Symbiosis Notes Sept. 2009

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Symbiosis Notes Sept. 2009 Powered By Docstoc
					Symbiosis Notes
To the reader, - a monthly summary of the literature
There has been a great increase in the amount of research on symbiotic associations in recent years. Symbiosis Notes is a newsletter that will let you keep track of all this literature. Each month we will harvest the hundreds of papers on symbiosis, catalog them and provide news reports on their contents. We will also provide book reviews, death notices and other announcements. Even if you have access to a research-university library, you will find this publication a convenient time-saver. The newsletter is free. To receive each month’s issue send a message to and write “subscribe” in the message line. Then in the body of the message include your postal mailing address. We would also welcome any comments, suggestions or material for inclusion in the newsletter.

No. 1 Sept. 2009

Wasp dependency on Wolbachia has no effect on density of mitochondria
A comparison of two species of parasitic wasps of Drosophila found no relation between the wasps’ dependency on their strains of Wolbachia, the endosymbiotic bacterium, and the density of mitochondria in the wasp cells. Mouton, Henri and Fleury of the University of Lyon concluded that the two cell components “function independently of each other as the result of a long-term coevolutionary interaction.”

Antibiotic targets Wolbachia, helps reduce hydrocele in filariasis patients
The antibiotic doxycycline, when given prior to chemotherapy, reduces the Wolbachia-load, microfilaremia and severity of hydrocele, a swelling of the scrotum, in patients who have lymphatic filariasis, according to a recent report in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The authors, from Bonn, Liverpool and the Kwame Nkrumah University in Ghana, where the study took place, report a significant decrease in plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A in the antibiotic-treated patients, and believe high levels of the growth factor increase the risk of developing hydrocele.

Green algal genes make up 16 percent of diatom genome
A paper by Debashish Bhattacharya and others in the June 26 issue of Science revealed that diatoms contain more than 1700 green algal genes, believed to be from “a cryptic endosymbiont related to prasinophyte-like green algae.” The finding adds a further twist to the evolution of the diatoms, which previously had incorporated a red algal plastid.

Rice seedling blight toxin produced by bacterial endosymbiont of fungus
Researchers from Jena, Germany, who found that endosymbiotic bacteria of the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizopus microsporus were the source of the phytotoxin rhizoxin, have concluded that all the endosymbionts involved in the association are of the Burkholderia rhizoxinica complex. The report by Christian Hertweck and others from the Hans Knöll Institute and the Friedrich Schiller University, is published in the May issue of Applied and Environmental Microbiology. ____________________________________________________ Advertisement

Two bacteria discovered as regular associates of cold-water coral
German and Norwegian investigators have found two bacterial associates of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa in the Trondheimsfjord, according to a report in the March issue of Applied and Environmental Microbiology. The two organisms are “Candidatus Mycoplasma corallicola” found on the host’s tentacle ectoderm and an undescribed bacterium that forms long filaments in the animal’s gastric cavity. The two bacteria were associated with all specimens of the coral examined.

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Symbiodinium infection of coral has no effect on host’s transcriptome
In a comparison of Symbiodinium strains that differ in their ability to infect the corals Acropora palmate and Montastraea faveolata, researchers from the University of California, Merced, Vassar College, UNC Wilmington and SUNY Buffalo found that “the coral host transcriptome remains almost unchanged during infection by competent symbionts, but is massively altered by symbionts that fail to establish symbioses.”


New worm-gut dwelling bacterium named Serratia nematodiphila
Investigators from the Nanjing Agricultural University in China have isolated a red-pigment- forming species of Serratia from the intestine of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditidoides chongmingensis. The organism is motile, fluorescent, rod-shaped and has a single lateral flagellum.

Lee, J.Y., Ryan, U.M., Jefferies, R., McInnes, L.M., Forshaw, D., Friend, J.A. and Irwin, P.J. 2009. Theileria gilberti n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Theileriidae) in the Gilbert’s potoroo (Potorous gilbertii). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56: 290-295. Parsons, M., Karnataki, A. and Derocher, A.E. 2009. Evolving insights into protein trafficking to the multiple compartments of the apicomplexan plastid. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56: 214-220.

Reef coral-bleaching an attempt to minimize metabolic imbalance
The reduction of photosynthetic production by zooxanthellae is the most direct way for reef coral to minimize metabolic imbalance due to environmental stress, and leads to coral bleaching, according to a recent paper in Marine Pollution Bulletin. “Bleaching meets the requirements of a stress response syndrome/general adaptive mechanism that is sensitive to internal states rather than external parameters,” writes the author, D.O. Obura of CORDIO East Africa in Kenya.

Markov, A.V., Lazebny, O.E., Goryacheva, I.I., Antipin, M.I. and Kulikov, A.M. 2009. Symbiotic bacteria affect mating choice in Drosophila melanogaster. Animal Behaviour 77: 1011-1017. Médoc, V., Rigaud, T., Bollache, L. and Beisel, J.-N. 2009. A manipulative parasite increasing an antipredator response decreases its vulnerability to a nonhost predator. 2009. Animal Behaviour 77: 1235-1241.

Chemoautotrophic symbioses

Death notices:
Margaret Elizabeth Barr Bigelow, mycologist
Mycologia 101: 281-283.

Brissac, T., Gros, O. and Mercot, H. 2009. Lack of endosymbiont release by two Lucinidae (Bivalvia) of the genus Codakia: consequences for symbiotic relationships. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 67: 261-267. Caro, A., Got, P., Bouvy, M. et al., 2009. Effects of long-term starvation on a host bivalve (Codakia orbicularis, Lucinidae) and its symbiont population. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 3304-3313. Duperron, S., Lorion, J., Samadi, S., Gros, O. and Gaill, F. 2009. Symbioses between deep-sea mussels (Mytilidae: Bathymodiolinae) and chemosynthetic bacteria: diversity, function and evolution. Comptes Rendus Biologies 332: 298310. Minic, Z. 2009. Organisms of deep sea hydrothermal vents as a source for studying adaptation and evolution. Symbiosis 47: 121-132. Stewart, F.J., Young, C.R. and Cavanaugh, C.M. 2009. Evidence for homologous recombination in intracellular chemosynthetic clam symbionts. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26: 13911404.

Frederick L. Schuster, protistologist
Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56: 400-401.

Howard Whisler, protistologist
Mycologia 101: 579-581.

Recent symbiosis papers:
Animal-bacteria symbiosis
Grice, E.A., Kong, H.H., Conlan, S., Deming, C.B., Davis, J., Young, A.C., NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Bouffard, G.G., Blakesley, R.W., Murray, P.R., Green, E.D., Turner, M.L. and Segre, J.A. 2009. Topographical and temporal diversity of the human skin microbiome. Science 324: 1190Troll, J.V., Adin, D.M., Wier, A.M., Paquette, N., Silverman, N., Goldman, W.E., Stadermann, F.J., Stabb, E.V. and McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2009. Peptidoglycan induces loss of a nuclear peptidoglycan recognition protein during host tissue development in a beneficial animal-bacterial symbiosis. Cellular Microbiology 11: 1114-1127.

Coral-bacterial symbiosis
Neulinger, S.C., Gärtner, A., Järnegren, J., Ludvigsen, M., Lochte, K. and Dullo, W.-C. 2009. Tissue-associated “Candidatus Mycoplasma corallicola” and filamentous bacteria on the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa (Scleractinia). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 1437-1444.

Shnit-Orland, M. and Kushmaro, A. 2009. Coral mucusassociated bacteria: a possible first line of defense. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 67: 371-380.

Zheng, W., Bergman, B., Chen, B., Zheng, S., Xiang, G., Rasmussen, U. 2009. Cellular responses in the cyanobacterial symbiont during its vertical transfer between plant generations in the Azolla microphylla symbiosis. New Phytologist 181: 53-61.

Coral-photobiont symbiosis
Anthony, K.R.N., Hoogenboom, M.O., Maynard, J.A. et al. 2009. Energetics approach to predicting mortality risk from environmental stress: a case study of coral bleaching. Functional Ecology 23: 539-550. Baird, A.H., Bhagooli, R., Ralph, P.J. and Takahashi, S. 2009. Coral bleaching: the role of the host. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24: 16-20. Cantin, N.E., van Oppen, M.J.H., Willis, B.L, et al. 2009. Juvenile corals can acquire more carbon from high-performance algal symbionts. Coral Reefs 28: 405-414. Correa, A.M.S. and Baker, A.C. 2009. Understanding diversity in coral-algal symbiosis: a cluster-based approach to interpreting fine-scale genetic variation in the genus Symbiodinium. Coral Reefs 28: 81-93. Correa, A.M.S., Brandt, M.E., Smith, T.B., et al. 2009. Symbiodinium associations with diseased and healthy scleractinian corals. Coral Reefs 28: 437-448. Harii, S., Yasuda, N., Rodriguez-Lanetty, M., Irie, T. and Hidaka, M. 2009. Onset of symbiosis and distribution patterns of symbiotic dinoflagellates in the larvae of scleractinian corals. Marine Biology 156: 1203-1212. LaJeunesse, T.C., Lok, W. and Trench, R.K. 2009. Do introduced endosymbiotic dinoflagellates ‘take’ to new hosts. Biological Invasions 11: 995-1003. Obura, D.O. 2009. Reef corals bleach to resist stress. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 206-212. Pettay, D.T. and Lajeunesse, T.C. 2009. Microsatellite loci for assessing genetic diversity, dispersal and clonality of coral symbionts in ‘stress-tolerant’ clade D Symbiodinium. Molecular ecology resources 9: 1022-1025. Voolstra, C.R., Schwarz, J.A., Schnetzer, J., Sunagawa, S., Desalvo, M.K., Szmant, A.M., Coffroth, M.A. and Medina, M. 2009. The host transcriptome remains unaltered during the establishment of coral-algal symbioses. Molecular Ecology 18: 1823-1833.

Endocellular symbiotic bacteria of protists
Degtyar, E., Zusman, T., Ehrlich, M. and Segal, G. 2009. A Legionella effector acquired from protozoa is involved in sphingolipids metabolism and is targeted to the host cell mitochondria. Cellular Microbiology 11: 1219-1235. Sabaneyeva, E.V., Derkacheva, M.E., Benken, K.A., Fokin, S.I., Vainio, S. and Skovorodkin, I.N. 2009. Actin-based mechanism of Holospora obtuse trafficking in Paramecium caudatum. Protist 160: 205-219.

Abdellatif, L., Bouzid, S., Kaminskyj, S. and Vujanovic, V. 2009. Endophytic hyphal compartmentalization is required for successful symbiotic Ascomycota association with root cells. Mycological Research 113: 782-791. Andreote, F.D., de Araujo, W.L., de Azevedo, J.L., van Elsas, J.D., da Rocha, U.N. and van Overbeek, L.S. 2009. Endophytic colonization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by a novel competent bacterial endophyte, Pseudomonas putida strain P9, and its effect on associated bacterial communities. Applied and Enviironmental Microbiology 75: 3396-3406. Hartley, S.E. and Gange, A.C. 2009. Impacts of plant symbiotic fungi on insect herbivores: Mutualism in a multitrophic context. Annual Review of Entomology 54: 323-342. Iannone, L.J., Cabral, D., Schardl, C.L. and Rossi, M.S. 2009. Phylogenetic divergence, morphological and physiological differences distinguish a new Neotyphodium endophyte species in the grass Bromus auleticus from South America. Mycologia 101: 340-351. Ji, Y., Zhan, L., Sun, X., Yu, H. and Wang, Z. 2009. A new stromata producing Neotyphodium species symbiotic with clonal grass Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth. grown in China. Mycologia 101: 200-205. Maes, M., Huvenne, H. and Messens, E. 2009. Brenneria salicis, the bacterium causing watermark disease of willow, resides as an endophyte in wood. Environmental Microbiology 11: 14531462. Oetjen, J. and Reinhold-Hurek, B. 2009. Characterization of the DraT/DraG system for posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase in the endophytic betaproteobacterium Azoarcus sp. strain BH72. Journal of Bacteriology 191: 3726-3735.

Puente, M.E., Li, C.Y. and Bashan, Y. 2009. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti. Environmental and Experimental Botany 66: 389-401. Saari, S., Lehtonen, P., Helander, M. and Saikkonen, K. 2009. High variation in frequency of infection by endophytes in cultivars of meadow fescue in Finland. Grass and Forage Science 64: 169-176. Stadler, M. and Schulz, B. 2009. High energy biofuel from endophytic fungi? Trends in Plant Science 14: 353-355. Swarthout, D., Harper, E., Judd, S., Gonthier, D., Shyne, R., Stowe, T. and Bultman, T. 2009. Measures of leaf-level wateruse efficiency in drought stressed endophyte infected and noninfected tall fescue grasses. Environmental and Experimental Botany 66: 88-93. Tsuneda, A., Wang, W., Tsuneda, I. And Currah, R.S. 2009. Endomembrane system of aspen root cells plays a key role in defense against a common fungal root endophyte, Cryptosporiopsis radicicola. Mycologia 101: 182-189. Van Bael, S.A., Fernandez-Marin, H., Valencia, M.C., Rojas, E.I., Wcislo, W.T. and Herre, E.A. 2009. Two fungal symbioses collide: Endophytic fungi are not welcome in leaf-cutting ant gardens. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276: 2419-2426. Yan, K., Yanling, J., Xianghui, S., Lihui, Z., Wei, L. Hanshou, Y., Zhiwei, W. 2009. Taxonomy of Neotyphodium endophytes of Chinese native Roegneria plants. Mycologia 101: 211-219. Kounatidis, I., Crotti, E., Sapountzis, P., et al. 2009. Acetobacter tropicals is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 32813288. Stoll, S., Feldhaar, H. and Gross, R. 2009. Promoter characterization in the AT-rich genome of the obligate endosymbiont “Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus”. Journal of Bacteriology 191: 3747-3751. Willie, B.D. and Hartman, G.L. 2009. Two species of symbiotic bacteria present in the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 38: 110-115.

Leul, M., Normand, P. and Sellstedt, A. 2009. The phylogeny of uptake hydrogenases in Frankia. International Microbiology 12: 23-28.

Fungal-bacterial symbiosis
Lackner, GT., Möbius, N., Scherlach, K., Partida-Martinez, L.P., Winkler, R., Schmitt, I. and Hertweck, C. 2009. Global distribution and evolution of a toxinogenic BurkholderiaRhizopus symbiosis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 2982-2986.

Tikhonovich, I.A. and Provorov, N.A. 2009. From plant-microbe interactions to symbiogenetics: a universal paradigm for the interspecies genetic integration. Annals of Applied Biology 154: 341-350.

Endosymbiotic bacteria of insects (see also Wolbachia)
Bermingham, J. and Wilinson, T.L. 2009. Embryo nutrition in parthenogenic viviparous aphids. Physiological Entomology 34: 103-109. Degnan, P.H., Yu, Y., Sisneros, N., Wing, R.A. and Moran, N.A. 2009. Hamiltonella defensa, genome evolution of protective bacterial endosymbiont from pathogenic ancestors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106: 9063-9068. Fukatsu, T., Hosokawa, T., Koga, R.,, Nikoh, R., Kato, T., Hayama, S., Takefushi, H. and Tanaka, I. 2009. Intestinal endocellular symbiotic bacterium of the macaque louse Pedicinus obtusus: Distinct endosymbiont origins in anthropoid primate lice and the Old World monkey louse. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 3796-3799. Haselkorn, T.S., Markow, T.A. and Moran, N. 2009. Multiple introductions of the Spiroplasma bacterial endosymbiont into Drosophila. Molecular Ecology 18: 1294-1305.

Gut symbiosis and probiotics
Antonopoulos, D.A., Huse, S.M., Morrison, H.G., Schmidt, T.M., Sogin, M.L. and Young, V.B. 2009. Reproducible community dynamics of the gastrointestinal microbiota following antibiotic perturbation. Infection and Immunity 77: 2367-2375. Desai, A.R., Musil, K.M., Carr, A.P. and Hill, J.E. 2009. Characterization and quantification of feline fecal microbiota using cpn60 sequence-based methods and investigationo of animal-to-animal variation in microbial population structure. Veterinary Microbiology 137: 120-128. Douglas, A.E. 2009. The microbial dimension in insect nutritional ecology. Functional Ecology 23: 38-47. Martinez, I., Wallace, G., Zhang, C., Legge, R., Benson, A.K., Carr, T.P., Moriyama, E.N. and Walter, J. 2009. Diet-induced metabolic improvements in a hamster model of hypercholesterolemia are strongly linked to alterations of the gut microbiota. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 41754184.

Paliy, O., Kenche, H., Abernathy, F. and Michail, S. 2009. Highthroughput quantitative analysis of the human intestinal microbiota with a phylogenetic microarray. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 3572-3579. Scupham, A.J. 2009. Campylobacter colonization of the turkey intestine in the context of microbial community development. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 3564-3571. Sears, C.L. 2009. Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis: a rogue among symbiotes. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 22: 349-369. Willing, B.P. and Finlay, B.B. 2009. Gut microbiology: Fitting into the intestinal neighborhood. Current Biology 19: R457R459. Wüst, P.K., Horn, M.A., Henderson, G., Janssen, P.H., Rehm, B.H.A., and Drake, H.L. 2009. Gut-associated denitrification and in vivo emission of nitrous oxide by the earthworm families Megascolecidae and Lumbricidae in New Zealand. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 3430-3436. Hoppenrath, M. and Leander, B.S. 2009. Molecular phylogeny of Parvilucifera prorocentri (Alveolata, Myzozoa): Insights into perkinsid character evolution. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56: 251-256. Sabaneyeva, E.V., Derkacheva, M.E., Benken, K.A., Fokin, S.I., Vainio, S. and Skovorodkin, I.N. 2009. Actin-based mechanism of Holospora obtuse trafficking in Paramecium caudatum. Protist 160: 205-219. Sato, T., Hongoh, Y., Noda, S., Hattori, S., Ui, S. and Ohkuma, M. 2009. Candidatus Desulfovibrio trichonymphae, a novel intracellular symbiont of the flagellate Trichonympha agilis in termite gut. Environmental Microbiology 11: 1007-1015. Török, J.K., Pollák, B., Heéger, Z., Csikós, G. and Márialigeti, K. 2008. First evidence of bacterial endocytobionts in the lobose testate amoeba Arcella (Amoebozoa, Arcellinida). Protistology 5: 303-312.

Asplund, J., Solhaug, K.A. and Gauslaa, Y. 2009. Fungal depsidones – an inducible or constitutive defence against herbivores in the lichen Lobaria pulmonoaria. Basic and Applied Ecology 10: 273-278. Del Campo, E.M., Casano, L.M., Gasulla, F.and Barreno, E. 2009. Presence of multiple group I introns closely related to bacteria and fungi in plastid 23S rRNAs of lichen-forming Trebouxia. International Microbiology 12: 59-67. Leger, E.A. and Forister, M.L. 2009. Colonization, abundance, and geographic range size of gravestone lichens. Basic and Applied Ecology 10: 279-287. Nascimbene, J., Marini, L., Motta, R. and Nimis, P.L. 2009. Influence of tree age, tree size and crown structure on lichen communities in mature Alpine spruce forests. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 1509-1522. Nelson, M.P. and Gargas, A. 2009. Symbiont flexibility in Thamnolia vermicularis (Pertusariales: Icmadophilaceae). The Bryologist 112: 404-417.

Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes
Van der Giezen, M. 2009. Hydrogenosomes and mitosomes: Consevation and evolution of functions. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56: 221-231.

Insect-fungi symbiosis
Caldera, E.J., Poulsen, M., Suen, G. and Currie, C.R. 2009. Insect symbioses: A case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research. Environmental Entomology 38: 78-92. Clardy, J., Fischbach, M.A. and Currie, C.R. 2009. The natural history of antibiotics. Current Biology 19: R437-R441. Gibson, C.M. and Hunter, M.S. 2009. Negative fitness consequences and transmission dynamics of a heritable fungal symbiont of a parasitic wasp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 3115-3119. Kiepzig, K.D., Adams, A.S., Handelsman, J., and Raffa, K.F. 2009. Symbioses: A key driver of insect physiological processes, ecological interactions, evolutionary diversification, and impacts on humans. Environmental Entomology 38: 67-77. Vo, T.L., Mueller, U.G., Mikheyev, A.S. 2009. Free-living fungal symbionts (Lepiotaceae) of fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae). Mycologia 101: 206-210.

Atteia, A., Adrait, A., Brugière, S., Tardif, M., van Lis, R., Deusch, O., Dagan, T., Kuhn, L., Gontero, B., Martin, W., Garin, J., Joyard, J. and Rolland, N. 2009. A proteomic survey of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mitochondria sheds new light on the metabolic plasticity of the organelle and on the nature of the αproteobacterial mitochondrial ancestor. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26: 1533-1548.

Intracellular symbionts of protists
Goy, G. and Greub, G. 2009. Antibiotic susceptibility of Waddlia chondrophila in Acanthamoeba castellanii amoebae. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 53: 2663-2666.

Kim, S.-W., Fushinobu, S., Zhou, S., Wakagi, T. and Shoun, H. 2009. Eukaryotic nirK genes encoding copper-containing nitrite reductase: Originating from the protomitochondrion? Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 2652-2658. Vellinga, E.C., Wolfe, B.E. and Pringle, A. 2009. Global patterns of ectomycorrhizal introductions. New Phytologist 181: 960-973. Wilde, P., Manal, A., Stodden, M., Sieverding, E., Hildebrandt, U. and Bothe, H. 2009. Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots and soils of two salt marshes. Environmental Microbiology 11: 1548-1561.

Aranda, E., Sampedro, I., Díaz, R., García-Sánchez, M., Arriagada, C.A., Ocampo, J.A. and García-Romera, I. 2009. The effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on growth ot tomato plants grown in the presence of olive mill residues modified by treatment with saprophytic fungi. Symbiosis 47: 133-140. Atkin, O.K., Sherlock, D., Fitter, A.H., Jarvis, S., Hughes, J.K., Campbell, C., Hurry, V. and Hodge, A. 2009. Temperature dependence of respiration in roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 182: 188-199. Atul-Nayyar, A., Hamel, C., Hanson, K. and Germida, J. 2009. The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis links N mineralization to plant demand. Mycorrhiza 19: 239-246. Blaszkowski, J., Kovács, G.M. and Balázs, T. 2009. Glomus perpusillum, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus. Mycologia 101: 247-255. Dickie, I.A., Dentinger, B.T.M., Avis, P.G., McLoughlin, D.J. and Reich, P.B. 2009. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of oak savanna are distinct from forest communities. Mycologia 101: 473-483. Gehring, C. and Bennett, A. 2009. Mycorrhizal fungal-plantinsect interactions: The importance of a community approach. Environmental Entomology 38: 93-102. Leigh, J., Hodge, A. and Fitter, A.H. 2009. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can transfer substantial amounts of nitrogen to their host plant from organic material. New Phytologist 181: 199-207. Querejeta, J.I., Egerton-Warburton, L.M. and Allen, M.F. 2009. Topographic position modulates the mycorrhizal response of oak trees to interannual rainfall variability. Ecology 90: 649-662. Smith, F.A., Grace, E.J. and Smith, S.E. 2009. More than a carbon economy: nutrient trade and ecological sustainability in facultative arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses. New Phytologist 182: 347-358. Tikhonovich, I.A. and Provorov, N.A. 2009. From plant-microbe interactions to symbiogenetics: a universal paradigm for the interspecies genetic integration. Annals of Applied Biology 154: 341-350.

Casal, G., Garcia, P., Matos, P., Monteiro, E., Matos, E. and Azevedo, C. 2009. Fine structure of Chloromyxum menticirrhi n. sp. (Myxozoa) infecting the urinary bladder of the marine teleost Menticirrhus americanus (Sciaenidae) in Southern Brazil. European Journal of Protistology 45: 139-146.

Hoppenrath, M. and Leander, B.S. 2009. Molecular phylogeny of Parvilucifera proroentri (Alveolata, Myzozoa): Insights into Perkinsid character evolution. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56: 251-256.

Oral cavity symbionts
Downes, J., Vartoukian, S.R., Dewhirst, F.E., Izard, J., Chen, T., Yu, W.-H., Sutcliffe, I.C. and Wade, W.G. 2009. Pyramidobacter piscolens gen. nov. sp. nov., a member of the phylum ‘Synergistes’ isolated from the human oral cavity. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 59: 972-980.

Parasitic and heterotrophic plants
Klooster, M.R., and Culley, T.M. 2009. Comparative analysis of the reproductive ecology of Monotropa and Monotropsis: Two mycoheterotrophic genera in the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae). American Journal of Botany 96: 1337-1347. Ziegler, H., Weber, J. and Luttage, U.E. 2009. Thermal dissipation probe measurements of sap flow in the xylem of trees documenting dynamic relations to variable transpiration given by instantaneous weather changes and the activities of a mistletow xylem parasite. Trees Structure and Function 23: 441450.

Phototrophic symbiosis (see also Coral-photobiont symbiosis, Plastid endosymbiosis)
Esteban, G.F., Bradley, M.W. and Finlay, B.J. 2009. A casebuilding Spirostomum (Ciliophora, Heterotrichida) with zoochlorellae. European Journal of Protistology 45: 156-158.

Hoshina, R. and Imamura, N. 2009. Phylogenetically close Group I introns with different positions among Paramecium bursaria photobionts imply a primitive stage of intron diversification. Molecular Biology and Evolution 26: 13091319. Kodama, Y and Fujishima, M. 2009. Localization of perialgal vacuoles beneath the host cell surface is not a prerequisite phenomenon for protection from the host’s lysosomal fusion in the ciliate Paramecium bursaria. Protist 160: 319-329. Sano, A., Watanabe, M. and Nakajima, T. 2009. Adaptive characteristics of a ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila in endosymbiotic association with a green alga Chlorella vulgaris derived in a long-term microcosm culture. Symbiosis 47: 151160. Summerer, M., Sonntag, B., Hörtnagl, P. and Sommaruga, R. 2009. Symbiotic ciliates receive protection against UV damage from their algae: A test with Paramecium and Chlorella. Protist 160: 233-243. Van Alstyne, K.L. and Dominique III, V.J. 2009. Is dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) produced by the symbionts or the host in an anemone-zooxanthella symbiosis? Coral Reefs 28: 167-176.

Protists (see Intracellular symbionts of protists) Rhizobia
Dardanelli, M.S., González, P.S., Medeot, D.B., Paulucci, N.S., Bueno, M.A. and Garcia, M.B. 2009. Effects of peanut rhizobia on the growth and symbiotic performance of Arachis hypogaea under abiotic stress. Symbiosis 47: 175-180. Farida, B., Géraldine, D., Abdelghani, B., Djellali, B., Said, B. and Gisèle, L. 2009. Retama species growing in different ecological-climatic areas of northeastern Algeria have a narrow range of rhizobia that form a novel phylogenetic clade within the Bradyrhizobium genus. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 32: 245-255. Gurich, N. and González, J.E. 2009. Role of quorum sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti-alfalfa symbiosis. Journal of Bacteriology 191: 4372-4382. Heath, K.D. and Tiffin, P. 2009. Stabilizing mechanisms in a legume-rhizobium mutualism. Evolution 63: 652-662. Kaschuk, G., Kuyper, T.W., Leffelaar, P.A., Hungria, M. and Giller, K.E. 2009. Are the rates of photosynthesis stimulated by the carbon sink strength of rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses? Soil Biology & Biochemistry 41: 1233-1244. Karunakaran, R., Ramachandran, V.K., Seaman, J.C., East, A.K., Mouhsine, B., Mauchline, T.H., Prell, J., Skeffington, A. and Poole, P.S. 2009. Transcriptomic analysis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae in symbiosis with host plants Pisum sativum and Vicia cracca. Journal of Bacteriology 191: 4002-4014. Kemple, A., Brandl, R. and Schädler, M. 2009. Symbiotic soil microorganisms as players in aboveground plant-herbivore interactions – the role of rhizobia. Oikos 118: 634-640. Kouas, S., Louche, J., Debez, A., Plassard, C., Drevon, J.J. and Addelly, C. 2009. Effect of phosphorus deficiency on acid phosphatase and phytase activities in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Symbiosis 47: 141-149. Martínez-Salazar, J.M., Salazar, E., Encarnación, S., RamírezRomero, M.A. and Rivera, J. 2009. Role of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor RpoE4 in oxidative and osmotic stress responses in Rhizobium etli. Journal of Bacteriology 191: 41224132. Mhadhbi, H., Fotopoulos, V., Djebali, N., Polidoros, A.N. and Aouani, M.E. 2009. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 195: 225-231.

Plant-animal symbiosis
Chamberlain, S.A. and Holland, J.N. 2009. Body size predicts degree in ant-plant mutualistic network. Functional ecology 23: 196-202. Defossez, E., Selosse, M.-A., Dubois, M.-P., McKey, D., Blatrix, R., Mondolot, L., Faccio, A. and Djieto-Lordon, C. 2009. Ant-plants and fungi: A new threeway symbiosis. New Phytologist 182: 942-949.

Plant root symbiosis (general)
Markmann, K. and Parniske, M. 2009. Trends in Plant Science 14: 77-86.

Plastid symbiosis
Moustafa, A., Beszteri, B., Maier, U.G., Bowler, C., Valentin, K. and Bhattacharya, D. 2009. Genomic footprints of a cryptic plastid endosymbiosis in diatoms. Science 324: 1724-1726. Parsons, M., Karnataki, A. and Derocher, A.E. 2009. Evolving insights into protein trafficking to the multiple compartments of the apicomplexan plastid. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56: 214-220.

Prokaryotic consortia and symbiosis
Shimoyama, T., Kato, S, Ishii, S. and Watanabe, K. 2009. Flagellum mediates symbiosis. Science 323: 1574.

Provorov, N.A. and Vorobyov, N.I. 2009. Simulation of bacteria-plant coevolution in the mutualistic symbiosis. Russian Journal of Genetics 45: 507-519. Rodiño, A.P., Metral, R., Guglielmi, S., Drevon, J.J. 2009. Variation among common-bean accessions (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from the Iberian Peninsula for N2-dependent growth and phosphorus requirement. Symbiosis 47: 161-174. Saidi, S., Zribi, K., Badri, T., et al. 2009. Genetic characterization and symbiotic properties of native sinorhizobia trapped by Medicago sativa on Tunisian soils. Australian journal of soil research 47: 321-327. Schmeisser, C., Liesegang, H., Krysciak, D., Bakkou, N., Le Quére, A., Wollherr, A., Heinemeyer, I., Morgenstern, B., Pommerening-Röser, A., Flores, M., Palacios, R., Brenner, S., Gottschalk, G., Schmitz, R.A., Broughton, W.J., Perret, X., Strittmatter, A.W. and Streit, W.R. 2009. Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 possesses a remarkable number of secretion systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 4035-4045. Siddiqui, Z.A. and Akhtar, M.S. 2009. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, nematode parasitic fungi and rootnodule bacterium on root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and growth of chickpea. Biocontrol Science and Technology 19: 511-521. Martin, I.E., Tsang, R.S.W., Sutherland, K., Tilley, P., Read, R., Anderson, B., Roy, C. and Singh, A.E. 2009. Molecular characterization of syphilis in patients in Canada: Azithromycin resistance and detection of Treponema pallidum DNA in wholeblood samples versus ulcerative swabs. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47: 1668-1673.

Tikhonovich, I.A. and Provorov, N.A. 2009. From plant-microbe interactions to symbiogenetics: a universal paradigm for the interspecies genetic integration. Annals of Applied Biology 154: 341-350. Wallace, R. 2009. Metabolic constraints on the eukaryotic transition. Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 39: 165-176.

Termites and Cryptocercus
Husseneder, C., Berestecky, J.M. and Grace, J.K. 2009. Changes in composition of culturable bacteria community in the gut of the Formosan subterranean termite depending on rearing conditions of host. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 103: 498-507. Ramin, M., Alimon, A.R. and Abdullah, N. 2009. Identification of cellulolytic bacteria isolated from the termite Coptotermes curvignathus (Holmgren). Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation in Microbiology 17: 103-116. Sato, T., Hongoh, Y., Noda, S., Hattori, S., Ui, S. and Ohkuma, M. 2009. Candidatus Desulfovibrio trichonymphae, a novel intracellular symbiont of the flagellate Trichonympha agilis in termite gut. Environmental Microbiology 11: 1007-1015.

Chiel, E., Inbar, M., Mozes-Daube, N., White, J.A., Hunter, M.S. and Zchori-Fein, E. 2009. Assessments of fitness effects by the facultative symbiont Rickettsia in the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 102: 413-418.

Rumen symbionts
de la Fuente, G., Belanche, A., Abecia, L, Dehority, B.A. and Fondevila, M. 2009. Rumen protozoal diversity in the Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) as compared with domestic goats (Capra hircus). European Journal of Protistology 45: 112120. Mishima, T., Katamoto, H., Horii, Y., Kakengi, V.A.M. and Ito, A. 2009. Rumen ciliates from Tanzanian short horn zebu cattle, Bos Taurus indicus, and the infraciliature of Entodinium palmare n. sp. and Enoplopastron stokyi (Buisson, 1924). European Journal of Protistology 45: 77-86.

Calvitti, M., Moretti, R., Porretta, D. et al., 2009. Effects on male fitness of removing Wolbachia infections from the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 23: 132-140. Debrah, A.Y., Mand, S., Marío-Debrekyei, Y., Batsa, L., Pfarr, K., Lawson, B., Taylor, M., Adjei, O. and Hoerauf, A. 2009. Reduction in levels of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor-A and improvement in hydrocele patients by targeting endosymbiotic Wolbachia sp. in Wuchereria bancrofti with doxycycline. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 80: 956-963. De Luna, C.J., Moro, C.V., Guy, J.H., et al., 2009. Endosymbiotic bacteria living inside the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae). Experimental and applied acarology 48: 105-113.

Evans, N.J., Brown, J.M., Demirkan, I., Murray, R.D., Birtles, R.J., Hart, C.A., Carter, S.D. 2009. Treponema pedis sp. nov., a spirochaete isolated from bovine digital dermatitis lesions. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 59: 987-991.

Duplouy, A., Vermenot, C., Davies, N., et al.,. 2009. Assessing risks of Wolbachia DNA cross-specimen contamination following mass collection and ethanol storage. Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 46-50. Espino, C.I., Gómez, T., González, G., et al.,. 2009. Detection of Wolbachia bacteria in multiple organs and feces of the triatomine insect Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 547-550. Fernando de Souza, R., Daivison Silva Ramalho, J., Santina de Castro Morini, M., et al., 2009. Identification and characterization of Wolbachia in Solenopsis saevissima fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in southeastern Brazil. Current Microbiology 58: 189-194. Foster, J.M., Raverdy, S., Ganatra, M.B., et al., 2009. The Wolbachia endosymbiont of Brugia malayi has an active phosphoglycerate mutase: a candidate target for anti-filarial therapies. Parasitology Research 104: 1047-1052. Gibson, C.M. and Hunter, M.S. 2009. Inherited fungal and bacterial endosymbionts of a parasitic wasp and its cockroach host. Microbial Ecology 57: 542-549. Jaenike, J. 2009. Coupled population dynamics of endosymbionts within an between hosts. Oikos 118: 353-362. Jeong, G. and Stouthamer, R. 2009. Quantification of Wolbachia copy number in Trichogramma eggs (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae): Lysozyme treatment significantly improves total gene yield from the Gram-negative bacterium. Entomological Research 39: 66-69. Jin, C., Ren, X. and Rasgon, J.L. 2009. The virulent Wolbachia strain wMelPop efficiently establishes somatic infections in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 3373-3376. Klasson, L., Westberg, J., Sapountzis, P., et al., 2009. The mosaic genome structure of the Wolbachia wRi strain infecting Drosophila simulans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 106: 5725-5730. Machtelinckx, T., Van Leeuwen, T., Vanholme, B., et al., 2009. Wolbachia induces strong cytoplasmic incompatibility in the predatory bug Macrolophus pygmaeus. Insect Molecular Biology 18: 373-381. Markov, A.V., Lazebny, O.E., Goryacheva, I.I., Antipin, M.I. and Kulikov, A.M. 2009. Symbiotic bacteria affect mating choice in Drosophila melanogaster. Animal Behaviour 77: 1011-1017. McMeniman, C.J., Lane, R.V., Cass, B.N., et al.,. 2009. Stable introduction of a life-shortening Wolbachia infection into the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Science 323: 141-144. Miura, K., Yamanaka, T., Suzuki, Y., et al., 2009. Male rescue maintains low frequency parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia infection in Trichogramma populations. Population ecology 51: 245-252. Mouton, L., Henri, H. and Fleury, F. 2009. Interactions between coexisting intracellular genomes: mitochondrial density and Wolbachia infection. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 1916-1921. Ros, V.I.D. and Breeuwer, J.A.J. 2009. The effects of, and interactions between Cardinium and Wolbachia in the doubly infected spider mite Bryobia sarothamni. Heredity 102: 413-422. Ros, V.I.D., Fleming, V.M., Feil, E.J., et al.,. 2009. How diverse is the genus Wolbachia? Multiple gene-sequencing reveals a putatively new Wolbachia supergroup recovered from spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 1036-1043. Russell, J.A., Goldman-Huertas, B., Moreau, C.S., Baldo, L., Stahlhut, J.K., Werren, J.H. and Pierce, N.E. 2009. Specialization and geographic isolation among Wolbachia symbionts from ants and lycaenid butterflies. Evolution 63: 624640. Sheeley, S.L. and McAllister, B.F. 2009. Mobile male-killer: similar Wolbachia strains kill males of divergent Drosophila hosts. Heredity 102: 286-292. Walker, T., Song, S. and Sinkins, S.P. 2009. Wolbachia in the Culex pipiens group of mosquitoes: Introgression and superinfection. Journal of Heredity 100: 192-196. White, J.S., Kelly, S.E., Perlman, S.J. et al., Cytoplasmic incompatibility in the parasitic wasp Encarsia inaron: disentangling the roles of Cardinium and Wolbachia symbionts. Heredity 102: 483-489. Yoshizawa, J., Mimori, K., Yamauchi, K., et al., 2009. Sex mosaics in a male dimorphic ant Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi. Naturwissenschaften 96: 49-55. Zouache, K., Voronin, D., Tran-Van, V. and Mavingui, P. 2009. Composition of bacterial communities associated with natural and laboratory populations of Asobara tabida infected with Wolbachia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 75: 37553764.


Worms with symbiotic microbes
Hsieh, F.-C.,, Tzeng, C.-Y., Tseng, J.-T., et al. 2009. Isolation and characterization of the native entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis brevicaudis, and its symbiotic bacteria from Taiwan. Current Microbiology 58: 564-570. Qiu, X., Han, R., Yan, X., Liu, M., Cao, L., Yoshiga, T. and Kondo, E. 2009. Identification and characterization of a novel gene involved in the trans-specific nematicidal activity of Photorhabdus luminescens LN2. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 75: 4221-4223. Richards, G.R. and Goodrich-Blair, H. 2009. Masters of conquest and pillage: Xenorhabdus nematophila global regulators control transitions from virulence to nutrient acquisition. Cellular Microbiology 11: 1025-1033. Tran, E.E.H. and Goodrich-Blair, H. 2009. CpxRA contributes to Xenorhabdus nematophila virulence through regulation of lrhA and modulation of insect immunity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 3998-4006. Tran, E.E.H., Andersen, A.W. and Goodrich-Blair, H. 2009. CpxRA influences Xenorhabdus nematophila colonization inititiation and outgrowth in Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes through regulation of the nil locus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 4007-4014. Wüst, P.K., Horn, M.A., Henderson, G., Janssen, P.H., Rehm, B.H.A., and Drake, H.L. 2009. Gut-associated denitrification and in vivo emission of nitrous oxide by the earthworm families Megascolecidae and Lumbricidae in New Zealand. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75: 3430-3436. Zhang, C.-X., Yang, S.-Y., Xu, M.-X., Sun, J., Liu, H., Liu, J.R., Kan, F., Sun, J., Lai, R. and Zhang, K.-Y. 2009. Serratia nematodiphila sp. nov., associated symbiotically with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditidoides chongmingensis (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 59: 1603-1608.
Symbiosis Notes is published monthly by East Coast Science News, P.O. Box 797, Belchertown, MA 01007 USA. Michael F. Dolan, Editor. Valerie Vaughn, Contributing Editor, Deborah Munz, Circulation Manager. E-mail address:

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