Foreign language teaching learning by jolinmilioncherie

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									                 English Teaching
                Methodology A, 2003


                                       Session #6



English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
            Agenda for May 21
                Quiz 5
                Video, “Textbooks”
                Consolidation




English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
        Insights from SLA research




English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
                             3 major Hypotheses
                Input Hypothesis
                Output Hypothesis
                Interaction Hypothesis




English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
            S.Krashen’s 5 hypotheses
                The Acquisition-Learning hypo.
                The Monitor hypo.
                The Natural Order hypo.
                The Input hypo.
                The Affective Filter hypo.



English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
            Input Hypothesis
                input?
                   English that is heard or read

                   output--English that is spoken or written

                i+1
                   English that contains structure with a little
                    beyond his or her current level of competency
                   Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) by
                    Vygotsky
                 i …?
                   learner’s current level of competency



English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
            What does the Input Hypothesis
            mention about language learning?
                Learners can improve English proficiency
                 through comprehensible input (i+1).
                “A little beyond” can become comprehensible
                 through linguistic and non-linguistic clues and
                 learner’s guessing.
                When the Input is “i+2”, it is overwhelming to
                 learners.




English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
            Affective Filter Hypothesis
                Affective: ~ emotional
                Learners can best acquire English when
                 affective filter is low.
                      Where anxiety is high, affective filter is also
                       high, which blocks English input from
                       entering into learners’ mind.
                      When anxiety is low, affective filter is also
                       low, which makes English easy enter to
                       learners’ mind and brain.

English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
Let’s make a reflection
   Do you feel anxiety in the classroom?
   If you have when?
   How could teachers help students
    reduce anxiety level?
                     Anxiety           environment




      English Input




English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
            Impacts of Krashen’s hypotheses
                Tremendous impact on ESL/EFL
                 teachers in north American and other
                 areas.
                Hard to prove his hypothesis
                      For example, how can we define “i”?
                      By criticizing his hypotheses, SLA research
                       has been developed and promoted.
                Probably right

English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
            Noam Chomsky (1928-)
                [video]




English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
            The Output hypothesis
                Merrill Swain of U/T
                From research results of Canadian
                 “Immersion Program.”
                Effects of output (=speaking&writing)
                      1. Noticing; “hole” or “gap” of their
                       interlanguage
                      2. Hypothesis testing; getting feedback
                      3. Meta talk; metalinguistic knowledge

English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
            The Interaction hypothesis
                Interaction between students, or
                 between students and teachers
                      Ways of talking
                         Motherease

                         Foreigner talk

                      Ways of Feedback
                         Recast

                      Michael Long of U of Hawaii

English Teaching Methodology A, 2003
Let’s discuss
   What kinds of input is available in Japan
    and in the classroom?
   What input is appropriate for students?
            How can you assume difficulties of learning
            English in an EFL context?

                Input poor situation
                Output poor situation
                In relation to affective filter hypothesis,
                      High density of people
                      Large class in school and university
                      Nervousness
                           See, Chrysanthemum and Sword (Kiku to
                            Katana) by Ruth Benedict


English Teaching Methodology A, 2003

								
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