Where did the immigrants come
B/w 1870 & 1920, about 20 million
Europeans immigrated to the U.S.
Many from eastern & southern Europe.
Why did immigrants come here?
Escape religious persecution
Improve their economic situation
Experience greater freedom in the U.S.
Most European immigrants arrived on the
Smaller # of immigrants came
Arrived on the West Coast
About 200,000 Chinese came b/w 1851 &
Many Chinese helped build the 1st
Several thousand Japanese
immigrants came when the U.S.
annexed Hawaii in 1898.
FROM THE CARIBBEAN SEA…
From 1880 to 1920, about 260,000
immigrants arrived from Jamaica, Cuba,
Puerto Rico, & other islands.
Many left b/c jobs were scarce.
MEXICANS COME TO U.S. TOO
Some became U.S. citizens when the
nation acquired Mexican territory in 1848
as a result of the Mexican War.
About 1 million Mexicans arrived b/w 1910
to 1930 to escape turmoil in their country.
Most European immigrants to the U.S.
arrived in New York.
Had to pass through immigration station
located on Ellis Island in Hew York Harbor
Officials at Ellis Island decided whether
the immigrants could enter the country.
If had serious health problems or a
contagious disease was sent home
Immigration station for the Asian
immigrants arriving on the West Coast.
Located in San Francisco.
Inspection process more difficult than on
Many immigrants settled in
immigrants from same
They also formed organizations to
help each other.
America called a MELTING POT…. Fact
that many cultures & races had blended .
But, many immigrants refused to give up
Some Americans didn’t like so
many immigrants living in the
NATIVISM- Obvious preference for
Nativism gave rise to anti-immigrant
groups. Also led to a demand for
CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT
Chinese immigrants worked for low
Labor groups pressured politicians to
restrict Asian immigration.
Banned all but a few Chinese immigrants.
Not lifted until 1943.
Chinese immigrants in a San
Francisco naturalization class
In San Francisco, all Chinese, Japanese, &
Korean children placed in special Asian
schools….led to anti-American riots in Japan.
In exchange for President Roosevelt
persuading San Francisco officials to stop
separation policy, Japan agreed to limit
emigration to U.S.
Urbanization is the rapid growth of cities.
Many immigrants settled in cities in the
Settled mostly in Northeast & Midwest
cities to find jobs in the factories &
By 1910, immigrants made
up over half of the
populations of 18 major
Way for immigrants to learn about U.S.
Schools taught them English, American
history & government…helped them
"Many Peoples, One Nation"
--slogan of the Committee for Immigrants in America, 1915
OTHERS ALSO MOVED TO
Farmers who lost their jobs to machines.
African American farmers from the
South…B/w 1890 & 1910, about 200,000
moved to cities in the North.
Called the “Great Migration”
Black Population Trends
Southern 90.3% 10%
Rural 90% 5%
Northern 9.7% 90%
Urban 10% 95%
Shortage in housing.
New types of housing so people could live
in a small amount of space.
1)Row house – Single family dwelling that
shared side walls w/other houses.
2)Tenement – Multifamily urban houses
often overcrowded & unsanitary.
Cities developed mass transit –
transportation systems designed to move
large # of people along fixed routes.
Cities had hard time supplying safe
People threw garbage out their windows.
Sewage flowed in streets.
By 1900, many cities built sewers &
created sanitation departments.
Crime & Fire also
REFORMERS HELP THE POOR:
Social Gospel movement…Early reform
program. Leaders preached that people
reached salvation by helping the poor.
They established Settlement Houses.
Located in slums. Help & friendship for
poor & immigrants.
Many settlement houses run by women.
Jane Addams was well-known social
Established the HULL HOUSE in Chicago
POLITICS IN THE
During late 1800’s, many cities run by a
This was an organized group, headed by a
city boss, that controlled activities of a
political party in a city.
Offered services to voters & businesses in
exchange for political or financial support.
Many Political Bosses
Many Bosses got rich through GRAFT-the
illegal use of political influence for
To win elections, some filled the list of
eligible voters w/names of dogs, children,
& the dead.
Workers on city construction projects
would charge a higher price & then “kick
back” part of the fee to the bosses.
Bosses also taking bribes from businesses
in return for allowing illegal or unsafe
& TAMMANY HALL
William Marcy Tweed, a.k.a. “Boss
Tweed”, one of the most powerful political
Became head of Tammany Hall, New
York City’s most powerful Democratic
Group of corrupt politicians led by Boss
A political cartoonist, made fun of Tweed
Authorities broke up the Tweed Ring in
1871….Tweed & many of his followers
sentenced to prison.
CIVIL SERVICE VS.
Patronage- Giving of government jobs to
people of the same party who had helped
a candidate get elected.
Civil Service- Government jobs.
Reformers called for a merit system. Civil
service jobs would go to the most
qualified, regardless of political views.
President Rutherford B. Hayes attempted
to reform civil service.
Some members of Republican party
Hayes decided not to run for reelection in
Stalwarts opposed changed in patronage
Reformers supported changing the
Republican Party settles on
James A. Garfield, an
James A. Garfield
Twentieth President 1881
Garfield turned out to have ties to
reformers…. Shortly after election,
he was shot by a Stalwart!
It took more than 2 months for
President Garfield to die.
V.P. Chester A. Arthur succeeded
Garfield. He turned reformer when he
PENDLETON CIVIL SERVICE
ACT OF 1883
Created a civil service commission to give
government jobs based on merit, not
politics….Helped to reform civil service.
Business Buys Influence
Politicians no longer had jobs to offer.
Had trouble seeking $ from supporters.
Many turned to wealthy business
leaders for support.
Tariff is a tax placed on goods coming into
or going out of a country.
Most Americans believed tariffs were
necessary to protect U.S. industries from
Tariffs did cause prices to rise.
For 12 years, Tariffs were
a key issue in presidential
President Grover Cleveland
Democratic president who tried, but failed
to reduce tariffs.
President Benjamin Harrison
Republican who was supported by big
Signed the MCKINLEY TARIFF ACT into
Tariffs were raised to their highest level
Cleveland defeats Harrison
in 1892 to become
He was unsuccessful in reducing
• First Lady: Frances Cleveland, Wife
• Wife's Maiden Name: Frances Folsom Cleveland
• Number of Children: 5
• Education Level: No College
• Religion: Presbyterian
• Profession: Clerk, Teacher, Lawyer
LIFE at the Turn of the 20