Nonfiction looks different from fiction In addition to a chapter title, there are headings and possible subheadings throughout the text. There are often a variety of fonts and type sizes on each page Words in a paragraph may be boldfaced or italicized. Pronunciation keys Graphic aids are usually included. They explain the information in the text or give additional information and must be examined carefully with attention to captions and label. The topic being discussed probably contains unfamiliar vocabulary that is specific to a subject area and not likely to be heard in general conversation. There are often multisyllabic words that may be hard to pronounce. There is a great deal of information to be understood and remembered. Preview – look at the whole article to see what you will be learning about. Read the title – it tells you the topic of the article Read the deck or introduction and the headings/subheadings to find out the main idea you’re going to read about – they are clues that let you know what to expect. Predict what you are going to read about. Say to yourself . . . “This article is about . . .” Notice the special features – are there diagrams, maps, charts?? These graphic aids illustrate what you’re read or add new information. Don’t skip them! While reading the article – look for helpful features in the text – boldfaced type (signals important vocabulary), pronunciations (helps you with difficult words. If the author directs you to a graphic aid – stop reading and to go that diagram, picture, map, or chart. Read any captions that are included. Start with preparing a KWL chart List things you KNOW, What you WANT to know, and what you LEARNED Review the vocabulary – get use to the terminology that goes along with the subject. Highlight main ideas and important facts 1. What clues helped you figure out the text structure? The text structure is compare/contrast. The deck (or introduction) was a clue that people did not agree about what could be done for endangered wolves. Also, the heading “The Wolf Debate” was a clue that the article was also going to compare and contrast different opinions about endangered wolves. 2. How did knowing the text structure help you? The reader is able to understand and remember why some people were in favor of releasing wolves in the wild, and others were against it. Nonfiction is organized in ways called text structure. Most articles use these types of text structure: o compare and contrast o present information in a sequence of steps o put forth a problem and offer solutions o provide detailed description o explain the cause and effect of an event 3. What new information did the diagram add? The diagram showed how the food chain works, so you could understand the part the wolves play in the ecosystem. 4. Why was the map included? It shows at a glance the areas where wolves are found now and where activist want to return them. You can also see that there are not many areas in the US where wolves live, especially compared to Canada. 5. What side of the debate would you be on if you lived near a wilderness area? Personal opinion Ranchers and Farmers Activists Wolves may attack There is no evident them that wolves attack Wolves have attacked people livestock Wolves may attack livestock if they don’t have enough food. Ranchers and farmers will be paid if any livestock are killed. Migration: movement from one region to settle in another Drought: a lack of rain for a long period of time Mortgage: the use of property as security against a loan Impoverished: made poor 1. How did knowing the text structure of Black Blizzard help you? Guided my reading to look for causes and effects of the dust storms. 2. Why was the Dust Bowl so badly hit by the drought in the 1930s? The area was mostly wild grasses which held the soil together. The grasses were destroyed by the crops that framers planted. When the crops dried up from a lack of rain, there was nothing to hold the soil together, and it was blown away by the heavy winds. 3. Did the Okies find the better life they hoped for in the West? Explain. No, they did not find a better life. There were no jobs in the West because of the depression, and so native Californians did not want competition from the newcomers. Also, most of the Okies could not afford decent housing, and were forced to live in camps under very harsh conditions. 4. Why was a dust storm called a black blizzard? Like a blizzard, a dust storm blows and blots out the sky and the landscape with its black dust and dirt. 5. What did the primary source accounts add to your understanding? I learned details about the hardships and feelings from an actual migrant. Nonfiction is organized in ways called text structure. Figuring out how a selection is structured will help them organize their thinking as they read. The writer begins by describing what a dust storm is like. The writer goes on to describe the effects of the dust storms that tool place in the 1930’s. Then the writer asks “How did this happen?” That tells me I’m going to read about the causes of the dust storms and the migration. So as I continue to read, I’ll look for causes and effects. CAUSE: in 1931-1935 there was a drought in the Plains states. EFFECTS: Crops failed and farmers had no income soil became dry and loose. CAUSE: Wind storms blew away topsoil. EFFECT: Farm families moved West. The area became a Dust Bowl. Ellis Island 1900-1924 Angel Island 1910-1940 European Immigration Asian Immigration center center Long stay New York San Francisco, CA East Coast West Coast Short stay Immigration centers Early 1900s Given test Ellis Island Today Angel Island Today National landmark Not a national landmark 1965 – given to the 1962 made a California National Park Service State Park Museum Restored Millions of visitors each year Write a summary of the article - include what is being proposed to save endangered wolves and the point of view of each group involved in the debate. The opening sentence should include the title of the article being referred to (In the article “Return of the Wolves” . . . Paraphrase the 1st question (animal activists are proposing . . . ) In a compare and contrast each side should be presented separately with a smooth transition: The ranchers and farmers point of view is . . . However the activists . . .
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