Martin Luther

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					                Martin Luther

              Reformer or
             Revolutionary?


Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star or Why Did Luther Stray So Far?
         Medieval Europe

• Fear of Authority and
  Fear of God
• Catholic Church was
  the only church in
  Western Europe
• The Bible was only to
  be read by priests or
  Bishops
 What did the people believe?

• If you died with a dirty
  soul you would either go
  straight to hell or to
  Purgatory
• You had to go to church
  to get your soul clean
• If you died with a clean
  soul you would go to
  heaven
  Religion on the Eve of the
         Reformation
• People (Hus, Wycliff,
  Erasmus) were calling
  for reform because of the
  corruption within the
  Catholic Church                    QuickTime™ and a
                                      decompres sor
                              are needed to see this picture.

• Pope(s) seemed more
  concerned with politics
  rather than spirituality
• Julius II, the “warrior
  pope” led armies against
  his enemies
            Preliminary conditions of the Reformation

•   People, not just priests, were learning to read

•   People started reading the Bible on their own

•   People stared to think on their own, and not listen to the
    priests

•   People started reading the ancient non-Christian Greeks
    – Homer, Aristotle, and Plato – once again

•   New ideas of science and mathematics from the Muslim
    intellectuals were being read

•   New scientific ideas by Copernicus and others questioned
    the thinking of the Church
            Preliminary conditions of the Reformation

•   Erasmus and other thinkers were quietly pushing the
    church for reform

•   The new printing press rapidly spread revolutionary ideas

•   The rulers and priests in Germany were angry at seeing
    money earned in their states being sent to Rome to build
    rich palaces and churches.

•   The Muslims now controlled the Byzantine Empire and
    cut of Italy from the spices and silks of India and China

•   The Portuguese now sailed directly to India around
    Africa, bypassing the Italian middlemen and thereby
    offering cheaper prices for spices and silk
      •Why the anti-Christ?

 Luther was a German monk who
wanted to reform (not break away)
     from the Catholic Church
 Who was Martin Luther?
• He could read Latin, Greek and Hebrew.

• Whilst comparing the Latin Catholic Bible
  with the original Greek & Hebrew he found
  that certain parts were incorrectly
  translated.

• Luther hung his 95 theses or complaints
  from his research on the local Church door
  in Wittenburg in 1517.

• He disagreed with the Pope and began the
  Protestant religion.
• You can access the video on SchoolSpace.
Martin Luther (cont.)


• This practice simply harmed people’s
  chances of salvation, he believed.
• Angered by the practice, in 1517
  Luther sent a list of Ninety-five
  Theses to his church superiors.
• They attacked abuses in selling
  indulgences.
• Thousands of copies were printed.
       Corruption in the Church
       1.Indulgences -The selling of
         Documents for the Forgiveness of
         sins

In Luther’s era, indulgences were being sold
   by the Church to raise money for
   refurbishing the Basilica of St. Peter in
   Rome. The slogan attributed to the
   Dominican friar Johann Tetzel epitomized
   the sale of indulgences: "As soon as the
   coin in the coffer rings, the soul from           QuickTime™ and a
   purgatory springs."                                 decompressor
                                               are needed to se e this picture.
What did Martin Luther
      Believe?
       You don’t have to go to Church to
           get your soul into heaven.. This
           is “Justification of Faith” -
           his belief that salvation is
           personal and not linked to
           the rituals of the Catholic
           Church. The basis of
           Luther’s beliefs can be
           found in The Bible,in
           Romans, Chapter 10.

       Read the Bible in your own language
          and not Latin.

       Its wrong to make an image of God.

       The Church is too rich.
Martin Luther



He believed:
1.Salvation was only possible through
  faith
2. Salvation is a gift from God
3. Salvation can never be won or
  bought
 Martin Luther    (cont.)

 • In 1520, Luther called for the
   German princes to overthrow the
   papacy and establish a reformed
   German church.

• Luther wanted to keep only two
  sacraments–baptism and
  Communion–and called for the
  clergy to marry.
• Luther continued to emphasize his
  new doctrine of salvation.
          Martin Luther          (cont.)

• The Church excommunicated Luther
  in 1521.
• He was summoned to appear before the imperial
  Diet (legislative assembly) of the Holy Roman
  Empire in the city of Worms.
• The emperor Charles V thought he could get Luther
  to change his ideas.

• Luther refused, which outraged the emperor.



   Luther at the Diet of Worms
                                                 QuickTime™ an d a
                                                    decompressor
                                           are need ed to see this picture.
Martin Luther      (cont.)

• The Edict of Worms made Luther
  an outlaw in the empire.
• His books were to be burned and
  Luther delivered to the emperor.
• Luther’s local ruler, however,
  protected him.
Martin Luther     (cont.)

• Luther’s religious movement soon
  became a revolution.
• It gained support from many
  German rulers, who took control of
  Catholic churches and formed state
  churches supervised by the
  government.
• Luther set up new services to
  replace the Mass, featuring Bible
  readings, preaching the word of
  God, and song.
• His doctrine became known as
  Lutheranism, the first Protestant
  faith.
What Happened in
Germany?
• Eventually Charles (The Holy Roman Emperor of
  Germany) was forced to make peace with the
  Lutheran princes, which he did in 1555 with the
  Peace of Augsburg.
• It accepted the division of Christianity within
  Germany.
• German states could choose between Catholicism
  and Lutheranism.
• All states would have the same legal rights.
• Rulers could choose their subjects’ religion.
    Protestant Christians          or     Catholic Christians




                                                      Standard Catholic
                                    Jesuit Catholic
Lutheranism           Calvinism

  Anglican
  (Church of England) Anabaptist

				
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