substitute
Participation                    Curriculum
                       Input

• Strategies used to facilitate student learning.
  –   Using highlighted text (Human Highlighter)
  –   Using graphic and advance organizers/guided notes
  –   Providing audiotapes of textbooks
  –   Using amplification
  –   Eye Cue/Lend me an Ear
National Training
  Laboratories
 Bethel, Maine
                  Output
• The ways learners demonstrate
  understanding and knowledge.
  – Alternative ways to demonstrate mastery (Oral
    or dictated responses, pictures, role plays,
    semantic maps or webs, response cards, KWL,
    Venn diagrams, etc.)
  – Using highlighted tape
  – Unless testing reading comprehension, consider
    reading test items to students or allowing them
    to read aloud
               Output Example:
Response Cards vs. Traditional Hand Raising

                       Response
   Time Used                                      Hand Raising
                        Cards

                      22 responses                1.5 responses
   30 minutes
                        per child                    per child
                         3700      270 responses
    180 days         responses per
                         child        per child

Additionally, ALL students scored higher on the quiz and the
end of the unit test.
                           Hewett, Gardner III, Cavanaugh, Courson, Grassi, and Barbetta,
                                                    Teaching Exceptional Children, 1996.
A B
Response Cards


C D
True False

Cause Effect
+   -
x
                  Size
• The length of an assignment,
  demonstration or performance
  learners are expected to complete.
  – Flexible Folder
  – Reduce the length of a report, number
    of math problems, spelling words, etc…
                 Time
• The flexible time needed for student
  learning
  – Timeline for assignment completion
    (NAT)
  – More time for tests
  – Human Billboard
  – Do-Due Board
                      Difficulty

• The varied skill levels, conceptual levels and processes
  involved in learning.
   – Tier the assignment so the outcome is the same but
     with varying degrees of concreteness and complexity
     (Think-Tack-Toe)
   – Use alternative worksheets that require minimal writing
   – Sequence steps in a task
   – Break testing into smaller sections over more days
            Think-Tack-Toe
   Complete a           Complete a          Name and draw a
character analysis    character report      person who is like
   for the main      card from the book         one of the
character from the                         characters from the
       story                                      story
 Build a miniature     Draw a picture      Make up a limerick
stage setting from   describing at least   or poem about the
     the book        3 settings from the   setting of the book
                             story
 Use a sequence         Write a new          Make a board
chart or timeline to beginning or ending    game about the
describe at least 7      to the story      story’s key events
 events from the
       book
         Level of Support
• The amount of assistance to the learner.
  – Consider calculators / spell check /
    times tables charts… think about what
    you are REALLY assessing
  – Use of manipulatives, visual aids, peer
    supports, etc. (Book it)
  – Reading books provided at a lower level.
   Degree of Participation
• The extent to which the learner is
  actively involved in tasks.
Examples:
  – Alternative goal within an activity:
    participating in a small group rather than
    completing the same task as others
          Modified Goals
• The adapted outcome expectations
  within the content of a general
  education curriculum.
Examples:
  – Student focuses more on writing letters
    and words rather than composing
    sentences and paragraphs.
  – Partial completion of SSS/Benchmarks.
   Substitute Curriculum
The significantly differentiated instruction
and materials to meet a learner’s identified
goals.
 – Magnet programs and schools
 – Gifted and Talented Programs
 – Life Skills Programs for students with
   multiple and severe disabilities (ESE
   SSS Standards and Benchmarks)
  What Research Tells Us
 Focus on the essentials
 Use explicit strategies
 Provide temporary support
 Make linkages obvious and explicit
 Prime background knowledge
 Review for fluency and
  generalization
        Pages 9 – 18 Accommodations
       However, in learning to differentiate,
        teachers may need help with . . .
•   A rationale for differentiation
•   Pre-assessing student readiness
•   Effective work with classroom groups
•   Flexible grouping
•   Resolving issues regarding grading / report cards
•   Role of the teacher in a differentiated classroom
•   Appropriate use of varied instructional strategies
•   Using concept-based instruction
•   Develop carefully focused tasks and products
•   Knowing how to teach struggling learners without
    “remedial expectations”
                                          Carol Tomlinson
              In sum…
Differentiation suggests it is feasible to
develop classrooms where realities of student
variance can be addressed along with
curricular realities…It challenges us to draw
our best knowledge about teaching and
learning. It suggests there is room for both
equity and excellence…it is complex. It calls
on us to question, change, reflect, and
change some more.
                         Tomlinson, 2001, pg. vi
  But it is important to remember that any
method of differentiating instruction must use
              the FSU principle




      Or they will not be successful for
            teachers or students!
Even with that said we still realize
       and know that…




      the Gators RULE!!!

								
To top