Introduction to Nonfiction by zhouwenjuan


									Nonfiction looks different from fiction
 In addition to a chapter title, there are
headings and possible subheadings
throughout the text.
 There are often a variety of fonts and type
sizes on each page
 Words in a paragraph may be boldfaced or
 Pronunciation keys
 Graphic aids are usually included. They
explain the information in the text or give
additional information and must be examined
carefully with attention to captions and label.

The topic being discussed probably contains
unfamiliar vocabulary that is specific to a
subject area and not likely to be heard in
general conversation. There are often
multisyllabic words that may be hard to

There is a great deal of information to be
understood and remembered.
   Preview – look at the whole article to see what
    you will be learning about.
   Read the title – it tells you the topic of the
   Read the deck or introduction and the
    headings/subheadings to find out the main
    idea you’re going to read about – they are
    clues that let you know what to expect.
   Predict what you are going to read about. Say
    to yourself . . . “This article is about . . .”
   Notice the special features – are there
    diagrams, maps, charts?? These graphic aids
    illustrate what you’re read or add new
    information. Don’t skip them!
   While reading the article – look for helpful
    features in the text – boldfaced type (signals
    important vocabulary), pronunciations (helps
    you with difficult words.
   If the author directs you to a graphic aid –
    stop reading and to go that diagram, picture,
    map, or chart. Read any captions that are
   Start with preparing a KWL chart
      List things you KNOW, What you WANT to know, and
       what you LEARNED
 Review the vocabulary – get use to the
terminology that goes along with the subject.
 Highlight main ideas and important facts
1. What clues helped you figure out the text structure?
The text structure is compare/contrast. The deck (or
introduction) was a clue that people did not agree about what
could be done for endangered wolves. Also, the heading “The
Wolf Debate” was a clue that the article was also going to
compare and contrast different opinions about endangered

2. How did knowing the text structure help you?
The reader is able to understand and remember why some
people were in favor of releasing wolves in the wild, and others
were against it.
   Nonfiction is organized in ways called text
    structure. Most articles use these types of
    text structure:
        o   compare and contrast
        o   present information in a sequence of steps
        o   put forth a problem and offer solutions
        o   provide detailed description
        o   explain the cause and effect of an event
3. What new information did the diagram add?
The diagram showed how the food chain
works, so you could understand the part the
wolves play in the ecosystem.

4. Why was the map included?
It shows at a glance the areas where wolves are
found now and where activist want to return them.
You can also see that there are not many areas in
the US where wolves live, especially compared to

5. What side of the debate would you be on if you
  lived near a wilderness area? Personal opinion
    Ranchers and Farmers              Activists
   Wolves may attack         There is no evident
    them                       that wolves attack
   Wolves have attacked       people
    livestock                 Wolves may attack
                               livestock if they don’t
                               have enough food.
                               Ranchers and farmers
                               will be paid if any
                               livestock are killed.
 Migration: movement from one region to
settle in another
 Drought: a lack of rain for a long period of
 Mortgage: the use of property as security
against a loan
 Impoverished: made poor
1. How did knowing the text structure of Black Blizzard help you?
Guided my reading to look for causes and effects of the dust storms.

2. Why was the Dust Bowl so badly hit by the drought in the 1930s?
The area was mostly wild grasses which held the soil together. The grasses were destroyed
by the crops that framers planted. When the crops dried up from a lack of rain, there
was nothing to hold the soil together, and it was blown away by the heavy winds.

3. Did the Okies find the better life they hoped for in the West? Explain.
No, they did not find a better life. There were no jobs in the West because of the
depression, and so native Californians did not want competition from the newcomers.
Also, most of the Okies could not afford decent housing, and were forced to live in camps
under very harsh conditions.

4. Why was a dust storm called a black blizzard?
Like a blizzard, a dust storm blows and blots out the sky and the landscape with its black
dust and dirt.

5. What did the primary source accounts add to your understanding?
I learned details about the hardships and feelings from an actual migrant.
   Nonfiction is organized in ways called text
    structure. Figuring out how a selection is
    structured will help them organize their
    thinking as they read.
      The writer begins by describing what a dust storm is like.
       The writer goes on to describe the effects of the dust
       storms that tool place in the 1930’s. Then the writer asks
       “How did this happen?” That tells me I’m going to read
       about the causes of the dust storms and the migration.
       So as I continue to read, I’ll look for causes and effects.
CAUSE: in 1931-1935 there was a drought in
 the Plains states.

EFFECTS: Crops failed and farmers had no
 income soil became dry and loose.

CAUSE: Wind storms blew away topsoil.

EFFECT: Farm families moved West. The area
became a Dust Bowl.
Ellis Island 1900-1924   Angel Island 1910-1940

European Immigration     Asian Immigration center
center                   Long stay
New York                 San Francisco, CA
East Coast               West Coast
Short stay

               Immigration centers
                  Early 1900s
                   Given test
Ellis Island Today              Angel Island Today

National landmark               Not a national landmark
1965 – given to the             1962 made a California
National Park Service            State Park

                     Millions of visitors
                          each year
Write a summary of the article - include what is being proposed
to save endangered wolves and the point of view of each group
involved in the debate.
   The opening sentence should include the title of
    the article being referred to (In the article “Return
    of the Wolves” . . .
   Paraphrase the 1st question (animal activists are
    proposing . . . )
   In a compare and contrast each side should be
    presented separately with a smooth transition:
      The ranchers and farmers point of view is . . .
      However the activists . . .

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