education profession in Indonesia by OzenkPotgieter

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									Makalah problematika system pendidikan indonesia                                            1


Education is a conscious effort to prepare students to be active and positive role in her
life now and future, and Indonesia's national education is education that is rooted in
Indonesia's national development goals.
Kind of education is education which are grouped according to the nature and specificity
of goals and programs that include education track consists of general education,
education and other educational descent. As well as its renewal efforts include juridical
basis, and the supporting curriculum, education staff and structure
Departing from the above definition, it can be understood that the formal education
system of Indonesia is directed at the achievement of educational goals in order to realize
the ideal civilization Indonesia's dignity. However, the real Indonesian education system
is currently running on the tracks of life 'secularism' which is a view of life that separates
the role of religion in the regulation of the affairs of life as a whole, including in the
delivery of the education system. Although, the government in trying to obscure the
reality of this (secular education) that exist as revealed in the Law No.20/2003 on
National Education System Article 4, paragraph 1 which states, "National Education aims
to establish man who is faithful and devoted to God Almighty, have a certain and high-
minded, healthy, knowledgeable, competent, and become citizens of a democratic and
responsible for the welfare of the people and homeland. "
Implementation of the national education system is running with full dynamics. It is least
affected by two main things that is political will and social dynamics. Political will as a
product of the executive and legislative branches of the various regulations related to the
implementation of such education in Article 20, Article 21, Article 28 C Paragraph (1),
Article 31 and Article 32 of the 1945 Constitution, as well as in the regulation of
derivatives such as Law .2/1989 of National Education is amended as Law No.20/2003,
Law No.14/2005 on Teachers and Lecturers, Government Regulation No.19/2005 on
National Education Standards, as well as various draft laws and regulation are now being
prepared by government (BHP bill, RPP Teacher, Lecturer RPP, RPP Compulsory
education, lesson plans Elementary and Secondary Education, etc.
Associated with the state of education in Indonesia, Abdul Malik Fajar (Minister of
Education in 2001) admitted the truth of a judgment that the education system in
Indonesia was the worst in Asia. He warned, education is strongly influenced by socio-
political conditions, including the issue of stability and security, for the implementation
of education need to feel safe. Responding to the survey Political and Economic Risk
Consultancy (PERC) which states that the education system in Indonesia's worst in Asia,
namely from 12 countries surveyed by the agency's headquarters in Hong Kong, South
Korea is judged to have the best education system, followed by Singapore, Japan and
Taiwan, India, China, and Malaysia. Indonesia ranks 12th, below the level in Vietnam
(Reuters, 05/09/2001).
This condition indicates a significant relationship between the quality of education in
Indonesia's human resource development produced so far, although there are other factors
that also influence it.
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CHAPTER                                                                                            II

In mapping the problem of education is necessary to note the reality of education itself
that is educational as well as a subsystem which is a complex system. Picture of
education as a subsystem is the fact that education is one aspect of life that goes by is
influenced by various external aspects are interlinked with each other. Political,
economic, socio-cultural, defense and security, even very close ideological influence on
the continuity of education, vice versa. While education as a complex system in it shows
that education consists of a variety of devices that interact internally, resulting in a series
of input-process-output level, the various devices that affect the need to obtain
appropriate      quality     assurance      by     the     various         stakeholders     involved.
2.1          Problems             of       Education             As             A         Sub-System
As one of the sub-systems within the system of state / government, the educational
linkages      with   other        sub-systems     of     which       are    shown     as     follows:
First, the course of the capitalist economic system in the midst of the government has
established a paradigm for education as a form of state services to the people who must
be accompanied by a number of economic sacrifice (cost) by the people of the country.
Education services serve as a commodity, which can be accessed by the public (the
investors)        who         have        large          amounts           of       funds       only.

It can be seen in Article 53 of the Education Law No.20/2003 on Legal Education that (1)
Operator and / or formal education unit established by the Government or incorporated
community education. (2) educational legal entities referred to in paragraph (1) function
is to provide educational services to students. (3) educational legal entities referred to in
paragraph (1) principled non-profit and can manage on their own funds to advance the
education unit. While mentioned in article 54 are (1) Community participation in
education include the role of individuals, groups, families, professional organizations,
employers, and community organizations in organizing and controlling the quality of
educational services. (2) The public may participate as a resource, implementers, and
users                        of                        educational                          outcomes.
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Based on the above provisions, it appears that the responsibility of the current national
education will be transferred from state to society by the mechanism of BHP (BHP and
see the bill on the SNP PP No.19/2005) is a mechanism; School Based Management
(SBM) at the level SD-SMA and the Autonomy of Education at University level. As with
companies, schools seek release of capital to be invested in educational operations.
Coordinator of the NGO Network for Justice Education (ENJ), Jackie Mukhtar (Reuters,
10/05/2005) considers that the privatization of education means the government has
legitimized the commercialization of education by handing over responsibility for
providing education to the market. That way, schools will have the autonomy to decide
for themselves the cost of education. School course will set a maximum cost to improve
and maintain quality. As a result, access to people who are less able to enjoy a quality
education will be limited and increasingly fragmented society based on social status,
between                         rich                        and                         poor.
The fact that shows that the education in Indonesia is a commodity service is the data
from the Ministry of Education Balitbang 2003 which states that the share of education
costs borne by the parents / students ranged between 63.35% -87.75% of total education
costs. Meanwhile, according to research by Indonesia Corruption Watch (ICW) in 2006
in 10 regencies / cities in Indonesia turned out to parents / students at the elementary level
of education still bear the brunt of the cost of Rp 1.5 million, which consists of direct and
indirect costs. In addition, the burden of educational costs borne by the government and
the public (other than parents / students) only ranged between 12.22% -36.65% of total
education costs (Koran Tempo, 07/03/2007). According to reports from the world bank in
2004, Indonesia provides only 62.8% of its domestic needs for education funding while at
the same time the government of India has to bear 89% of education funding. Even when
compared to the more backward countries like Sri Lanka, the percentage of the budget
provided by the Indonesian government is still the lowest. (
Secondly, the ongoing secularization of social life which has been fertile paradigm
berlandasakan hedonism (rah-rah), permisivisme (permissiveness), materialistic (money
oriented), and others in public life. Motive for organizing and education by both
government and society today is more to the purpose to obtain the results of mere
material or life skills (which are not associated with the goal of shaping personality
Makalah problematika system pendidikan indonesia                                                  4

(shaksiyah) whole outlook based on Islamic Shari'a). It can be seen in the Education Law
No.20/2003 Article 3 which shows the paradigm of national education, in Chapter VI
describes the lines, levels and types of education that distinguishes between general
education, vocational, academic, professional, vocational, religious, and special .
Moreover, it can also be seen in the regulation of derivatives such as PP No.19/2005
about        the     SNP,      Compulsory        Education        Bill   and   the   Bill     BHP.
In the paradigm materialistikpun indicators of student learning after a process of
education from an education today is the same treatment by national governments based
on the scoring measure the National Examination (UN) formerly known as National
Evaluation of Learning End-Stage (EBTANAS), the indicator rose only in only three
subjects (Mathematics / Economics, Indonesian, English) which is based on three aspects
of cognitive (knowledge). Government (the minister) considered that the UN is very
appropriate to be used as a standard measure of education, and the very real results of the
UN      as    a    tool   to   improve     the    quality    of    education   (Monday,     12/2/07. On the other hand, aspects of personality formation (shaksiyah) is
intact in the student, never be an indicator of student success in taking an educational
process, even in schools based on religion (see the competency standards and graduation
of                 students           in              the                PP          No.19/2005).
The phenomenon of promiscuity among teenagers (students) are among the consequences
plunges students in casual sex, drug involved, the behavior of sarcasm / violence
(fighting, hazing), and various other criminal acts (theft, rape, murder) that often we get
the news in crime in the news media (TV and newspapers in particular), is a state that
shows the irrelevance of the education system has been organized by the Indonesian
human efforts to form a personality and noble as aspired to in their own national
education goals (Psl.2 Law No.20/2003), because it shows the contradictions of reality.
Students as part of community education in schools in order to prepare them to live a life
better when in the midst of society. But because life in the midst of the general public
took place with the secular, coupled with the educational process in the education unit
within the framework of secularism as well, then this cycle will be more life affirming
secularism                       is                    increasingly                   widespread.
Third, the course of political life that have shaped the character of an opportunistic
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politician machiavelis (do everything they can for profit) in the executive and legislative
branches are included in the formulation of educational policies Indonesia. Formulation
of the draft Law Legal Education (BHP bill) that had lasted since 2004 rated by an
economist Tim Indonesia Risen (TIB) Revrisond Bashwir the agenda of global capitalism
that has been designed long ago by donor countries through the World Bank. Through the
draft Law Legal Education (BHP bill), the Government plans to privatize the education
sector. All educational units (schools) will become legal education (BHP) are required to
seek its own funds. This applies to all public schools, from elementary to college.
In addition, in some operational policies issued by the National Education staff, who had
sometimes supported by funds whose number is not small, although in many
communities to assess their implementation often misdirected and even distortion. For
example the policy minister, Bambang Sudibyo continue to implement the UN in the
academic year 2005/2006 was associated with the funds available for such programs is
very large, but many people have proposed alliance rejection. Among them, consisting of
the Education Coalition Advocacy Institute of Education (LAP), National Education
Watch (NEW), the Indonesian Consumers Foundation (YLKI), The Center for the
Betterment Indonesia (CBE), Cultural Studies Review Group (KKSK), Federation of
Independent Teachers Indonesia (FGII), Honorary Professor Forum Indonesia (FGHI),
Bandung Teacher's Action Forum (FAGI-Bandung), For-Kom City Teachers Tanggerang
(FKGKT), Legal Aid Institute (LBH-Manila), Jakarta Teachers and Education Club
(JTEC) , and the Indonesia Corruption Watch (ICW), based on a review of Law No. 20 of
2003 on National Education System and Kepmendiknas No. SLC 153/U/2003 about the
National Coalition of Education found that some gap (
Thus the description of the problem of national education in terms of its existence as a
sub-system (system of branches) were closely related to the influence of the other sub-
systems (economic, political, socio-cultural, ideological, etc.). National education system
is also part of the organization of living systems in Indonesia today.
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2.2        Education              Problems         In          A       Complex       System
In regard to education as a system, the educational problems currently being developed
such         as          illustrated         by          the         following     mapping:
Sources: West Java Province Disdik (Seminar paper-UPI National Education Expo 2006)
Therefore, based on the mapping of national education issues can be described as
2.2.1                        Equity                            in                  Education
A.                Accessibility              and                Capacity          Limitations
Movement 9-year compulsory education is a new national movement launched by the
Suharto government on May 2, 1994 with the target completed in 2005, but was later due
to a crisis in the years 1997 to 1999 the program was extended until 2008/2009. This
program targets based on the Medium Term Development Plan (RPJM) in PP No.7/2005
is the target number GER (GER) 94% (GER = the ratio between the number of students
at a particular level of education with a population of a certain age group), namely the
increasing student Junior from 3.67 million in 2004/2005 to 4.04 million in 2009. While
the target SMP Directorate, Director General of Ministry of Education is Mandikdasmen
GER 95% in 2008, which means 1.9 million children should be served to the SMP. In
2005, the new junior high school GER reached 85.22%, which shows a difference of
9.78% of the target of 95% so it is necessary to achieve an average increase of 3.26%
GER in each year. The year 2006 target of 4.64% increase or 526 000 children aged 13-
15 years should be accommodated in junior high school level / equivalent (KKN Free 9-
Year          Compulsory               Basic            Education,          UPI       2006).
Related to the achievement of the GER and NER, until 2003 nationally ketercapaiannya
was still low, it's based on indicators of: (1) children out of school can not take part in
education (ages 7-15) of approximately 693 700 people or 1.7%, (2 ) dropout SD / MI to
the SMP / MTs and of SMP / MTs to secondary education reached 2.7 million people or
6.7% of the total population aged 7-15 years (Center for Data and Information Ministry,
2003). However, recently the government expressed optimism that the completion of
compulsory education will be a success in 2008. This belief is based on the achievement
indicators for NER and GER junior high school in the late 2006 respectively reached
94.73 percent and 88.68 percent from 95 percent of the targets launched in 2008
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This condition indicates that the government has not actually been successful in solving
the problem of accessibility of education completely, because the indicator above figures
do not represent accessibility to all citizens of elementary and junior high school age.
Based on the National Socio Economic Survey (NSES) 2004, showed that the enrollment
rates of children aged 7-12 years is 96.77 percent, age 13-15 years reached 83.49 percent,
and children aged 16-18 years 53.48 percent . The results of the 2004 UNDP study,
which was later published in the Human Development Index Report of 2006, also showed
similar symptoms. Enrollment ratio is on average only reaches 68.4 percent. In fact, there
are still about 9.6 percent of the population aged 15 years and above are illiterate.
2.2.2.      Damage           to         Facilities   /         Infrastructure      Classrooms
Educational facilities is one of the main factors affecting the success of education. With
the damage to facilities and classrooms in large numbers, so how can the educational
process                can                  take               place               effectively?
For example, the problems that occurred in West Java. Based on proposals submitted
Regency / City-West Java Number of facilities / infrastructure damaged schools and the
immediate need of rehabilitation, the rehabilitation needs of as many as 42 492 primary
school classrooms, as many as 6523 MI classrooms, junior high school classrooms as
much        as      6767,         and         2729       MTs       of      space       classes.
According to Dr Jabar Kadisdik. H. Dadang Dally, M.Si (PR, 07.15.2005), based on
records of expenses for each year in West Java Province need to add the cost of
rehabilitating the building and SD / MI just need a fund of Rp 251 billion, consisting of
as many as 792 additional classroom space valued Rp 31.6 billion, total rehab classroom
space as much as 4317 valued at USD 129.5 billion and rehabilitation of classrooms as
much as 6045 was Rp 90.6 billion. Then the need to prevent and control the cost of DO at
the SD / MI of Rp 149.8 billion. Thus for the construction and rehabilitation costs plus a
drop out prevention SD / MI alone each year to Rp 410 billion. While the ability of the
government budget for education development in West Java are only able to anticipate
both. The ability of these areas for the development of education each year is only
between $ 5 billion to USD 25 billion, the budget will only cover minimal needs.
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The claim that local governments in western Java environment has a limited ability to
provide the education budget as disclosed above, of a correction for the government
itself, which is why it has been allocated to other programs allocation is large enough, but
to a much smaller educational programs. As such the City of London 2007 budget
allocation for the London soccer team Arsenal which is more than a hobby and scattering
rates in the construction program was reached Rp 15 billion, even that number is still
considered                                                                       insufficient.
2.2.3.               Number                  of              teacher                shortage
Terselenggarannya columns supporting teachers as an educational system, is one of the
strategic components that also need attention by the state. For example, in terms of
placement of teachers, that until now the number of teachers felt by society and
government              itself          is          still           very             lacking.
for example within the scope of West Java by Drs. H. IIM Wasliman, M.Pd., M.Sc.
(Kadisdik Jabar in 2002) that the condition of inadequate number of teachers compared to
the existing needs are often asked. Not only at the local level, but also has become a
national issue. In West Java alone, approximately 64 thousand are still needed to fill the
shortage of teachers in schools. With details, 40 thousand teachers for primary schools
(SD), 18 thousand for the junior high school (junior high), six thousand for the public
high school (SMU), and secondary vocational schools (SMK). Lack of teachers is clearly
a serious problem because the teacher is spearheading education. The teacher shortage
makes the burden of the pile so it could potentially result in declining quality of
Meanwhile, Danny Setiawan said that currently there are as many as 88 500 teacher
shortage problem more particularly to basic education in West Java, while on the other
side as much as 48 000 are awaiting the appointment of teacher aides, which issues the
appointment of teachers to civil servants (PNS) is the central authority. For a while,
through the provincial budget has budgeted jabar teachers are given a temporary help
allowance of Rp 1 million per person. However, the numbers are only about 1500 of
course we still have not been able to cover the shortfall of 80 thousand more.
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2.3                     Management                       and                     Efficiency
Management and efficiency issues such as education are grouped based on three things:
2.3.1.     Performance        and      Welfare      of     Teachers        Not     Optimal
Welfare of teachers is an important aspect that must be considered by the government in
supporting the creation of improved performance among educators. Under Law
No.14/2005 on Teachers and Lecturers, Article 14 to 16 mentions of the Rights and
Obligations of them, that the rights of teachers in income is above the subsistence
minimum and social welfare, get promotions and awards, various facilities to improve
competence, various allowances such as allowance, functional, special allowances for
teachers in special areas, as well as various additional welfare beneficiaries.
The Act does little to bring fresh air to the welfare of the community of educators, but the
realization was not as sweet as the wording. For example, Reuters (06/02/2007) reported
that some teachers in the City of London deplored the statement of the Minister of
National Education is planning to aggravate receiving regular incentive and associate
with the certification requirements. View of some of these objections are leveled
Chairman Indonesian Teachers Association (PGRI) Bandung Kustiwa and Secretary
General of the Independent Teachers Action Forum (FAGI) Bandung Iwan Hermawan.
Both agreed that the functional benefits not related at all with the teacher certification
requirements. This is because the existence of a functional and professional allowances in
principle was not really related to each other. More functional benefits are considered as
the policy is automatically attached to the teaching profession, despite the extent of the
relevant professional. So, clearly different from the allowance which, in principle, aimed
at          spurring           the           professionalism          of           teachers.
The low well-being of teachers have a role in making the low quality of education in
Indonesia. Based on the survey FGII (Independent Teachers Federation Indonesia) in
mid-2005, ideally a teacher receives a monthly salary of Rp 3 million rupiah serbesar.
Now, the average income per month of civil service teachers of Rp 1.5 million. teacher
aides Rp, 460 thousand, and part time teachers in private schools an average of Rp 10
thousand per hour. With revenues like that, face it, many teachers are forced to do the
job. There is teaching again at another school, giving lessons in the afternoon, a
motorcycle taxi drivers, merchants cooked noodles, booksellers / LKS, traders pulse
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phones, etc. (Reuters, July 13, 2005). Welfare issues will have implications for the
teacher usually does the performance in implementing the educational process.
Teachers as educational personnel also have a central role in the implementation of an
educational system. As a job, of being a teacher is also expected to obtain adequate
compensation for the necessities of life. In motivation theory, providing an appropriate
reward and punishment is a matter that can affect the performance and quality in work,
including the need for welfare benefits for educators in order to improve the quality and
the quality of education that still sinking. In terms of benefits, it should get the benefit of
the human teacher to meet the various needs of life given the role of a teacher who was so
heavily          in          trying         to           educate            a              generation.

2.3.2             The                 Conventional                 Learning                   Process
In terms of implementation of the learning process, as long as these schools provide
education to all the limitations that exist. This is influenced by the availability of
infrastructure, availability of funds, as well as the ability of teachers to develop models
for                                     effective                                            learning.
In the PP No. 19/2005 on national education standards in article 19 to 22 of the standard
educational process, that process of learning in the educational unit organized in an
interactive, inspiring, fun, challenging, motivating learners to actively participate and
provide enough space for innovation, creativity, and independence in accordance with
their talents, interests, and physical and psychological development of students. The
existence of exemplary educators, lack of planning, implementation, evaluation, and
supervision     of      effective     and    efficient      in      the         learning     process.
Based on the standards set above, then the learning process is done between learners with
educators should have to abandon the ways and conventional models so as to achieve the
learning              objectives            effectively               and                  efficiently
It is appropriate profession as an educator requires a competency that integrates both
intellectual-academic, social, pedagogical, and professionalism are all based on an
integrated personality as well, so that in carrying out its function as educators continue to
develop                                                                                       models
effective              learning,            innovative,                   and                relevant.
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3.       The    number      and      quality         of      the     book    Not    Sufficient
Availability of quality books is one of the most important educational infrastructure
needed to support the success of the educational process. As in PP No. 19/2005 of the
SNP in article 42 of the Standard Infrastructure stated that each unit must have a means
of education which includes furniture, educational equipment, educational media, books
and other learning resources, consumables, and other necessary equipment to support the
learning       process     is     orderly           and      sustainable    (paragraph      1).
Technically, the procurement of school textbooks no longer be done by the school by
selling books to students is free, but must comply with yag source book recommended by
the government. In 2007, the government through the Chairman of the Work Unit
Subsidy Reduction Compensation Program (PPP) of 2007 BOS BOS funds will be
disbursed for the 2006 book had absorbed it all. Although the uptake of funds reporting
BOS 2006 book has not entered any fuel to the PIU PKPS district / city level. Unit cost
for each student of this book BOS Rp 22,000 is earmarked to buy a single type of book.
So if you added up the book BOS funds, both for elementary and junior high school
students around Rp 131.088 billion. In addition, books purchased must also comply with
the regulations issued by the government through the Minister of National Education
(Permendiknas) No. 11 of 2005. The number of publishers who have earned a certificate
and appropriate according to the Decree No.. 11 of 2005 as many as 98 publishers and
hundreds of titles. The 98 issuers if specified, for math book publishers as much as 31
publishers, the Indonesian language by 45 publishers, and English by 22 publishers
(www.    ,                   February          8,           2007).
2.3.4.           Implementation                of             Autonomous            Education
The government has set a policy of educational autonomy, as it refers to the Law
No.20/2003 on National Education System in Article 53 of Legal Education which states:
(1) Operator and / or formal education unit established by the Government or
incorporated community education. (2) educational legal entities referred to in paragraph
(1) function is to provide educational services to students. (3) educational legal entities
referred to in paragraph (1) principled non-profit and can manage on their own funds to
advance the education unit. (4) The provisions on education legal entity governed by its
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own                                                                                      laws.
Based on the above article is for education is no longer the responsibility of the state but
rather left to the institution itself. In explanation of article 3, paragraph 2 Legal Education
Bill mentioned that independence in the provision of education is a condition to be
achieved through the establishment of BHP, by implementing school-based management
/ madrasah in elementary and secondary education, as well as autonomy in higher
education. Only with independence, education can foster creativity, innovation, quality,
flexibility, and mobility.

2.3.5                Limitations                   of               the                Budget
Availability of adequate budget in the delivery of education greatly affects the
sustainability of the organization. Education budget provisions set forth in Law
No.20/2003 on National Education System in Article 49 of the Education Fund
Allocation which states that education funding in addition to salaries of teachers and
education service costs are allocated at least 20% of the State Budget (Budget) in the
education sector and minimal 20% of Budget Revenue and Expenditure (Budget) (verse
Other problems are also important to note is the reason the government to attempt to
realize the education budget of 20% in stages because the government lacks the ability to
allocate 20% as well as from the state budget / budget. Whereas a wealth of natural
resources either in the form of biological, energy, minerals and abundant very large
numbers. But as far as handling the return of capitalistic wealth is actually seized by the
experts                       of                        capital                       owners.

2.3.5.              HR                Manager                 Quality               Education
Resource management education is not just a teacher or principal, but all the resources
that are directly involved in the management of an educational unit. The low quality of
education in a practical HR manager can certainly hamper the sustainability of a quality
educational process, so the dam synchronization adaptation to various education quality
improvement              program            will           also            run           slow.
By understanding the basic framework of national education which is based on
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secularism, the standard of management education in nasionalpun be in line with the
secularism, such as MBS and autonomy to the mechanism of PT as mentioned above
which        is           the        implementation            of          educational        autonomy.
2.4                             Relevance                           of                            education
2.4.1.             Immature                    Life            Skill                 The             Match
In relation to the life skill produced by learners after taking an educational process, and
based on the PP No.19/2005 as in article 13 that: 1) curriculum for SMP / MTs / SMPLB
or other equivalent form, SMA / MA / SMALB or other equivalent form, SMK / MAK or
other equivalent forms may include life skills education. 2) life skills education which
shall    include      social        skills,      academic      skills,         and   vocational      skills.
The criteria for assessment of learning outcomes can be done by educators, educational
units, and government. Assessment of learning outcomes by educators in article 64,
among others, assessment of learning outcomes group of religious subjects, noble, noble
character and citizenship education is done through: a. observation of changes in
behavior and attitude to assess the affective and personality development of students, as
well. b. Quizzes, exams, and or the assignment to measure the cognitive aspects of
learners. Assessment of the study group of subjects in science and technology is
measured by tests, assignments, and or other forms in accordance with the characteristics
of                  the                       material                    being                   assessed.
Based on the foregoing, it is in creating a life skill is expected of students is the measure
used in the assessments. But the reality on the contrary it shows that the correlation
between education during this process with the formation of personality of students is in
question? The case of fighting between students, free sex, drugs, and various other social
issues        are               relevant          indicators             for         this         question.
2.4.2. Education Not Based On The Potential of Community and Regional
Structure of the curriculum set by Law No.20/2003 on the Curriculum in Article 36
states: (1) Development of curriculum in accordance to national standards of education to
achieve national education goals. (2) The curriculum at all levels and types of education
developed in accordance with the principle of diversification of the educational unit, the
potential of the area, and learners. (3) The curriculum prepared in accordance with the
level of education within the framework of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia with
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respect to: a. an increase in faith and piety; b. enhancement of noble character; c.
increasing the potential, intelligence, and interests of learners; d. diversity and
environmental potential of the area; e. demands of regional and national development; f.
demands of the workplace; g. development of science, technology, and art; h. religion; i.
dynamics of global development, and j. national unity and national values. (4) Provisions
on curriculum development as referred to in paragraph (1), paragraph (2), and paragraph
(3)     shall      be      further        stipulated   by      Government         Regulation.
In the PP No.19/2005 include in section 6 which states: 1) The curriculum for this type of
general education, vocational, and special education in elementary and secondary level
consists of groups of subjects of religion and noble character, citizenship and noble
character, science and technological, aesthetic, physical, sports and health. 6). Curriculum
and syllabus SD / MI / SDLB / Package A, or other forms of stress the importance of
equal ability and passion to read and write. Numeracy skills, as well as the ability to
Communities and neighborhoods are integrated part of the students as learners. The
actual educational process necessarily involves the role of family, neighborhood,
community and school, so that if one is not going well then it could affect the
sustainability                       of                  education                       itself.

2.4.3 is not yet optimal Partnership With World Business / World Industry
Related to the role of society in education in article 54 of Law No.20/2005 on National
Education System of Public Participation in Education states: (1) Community
participation in education include the role of individuals, groups, families, professional
organizations, employers, and community organizations in implementation and quality
control of educational services. (2) The public may participate as a resource,
implementers, and users of educational outcomes. (3) The provisions on public
participation as set forth in paragraph (1) and paragraph (2) shall be further stipulated by
Government                                                                        Regulation.
It is precisely this moment of vulnerability raises the bill is to BHP, the role of the private
sector (employers) gain broader access to management education, so what it would be a
partnership with the DU / IN is apparently putting the company entrepreneur or as a party
Makalah problematika system pendidikan indonesia                                        15

that invests in educational institutions by demanding the return of the investment is worth
it? This condition will ultimately strengthen the sustainability of the capitalization of


3.1. Fundamental Problems Solutions
Completion of the fundamental problems must be fundamental. The settlement can only
be realized by performing a thorough overhaul of the paradigm shift that begins from a
secular education into Islamic paradigm. It is very important and major. That is, once the
underlying problem resolved, then the various branches of education issues resolved,
whether it's a problem of accessibility of education, relevance of education, management
and efficiency, to quality education
Fundamental problem that the solution is to do a systemic approach that simultaneously
make a paradigm shift in the administration of a capitalistic economic system becomes
un-Islamic, social order is permissive and hedonistic become Islamic, opportunistic
political order to be Islamic, and secular ideologies-capitalism became mabda Islam, so
that changes in the education system can also be converted into a materialistic education
based on Islamic Shari'a and aqeedah according to their characteristics. These
improvements also need to continue in improving aspects of formality, by regulation
made on the concept of education based on Islamic Shariah.
One of the real shape of the fundamental solution is to change the total Education System
Law is there a way to replace it with the Education System Law (Sharia) of Islam. The
most fundamental thing that must be changed of course, is the principle of the education
system. Because the principle of the education system that determines the principal
matters in the education system, such as educational goals and curriculum structure.
3.2 Derivatives Solution To Problems
As described above, in addition to the fundamental problem, the education system in
Indonesia is also experiencing problems branches, among others:
1) The limited accessibility and capacity,
2) Damage to infrastructure,
3) Lack of teachers,
4) Performance and welfare of teachers who have not been optimal,
5) The learning process is conventional,
6) The number and quality of books that have not been adequate,
7) educational autonomy. Budget constraints
9) Quality Management Human Resource Education
10) Life skills are not generated as needed
11) are not community-based education and the environment
12) Partnership with the DU / IN
To menyelasaikan branch issues above, including also still can not be separated from the
settlement of the underlying problem. So in this case include an outline there are two
solutions, namely:
First, systemic solutions, ie solutions with changing social systems related to the
Makalah problematika system pendidikan indonesia                                          16

education system, among others: economic systems, political systems, social systems,
ideologies, and others. Thus, the economic application of Shariah in place of the capitalist
or socialist economies will harmonize government and society paradigm for organizing
education as one of the state's obligation to its people, with no aggravating or a charge of
discrimination against people who do not have the financial resources (capital) .
Application of the political system of Islam as a substitute for the secular political system
will provide the political paradigm and frame made by authorities and society as a form
of struggle to guarantee the implementation of a variety of settings including the needs of
the people by the ruler of them in the field of education. So rather than otherwise afflict
the ummah by forcing them to serve the ruler. Application of the Islamic social system
social system instead of hedonistic and permissive will be able to condition the public to
have a high awareness of the obligations tied to the laws of Shari'ah that synergize their
role in education in schools is to provide role models of the application of educational
values obtained by students at the school.
Second, technical solutions, ie solutions to resolve the internal problems in the
administration of the education system. Among them:
Strictly speaking, the government must have a commitment to allocate funding of
national education in adequate quantities obtained from the results of the exploitation of
abundant natural resources that belong to the ummah. With the availability of such funds,
then pemerintahpun can solve the problems of accessibility of education by providing
free education to all school-aged people and those who do not attend school for basic
education level (primary and junior) and secondary (high school), even should also
continue on the college level high. recruit the number of teaching staff as needed in the
field along with the guarantee of prosperity and respect for them. Construction of a viable
infrastructure to support quality teaching and learning process. Curriculum based on the
values of Shari'ah (Qur'an and Sunnah). Prohibit any form of capitalization and
commercialization of education by both government and society, and guarantee the
implementation of a quality education to produce graduates who are able to live the life
of the world with all its progress (after mastering science and technology skills as well as
good art from Islamic and hadara 'am) and prepare them to receive their portion in life in
the hereafter with a mastery of tsaqofah Islam and other Islamic sciences.
3.3 Solution of Education figures
His teacher was the son of a competent, farmer / rancher / artisans / entrepreneurs
succeed in their area. Government / community areas only need to recruit 2 people and
PSYCHOLOGIST PAEDAGOGE per district to develop curriculum based on the
BUSINESS POTENTIAL. The library is focused on the development potential of areas
such ini.Dengan, education or schools to be places where BUSINESS benar2 born, turned
on and implemented in the real world to turn Kesholehan Kesholehan Social and
Regional Economics. [Harry Santosa]
Education level and economic level of the teacher / lecturer should be increased as an
incentive in the teaching process as well as a growing number of schools that have
adequate facilities, but still too large poverty gap between schools in urban and rural.
"The most urgent priority now, according to government Syamsul is the improvement of
salaries, curriculum improvements, fixes the rules / regulations, and the distribution of
government subsidies in a fair and thorough. In addition, the ability of teachers and
lecturers themselves must be improved both through intensive training and self-learning
Makalah problematika system pendidikan indonesia                                           17

such as research, writing in journals, etc.. Should the things like this that should be raised
by the government to improve the quality of the educators themselves. Good educators
mean good education and is expected to produce the graduates who are qualified and
ready to work. (Syamsul Rakhmadani Arief, a teaching staff at INTI College)
Mengutif of DR.H.Arief Rahman, MPd, as Executive Chairman of Indonesian National
Commission for UNESCO is the UN agency, is the Quality of Teachers. Where the
welfare of their teachers should be noted and corrected, academics should also be
repaired, the pattern of teaching must also be repaired. Nation and the country also have
contributed in a big mistake for education in Indonesia. My point is as if all the major
issues in education is charged or addressed to the Government, even though it is the
responsibility of the whole people of Indonesia as well, or our shared responsibility. Let
me give an example, if there is something wrong in the world system of education we
should first ask ourselves about the issue, and we are trying to positively and actively
participate in advancing the education system in Indonesia. Do not just blame the
government alone. In this case it just gives the government signs a flexible education that
we can discuss with rembukan or to the changes or additions in the rambu2 ".
Arifin said O'Donnell who idolized Mr.Peter one senior lecturer at Monash University
first, there are two things that the biggest challenge for education in Indonesia is facing
an era of globalization the world today. The first is technology. The lack of knowledge of
technology is affecting the ability of educators. I am sure that many teachers are not
aware of any internet while the students are technology-aware. The second, plus the
influx of overseas school syllabus. These challenges can have a positive and a negative
impact, depending on which perspective we look at it. Syllabus from abroad is not
entirely perfect as it is thought by many, many things that are not in accordance with the
conditions of Indonesia. But on the other hand, overseas plus school syllabus and will
provide added value and will probably make a warning that the era of globalization has
truly arrived. And we hope the government has regulations governing school syllabus
plus and its

4.1. conclusion
Sporadic visits team, will not be able to find the problem (education) is real poor.
Required a permanent team that is known and coherent with government agencies in the
province, the city district to district. The team should be capable to do:
A. Direct observation and study together that involves: education expert, masarakat
leaders (educators) villages, as well as dialogue with the duafa, immediately.
2. Formulation of Local Content Curriculum program in schools, and educational
programs outside the school that is really useful for people (poor) to attend school or stay
in the Nagari Patronage. Although it is not all villages are poor people and rich people
usually require local content and programming skills are different from the urgent needs
Makalah problematika system pendidikan indonesia                                        18

of the poor.
3. Initiation of the implementation of education (local curriculum) and PLS training,
which is simple applied technology, programmed and implemented by tidy.
4.2 advice
A. In order for coaching the team membership is not too flow, often mutually, and each
team member who fell into the country able to provide clear input to the leading sector of
development. It would be great if members of the team's coaching villages thought to be
'permanent team of cross-cutting' the master problems (health, education and community
economy), with a Letter of Assignment from the Governor.
2. There should be an intense communication between community leaders and
government villages with the team. Also needed forum discussion of various alternative
activities on offer, to overcome the various problems.
3. Serious effort to encourage students to become readers should be started immediately,
either in schools or through the PLS. So that the guidance to all levels of masarakat can
be done easily.
Makalah problematika system pendidikan indonesia                                   19

                                 DAFTAR PUSTAKA

      UU No.20/2003 Tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional
      PP No. 19/2005 Tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan
      Permendiknas No. 45/2006 Tentang UN Tahun Ajaran 2006/2007.
      Media Cetak : Kompas,5/9/2001; Pikiran Rakyat, 06/10/2002; Republika,
       10/5/2005; Republika, 13/7/2005; Pikiran Rakyat,15/07/2005; Kompas, 6/2/2007;
       Koran Tempo, 07/03/2007.
      Website : www.suara juli 2004; ;;; (Senin
       12/2/07);; www.Pikiran (03/2004); www., (08 Februari 2007);
       (; (8/3/2007)

      Al-Baghdadi, Abdurrahman. 1996. Sistem Pendidikan di Masa Khilafah Islam.
       Bangil-Jatim: Al-Izzah

      Muhamad Shidiq Al-Jawi. Pendidikan Di Indonesia, Masalah dan Solusinya.

      Panduan KKN Wajar Dikdas 9 Tahun, UPI 2006.

      Bulletin Epitech 2006, Disdik Prov.Jabar.
      Blog:; makalah pendidikan tahun 2007
      Blog: tahun
      Blog:
      Harian surat Kabar Online:
      Harian Bisnis indonesia:
      Harian Kompas Online:
      Harian Pikiran Rakyat Online:

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