Theodore Roosevelt You are President Theodore Roosevelt. You were born and raised in New York City where sitting on your father’s knees, in your grandfather’s house you watched President Abraham Lincoln’s funeral procession pass. You would say later that the nobility of that president and the tragedy of his assassination gave meaning to and fueled your young life. A sickly child, you suffered from asthma severely as a child stunting your growth making you physically small and to some extent feeble. Stranded in your bed for days, even weeks at a time due to your illnesses, you met your first love, reading. You read often and much and read almost anything you could get your hands on. As time passed you developed an intense love for two specific subjects, history and natural science. As you grew older and stronger you began to dedicate yourself to a strenuous life that you wrote of often later in life. Since so much of your early life had been dedicated to the sick bed, when you were older and stronger you rededicated your life to physical activity and risk. You boxed, hunted, camped, hiked, rode horses, swam, engaging in every dangerous port available at the time. You would go on to graduate from Harvard University at the top of your class. You married the love of your life and decided to spend your life in New York City. Coming from tremendous wealthy, your grandfather, father, and entire family instilled in you the nobility of purpose and the need for the wealthy to give back to those in need. In short, they instilled in you the need for a life of service. Soon, you were appointed police commissioner of New York City. It was you that coined the term ”New York’s’ Finest” describing the New York City police officer and created and designed new blue uniforms. At this time, the police department was raft with corruption and graft. Many officers took bribes and many higher officials demanded bribes in order to promote officers. You changed all of that making a healthy number of enemies in the process, but beginning the long fight to create a legitimate police force that served the community. You were loving your life as a crusader until the untimely death of your wife. Her death almost destroyed you. Hit with a tidal wave of depression you resigned your position and moved out west to the wilds of South Dakota. Here on the frontier, you began to heal yourself. Living alone on a ranch, raising cattle you sat alone at night listening to the howls of the wild reading the powerful literature of Edgar Allen Poe, Walt Whitman, and Emily Dickinson, allowing their words to surround and heal you. You befriended and fought Native Americans equally, becoming friends with cowboys and farmers alike, even chasing down cattle rustlers and other thieves as part of a posse. AS the Cuban revolutionaries began a series of rebellions against the Spanish in the late 1890s you returned east and returned to duty. You took a position as the Assistant Secretary of the Navy. You believed strongly that the US was the most powerful and righteous nation on the planet. You believed in Manifest Destiny, that America was a city upon a hill that should help lift up “our little brown brothers” throughout the world. While the official Secretary of the Navy was out of town for the weekend, you ordered the Pacific Fleet under the command of Admiral George Dewey to invade and take over the Philippine Islands. Before you could be fired from your post you resigned and organized a volunteer regiment to fight in Cuba in the Spanish-American War. You were given the rank of second-in-command, Lt. Colonel and you began to gather together your friends. You began to gather your friends to complete your unit. Your unit was an assortment of folks, almost every walk of life was attracted to your regiment. Men in your regiment were Harvard intellectuals, and cowboys, Native Americans, and the descendents of ex-slaves. Because your unit was volunteer force and you knew everyone of wealth in New York, your unit was given tailor made uniforms of the best fabrics, the latest and best firearms, and food from New York City’s finest five star restaurants. All this while the regular army was given food left over from the Civil War (almost 50 years prior to this war) and uniforms made of wool that were far too hot and heavy for warfare in Cuba. Your unit saw action on Kettle Hill though it was fighting with the 10th Cavalry, an all African-American unit. It was also mistakenly identified as San Juan Hill, which is what remembered, but that is a mistake. You wrote a book about your experience, one of many history and natural science books you would write. It was an excellent story, but many said it was not accurate history. One critic said it should have bee called, “Roosevelt alone fought in Cuba.” After the Spanish-American War you read a book by Alfred Thayer Mahan called The Importance of Sea Power. In this book, Mahan argues that the country that rules the seas, rules the world. This book had a profound affect on you and many others. When you returned, you began to vigorously push for action throughout the government. In order to control and to an extent, get rid of you, you nominated to be vice-president of the United States. The Vice-Presidency was seen as a place you could be placed where you could do little damage and cause little change. In 1901, President William McKinley was assassinated while shaking hands at the World’s Fair by Leon Czolgosz, making you the president. You were the youngest president in history. To the nightmare of your critics you took the presidency by storm. Establishing the first national park and creating the national park system, you ushered in the age of conservationist. You also created a program called the Square Deal to help the poor and needy, as well as establishing the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that insures that meat and other foods and medicines are healthy and good for us. You also became known as the Trust Buster, for attempting to control unruly corporations and wealthy companies. You were the first president ever to come down on the idea of the workers against the company during a coal strike. In terms of foreign policy, you felt that the US should take on a substantial role in the affairs of other countries. You wanted to create an empire for American economic well-being as well as helping those countries and people less fortunate than you. One of your first acts as president was to create a Great White Fleet of American Navy vessels. You wanted to send them around the world to demonstrate American might and power. Congress would only give you enough to send them halfway around the world. You ordered the fleet half way around the world and then told congress they’d have to pay to get them back. Congress did pay and when they did, you sent them around the other half of the globe making the world-wide track all the way around. At about this time, the countries of Russia and Japan were involved in a destructive mostly naval war. The Russians were losing badly and wanted the war to end but could not bring themselves to surrender to Japan, a country they saw as both inferior due to their size and because they were an Asian nation. You arranged to have representatives from both nations in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Here you were able to broker a peace treaty. For your successful negotiations in ending the Russo-Japanese War you were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During your term in office, Anthracite coal miners launched a nation-wide strike. At this time the entire country was run by coal and oil. The coal strike was nationwide, every major coal mine was shut down by industrial unions The unions argued, rightly you agreed, that they ought to be paid a fair wage, be given an eight-hour work day, and have the right to unionize. The corporations had for years earned enormous profits while they allowed the workers to go into mines that were unsafe. The mines were so unsafe that they were often cave-ins, explosions from the buildup of methane and other gases, and injuries from the lack of the correct and needed equipment. You also knew that many workers were forced to live in “factory towns” which were owned by the corporations where the workers were not paid in money but were paid in company “script”. Company script was not real money but paper money the was only worth anything at the company store in town where the prices were exorbitantly high. The corporations wanted you to use the military to arrest, or kill the striking workers as every president so far had done. Outraged at the suggestion, you refused. Instead, you threatened the corporations by saying that if the strikers were injured you would use the military to go after the corporations themselves. You also threatened to “nationalize,” or take them over. You argued that the government would do a much better job running the mines than they would, would pay the workers a reasonable amount and still turn a profit. The corporations capitulated ending the strike and paying the miners a fairer wage. With this act you broke the tradition of presidents to let business be business and began a tradition of the president and government coming down on the side of the worker. In terms of foreign policy you created your “Big Stick Policy”. You also claimed that, “A man should walk softly and carry a big stick.” In short, this meant not being afraid to use the military and violence to control countries you felt needed to be controlled. President James Monroe created the Monroe Doctrine to keep European countries from taking over South and Central American countries. The United States said that Central and South America were her sphere of influence and that we were responsible for them. This did keep European countries out of South and Central America, but South and Central American countries were angry that the United States just decided to control their foreign policy. You added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which said that the US would intervene in Central and South America if European countries invaded. Though you could run for reelection (because though you served almost all of McKinley’s term, you were officially only elected to one term), you chose not to. Instead, you chose William Howard Taft from Cincinnati, Ohio to carry on your legacy of trust busting and progressive reform. You instead went on a world tour spending three months in Africa on an exploration tour and big game hunting safari. You tried to the best of your ability to stay out of ear shot, to not listen, to be blissfully ignorant of American politics during your world tour, but you couldn’t. You hear little, but what you heard disturbed you, the policies that your hand picked progressive protégé were enforcing were against all that you stood for and all of what you thought he stood for. You returned to America and attempted to straighten out President Taft, he listened nicely, but refused to obey your orders. You were outraged at how easily corporate millionaires had access to the White House and to President Taft, even though the president continued and extended your presidential trust busting. Outraged at your protégé straying from your progressive ideals, you decided to do what no president had ever done before, create a third party. You attempted to have the Republicans nominate you for president instead of Taft, but they refused. Outraged you formed the Progressive Party, an independent political party dedicated to progressive change. It became known as the “Bull Moose Movement” in the press, a joke that they made on your rather indelicate touch. They said you had the delicacy of a bull moose. Though you campaigned hard and felt sure than the people would rally around you, all that you were able to do was split the votes giving Woodrow Wilson the presidency. Though you garnered more votes than Taft, you still lost the election and caused your old party, the Republicans to lose as well. This was your end in political circles. Devastated that you lost you went on a month long exploration of a part of the Amazon that no one, aside from the natives who lived there, had ever been. The river system you helped map was known as the River of Doubt and you and your team were able to map and travel down an area no outsiders had ever done. When you returned to America, World War I was on and you petitioned President Wilson to allow you to create a volunteer regiment like the Rough Riders during the Spanish-American War. Fearing it would make you too popular and a threat to his presidency, and fearing what would happen if a former president were killed or captured in combat Wilson refused. All four of your sons would serve in World War I. Your eldest son Theodore Junior would lose his life in World War I. You would never get over this loss. Woodrow Wilson You are Woodrow Wilson. You would become president of the United States and would also lead Americans into World War I. You began life in a library, as a lover of books. You went on to Princeton University, one of the top universities of the world, where you earned a Ph.D. in history and political science (government). You would go on to teach there becoming one of the most popular professors on campus and would become the university’s president as well. AS an academic, you created the theory of Moral Internationalism. Moral Internationalism says that because America is a strong, powerful, and wealthy country, America owes it to the world to be deeply involved. The theory said that social problems such as poverty, disease, racism, hunger, and war could all be solved and should be. As a democracy with freedom, we owe it to the world to bring freedom and democracy to them. The criteria for getting involved in a world event is if we can help, we should go. Your theory rested on the idea that crises develop world-wide and that America should at the very least be involved in them. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and others would deeply disagree with you saying that American might, money, and sons should stay in America. He would on to say that America should look out for itself first and be involved in creating a better America. When you were elected president, Senator Lodge would raise these objections. Elected in 1912, you inherited a conflicted and growing country. On the domestic side the Women’s Suffrage Movement was growing. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone and many others were demonstrating in front of the White House on a daily basis demanding that women be given the right to vote. On the foreign policy side, it seemed that there were needs and problems everywhere. In Mexico, since 1910 a revolution was raging. In April of 1914, seven American sailors visiting Tampico, Mexico, while on shore leave were arrested and detained for six hours. General Victoriano Huerta released them, but refused to apologize for arresting them in the first place, saying, that the sailors were in violation of Mexican martial law. Insulted and outraged you ordered troops to blockade the Mexican port of Veracruz. The blockade began just as an arms shipment was arriving in Mexico from Germany. Germany became outraged that America was involved in a business deal between themselves and Mexico. In response, Wilson ordered American marines to take over the port of Veracruz and capture the weapons. In the fire fight 126 Mexicans were killed. In July 1914, Huerta resigned and went into exile, unable to get the weapons he needed from anywhere. As the Mexican Revolution continued, however, America was once again dragged into the fight. In January of 1916, 15 American engineers were shot by Pancho Villa and his men in northern Mexico. Two months later, Villa invaded the border of Columbus, New Mexico and killed 19 Americans. In response you ordered General Pershing to invade and arrest Villa. After 6 months searching and getting no closer to capturing him, WWI broke out. You withdrew Pershing and sent him to Europe to fight in WWI. Even though your 1916 reelection campaign slogan was, “He Kept Us Out of War,” you felt that America needed to be involved. American forces were only actively involved in the War for 6 months, but when the Treaty of Versailles was negotiated in Paris, you attended. Keeping Moral Internationalism in mind, you created the 14 Points. The 14 Points were a progressive peace plan. Some of the main points were peace without victory, freedom of the seas, and the formation of the League of Nations. Peace without victory argued that everyone suffered during the war and everyone was responsible, so peace should be declared and everyone should rebuilt their countries. Freedom of the seas argued that every nation should be able to go anywhere in the world. The League of Nations was the most far reaching and controversial of the 14 Points. It called for the creation of a council of nations where problems would be discussed between all countries. The idea was breathtaking. In short, it was believed that this League could end war, end poverty, and end hunger, by uniting all countries together in a one world democracy. Seeing the League of Nations as a path to destruction, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and other Isolationists, people who felt that America should never be involved in the political affairs of other countries, attacked you and the League. They saw the League as dragging America into international conflict after international conflict. They felt that America as the leader of the world economically and militarily would lead American boys to die in far away place for causes hat did not involve the USA. You led a vigorous campaign to save the League; it cost you your life. You rode all over the country giving whistle stop speeches in favor of the League. It caused you to have a stroke and left you incapacitated in the White House for 7 months before you died. The League of Nations was not ratified by the US. Although other countries joined, without the economic and military weight of America, it was a weak and toothless organization that did little and achieved less. The fight to pass the Treaty of Versailles that would simultaneously bring about your dream of moral internationalism by establishing the United States as a founding member of the town, crisscrossing the United States in an attempt to put pressure on congress and especially Senator Henry Lodge. Despite your best efforts congress failed to approve the Treaty and failed to allow the US to join the League of Nations making it a hallow and weak organization. In 1948, based upon your Eleanor Roosevelt, widow of FDR, and other prominent world leaders would gather in Muir Woods outside of San Francisco to create the United Nations an updated version of the League, but set up with your exact principals. During the last year of your presidency you suffered a horrific stroke and were bound to bed. We are unsure if you ever spoke again or even got out of bed during the last year of your presidency. Your wife Edith, who could sign your name, passed and pushed forth legislation in your name. You were only seen behind drawn curtains, never officially showing yourself or making a speech your entire last year in office. Though you lived until 1924, you never fully recovered from your attempt to pass the Treaty of Versailles and the stroke that it caused. Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862-1931) You were born in 1862, a slave. You would only be a slave for three years, but it would have a profound effect on you. You were born in the small town of Holly Springs, Mississippi, the oldest of 7 children. Your father was the product of a slave woman and her master, but that helped your family little. As a slave, your father was able to gain carpentry skills that helped gain him respect as a slave and after. Your mother was also known throughout the country as “the cook.” Both of their skills kept your family afloat and happy as they found their way through post-slavery craziness of the U.S. Everything was going well, you were the star student of the local school. Many white northerners who came down south to help the ex-slaves complimented you on your intellectual gifts and talents, promising to pay your way to a prestigious northern university. All of that ended during your 14th year. That was the year of epidemic, the year of the Yellow Fever. It tore through much of the south, destroying communities who were just barely making a comeback. When the Fever ended, it took with it your father, mother, and youngest sister. The local authorities wanted to relatives to be raised, but your refused. Knowing that your mother and father would have never wanted this, you gave up your future education, took a state teacher’s exam that students twice your age had failed, passed, and took a teaching job in a local school. All of this, at the age of 14. This is when your fierceness, your intellect, and your fearlessness began to be noticed and recognized. Through teaching you were able to not only keep your family together, but insure that they were well educated and every one of them went onto attend and graduate from well-known universities. As the children grew, you moved the family to the more cosmopolitan city of Memphis, Tennessee. You had experienced racism before, but here in Memphis, it came after you. In Mississippi, you lived in a mostly black area, the racism you felt was indirect, poor housing, poor jobs, lack of good education, but not the direct name calling, or life-threatening racism you were exposed to in Memphis. It happened when you were riding the train. You had paid for a first class ticket, sitting in what was called the “lady’s section” when a train conductor came through said that all “niggers” must ride in the “Jim crow” or “smoking” car. You firmly, fiercely, yet politely told him you had paid for this ticket and had not intention of moving, even showing him the ticket, but to no avail. The conductor insisted you move. When he refused, he placed his hand on your arm and began to drag you from the car. You turned your head and bit him savagely on the hand, drawing blood and pulling away flesh. The conductor went and got five other conductors who savagely dragged you from the car. Upon arriving at the depot in Memphis you went directly to an attorney, filed suit, and won against the railroad company. The victory was short-lived, however, and was quickly reversed by the Tennessee Supreme Court. You lost this victory but it sealed your fate. You knew from then on that you would spend the rest of your life in the fight and struggle for social justice. At the age of 25, the notoriety you received from the lawsuit and the eloquence in your own defense during the court case, attracted the attention of several local newspaper who asked you to write for them. You would spend the rest of your life using newspapers as a trumpet and loudspeaker to educate the world on the injustices that you saw and the injustices that you felt. In 1892, three good friends of yours, tired of the racism of local grocers opened the first all black owned and operated grocery store. It was a hit; all the local African-Americans frequented it and it flourished. The idea that you could shop at a store and not be called “nigger” was a godsend to many Memphis American-Americans. Within a few months, local white grocers, whose business had been hurt by the new Black owned stores, decided to burn the new grocery to the ground. Luckily and tragically the three owners lived in a small apartment above the store and heard the mob coming. When the whites opened fire on them, they returned fire, killing one of their white attackers. All three were arrested. Planning to lead self- defense in trial, their case never got that far. That evening after dark, a group of 30 men in masks and hoods “broke” into the jail and dragged your three friends out into the woods. The three were beaten, castrated and hung. Other local papers called this justice. You lashed out against this practice known as lynching so vehemently in a series of articles that you were forced to leave town for your own safety. The printing press and the newspaper offices you worked in were burned to the ground by an angry mob. You relocated to Chicago, Illinois, where you launched your anti-lynching crusade. You pushed congress for an anti- lynching law, but it was never passed. From Chicago, writing for several local newspapers, you continued to write about the horror of being black in the south, the phenomenon of lynching, and all the racial injustices that were occurring. You wrote your first book at this time, Southern Horrors: Lunch Law in All its Places and worked with Jane Addams to stop segregated schools from being established. It was at this time that you married a local Black newspaper editor, F.L. Barnett and became friends with African-American civil rights leader, W.E.B. Dubois. You joined him in founding the most famous and oldest civil rights organization called the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). You were one of the only two women. You were deemed too radical by even this organization and were regulated to the sidelines instead of a leadership position like you wanted. You were able to write extensive articles for The Crisis, the newspaper of the NAACP edited by W.E.B. Dubois. Because of your investigative reporting and writing you were able to keep track of how many were lynched. Between 1890 and 1950, it is estimated that at least 5,000 people were lynched. You also fought hard for women’s suffrage, writing articles, and campaigning hard for the 19th Amendment. You were the leader and organizer of American-American women. In a move to keep all women together and to show a united front in the famous Inauguration March of 1914, Alice Paul asked African-American women to march in segregated groups, to keep the southern white women happy. You confronted Alice Paul about this issue saying that you would, “March with your colleagues or not march at all.” As the contingent marched down Pennsylvania Avenue, you walked out and stepped in line, into the midst of white women, making it the first, but not the last integrated suffrage march. In 1930, disgusted with the political leadership, you ran for congress of Illinois. It was unsuccessful and your last political act, but you were the first African-American women to run for congress. Ida Tarbel (1857-1944) You were born and raised in rural Pennsylvania in farming and wildcat oil country. Both your parents were teachers and farmers and you grew up in a home surrounded by strenuous complain, to pick yourself up when you failed and get right back to it, and to be an intellect. Wanting the best for your family, your father, already twice jobbed teacher and farmer decided to open an oilrig on your property. Though it was hard to balance all the work involved in all three jobs, your family pulled together and made it a success. Your father and your family became a “wildcatter” who ran “wildcat” oil wells. These were oil wells that were owned and operated by individual people and families not by large, wealthy corporations. Just after you were born the Standard Oil Company owned and operated by super billionaire John D. Rockefeller hatched a scheme that stole the oil fields from all the wildcat operators in western Pennsylvania. This included your father’s. Though your family fell on hard times afterwards, your family and local community pulled together as country folk do to help and support each other. But, Rockefeller’s scheme to steal your family’s oil well and that of all the wildcat operators in rural Pennsylvania. Your parents were adamant that you were well educated and you became the star pupil of the local grammar school and high school. After graduated you attended and graduated from Allegheny College, the first woman to attend and the first woman to graduate. You earned a degree in chemistry and set off to teach high school science in rural Ohio. That only lasted two years. You enjoyed it, but it still left you unfulfilled. You wanted something else, you wanted something more, but you didn’t know what. You returned to Pennsylvania in search of the something more. You found it in writing. You began writing short investigative journalism pieces for local magazine and newspapers and gained a strong reputation. Just as your writing career was taking off you became incredibly interested n the life of Madam Roland, heroine of the French Revolution. You became so enthralled in her life that you decided to pick up and move to Paris to teach yourself French and write a biography of Madame Roland. While you were there you began writing newspaper articles on life in France, the history of the revolution, and little tidbits called McClure’s. When you finished the book, you had it published and then headed home to your new job as head writer and editor of McClure’s. Abraham Lincoln was murdered when you were only eight years old and his death had a profound effect on you. AS your first story, you decided to research the life and times of Lincoln, and write a ten-section story for the magazine. It was heralded as a great success and was turned into a best-selling book. Through a series of conversations with the owner of McClure’s you told him the story of your father losing his wildcat oil well. The owner encouraged you to research and write a story on John Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company. You spoke to your father about this and attempted to persuade you not to do it. He as afraid that there would be large negative repercussions. He feared that Rockefeller was a powerful that he could destroy your magazine and your career. You decided the research the company anyway. You spent two years meticulously digging through reports, tax fillings, business deals, contacts etc. You followed and researched the life of Rockefeller. Through this research you set the standards for what investigative journalism should be, a telling of the facts, not opinions, not hyperbole, not just anger and passion, but facts. After the two years, you wrote a 19 part series published over a two-year period (1902-1904). You entitled in The History of the Standard Oil Company and it was a sensation. What made you such a great writer was your command of language, your attention to specific detail, and your sense of drama. The readers were enthralled and your fame skyrocketed. You became the first of what president Theodore Roosevelt despairingly called muckrakers, saying the journalists like you spent too much time digging around and in pulling out the muck, rather than looking at the beauty of what was happening. What set you apart from other muckrakers was that you were angry at the evil of the Standard Oil Company but wrote respectfully of the genius of J.D. Rockefeller. The last section of your expose was a biographical sketch of Rockefeller himself. You published it as a book in 1904 and it became an immediate bestseller. When Rockefeller began to give portions of his fortune to the poor and to other philanthropic causes, you write that he was as a “hypocrite” and that he was “money mad,” and that he looked like a “living money.” He in turn called you a “poisonous woman” and ordered all those who worked for him, “Do not utter one word to that misguided woman.” Your History of the Standard Oil Company forced congress to launch an investigation into JD Rockefeller and his company. Several years later Standard Oil was deemed a monopoly by the government and forced to break up into 6 separate companies. You considered this your greatest success. Though asked to fight a struggle with Alice Paul and other suffragettes, you refused, arguing against the 19th Amendment. You felt that the “women’s rights movement” had damaged the traditional role of women and felt hat women belonged in the private sphere, at home. In 1999, your book on Standard Oil was named one of the top 5 works of journalism of the century. You died in 1944. Robert La Follette “Fighting Bob” (1855-1925) “Who shall rule—wealth or man? Which shall lead—money or intellect?” You were born and raised in rural Wisconsin. Your father and his father had always been rural farmers. Raised on the farm you learned early what hard work was and how hard average Americans worked. You never forgot this lesson and used your memories of the difficulties of farm life to fight and struggle for the poor always. You graduated from the University of Wisconsin, the first in your family to do so and then joined the District Attorney’s office in Madison, Wisconsin. After working in the District Attorney’s office for years, you decided to run against the District Attorney feeling that he was corrupt “in the pocket” of the local wealthy. Though you were young and inexperienced, your lungpower and ability to make a powerful speech convinced everyone to trust you. You didn’t let them down and used this time in the District Attorney’s office to spring board a political career. After serving as District Attorney for three years you ran for and were elected to the US House of Representatives. While in the House of Representatives, you began to earn a reputation as a straight talker, great speaker, and relentless in your pursuit of justice and equality. In short, you took no prisoners. Though you were a member and an elected representative of the Republican Party, you went after corrupt Republicans with the same furor and rage you went after corrupt Democrats. You felt that a corrupt public official was a corrupt public official and ought to be scorned and driven from office. You relentlessly championed the poor and fought to make it the government’s business and primary job to help the poor, the downtrodden, and to do something about the race problem. Your entire time in the House of Representatives you fought for three far-reaching government programs to give the people real power. They were initiative—the ability for regular citizens to propose and pass a law themselves without the help of the legislature, referendum—the ability for common everyday citizens to call a law into question and vote it down if they want to and recall—the ability to recall or end an elected official’s time in office before the next election. You were successful in getting these measure passed in some states like Wisconsin, California, and Massachusetts, but not nation-wide, liked you’d hoped. In 1890, you were defeated by your enemies and driven out of office. You returned to Wisconsin, opened a law practice and then ran for governor and won. As governor, you began what came to be called The Wisconsin Idea. The Wisconsin Idea was to give the power of government back to the people, to make America as much of a real direct democracy as possible. Your plan was to take away power from the corporations, corrupt party machines, by putting spending limits on political campaigns (so that not just the riches candidate wins) and for the government to regulate railroads, the environment, and all forms of transportation. After serving as governor, you were reelected to national office as a Senator for the State of Wisconsin. AT this time, Europe was involved in World War I. In 1917, President Woodrow Wilson asked for a declaration of war, you were one of the only two senators to stand and argue against American entry into World War I. You felt that America had no business entering a war in Europe; you felt it didn’t involve us and would only hurt us. You went on to argue that the only good thing that was going to come out of this war was that corporations would make millions and thousands of American workers would pay for their success with their lives on the battlefields. Many enemies and friends alike accused you of treason when you make speeches like this, but you continued. In fact, when you were running for reelection many supporters and those who worked for you urged you not to give anti-war speeches. When going up to the podium to give a speech in Madison, Wisconsin, your supporters urged you to be more conciliatory, you went right up and delivered a podium pounding anti-war speech. By the speeches end, everyone in the audience was on their feet cheering and you informed the crowd that everyone who didn’t like you or what you stood for were invited to vote for the other candidate. This promoted one of your political enemies listening in the back of the room to say, “I hate the son of a bitch, but by God, he has guts.” Your friend Emma Goldman considered you to be the strongest, fiercest anarchist of your time. You felt strongly that all of America, immigrant and natural-born alike were inheritors of the American Revolution. And as such, if they were told the truth about what was going on, they would make the right decisions; they would make the correct choices for the country. AS a senator you made it your business to go after and attempt to break up as many monopolies as possible. Eventually, you left the Republican Party that you felt was corrupt and ran for president under the Progressive Party. As Woodrow Wilson was running for reelection, you were going after the Progressive Party’s nomination for president against Teddy Roosevelt You were completely opposed to US entrance into World War I and US entrance into any foreign war. Teddy Roosevelt on the other hand, was for some progressive measures but felt that America should enter World War I. Teddy Roosevelt won the nomination, but lost the election. As a senator, you filibustered for 24 hours in an attempt single-handedly stop the US Declaration of War. You didn’t succeed, but you continued to fight. You were the only elected official to openly argued for the release of socialist Eugene Debs who was held in prison for violating the Sedition Act. The Sedition Act violated the first amendment by outlawing and jailing anyone who spoke out against the war. Eugene Debs, the leader of the American Socialist Party, spoke out against it while running for president and was jailed. You defended him arguing that the Sedition Law was unconstitutional. In 1924, you ran for the presidency one last time, but lost even though 1 in every 5 people voted for you. Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) You were born into the most gut wrenching utter poverty possible. You were so poor that as an in fact to quiet the squelching, rumbling, and screaming of your stomach your mother gave you a piece of leather to chew on. You were born in Scotland to a family of thinkers and workers. Your father was a weaver in the local factory. He had been born on a farm and spent the majority of his life working the land as a tenant farmer. You were born in Scotland to a family of thinkers and workers. Your father was a weaver in a local factory. He had been born on a farm and spent the majority of his life working as a tenant farmer. Over time, wealthy landowners took the land away. Over time, all the free land in Great Britain and Scotland were fenced by wealthy landowners. Over time, wealthy landowners fenced all the free land in Great Britain and Scotland. Over time, all the free land in Great Britain an Scotland were fenced in during what was called the enclosure movement. So, your father moved your mother to the city, where all the rest of the independent farmers moved to. It was a huge movement that was life changing for everyone in Great Britain. Those who had been born and raised and loved the country were not forced into dirty, foul smelling, narrow stone cities. In these cities there was no fresh air, no clean food, no running water, no electricity and no restrooms. Human waste was deposited into a bucket and tossed out the window into the streets to be walked on by everyone. It was here in small windowless factory that your father weaved six days a week for 9-12 hours a day. He made less than 1 dollar a week. In 1847, the factory system began to use the latest technology. AS technology moved into the work place, fewer workers and eventually fewer weavers were needed. Soon, your father found himself out of a job and begging on the street for handouts and for any work. This is when you said (years later) that you began to understand what poverty really was and how it could easily destroy a man. You saw your father’s belief in the future destroyed as you saw his body and soul twist and break. It was at this time that your father began to ravel in what were then seen as “radical worker socialist” circles. He joined reading clubs and workers’ discussion groups in which they argued politics and dreamed of a day that the workers would rule, that they would have strong unions, that they would have honest work and an honest day’s pay. The discussions that your father would have at these reading groups would poor over into household discussions. He would discuss the ideas with your mother and read to you from worker’s pamphlets as he put you to bed. It rubbed off on you and you grew with a belief in worker and humanity equality. It was your mother that pushed the family to leave. She feared that if something didn’t change that your family was going to starve and die. Your parents had relatives and friends who had made the trip to America and you decided to do the same. At the age of 13 with our parents, you made the trip to New York City. Decades later you would still say that the Statue of Liberty was the most beautiful woman that you’d ever seen. You would talk to boardrooms in hushed tones describing how you stood on the deck on a foggy winter’s morning and the Statue of Liberty slowly emerged from the dense fog. You told how thrilled you were when all the immigrants on board the ship burst into cheers upon seeing her for the first time. From New York you moved to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where two of your mother’s sisters lived. Pittsburg at this time was a gritty, dirty, steel town where the entry city lay covered in soot. It was like snow; it covered so much of the ground. In Pittsburgh, your father found work in a cotton factory and you found work at the same factory as a bobbin boy, running up and down the long room replacing bobbins and needles for the weavers, six days a week, 9 hours a day for $1.20 a week at the age of 14. You grew restless in this job and seeking more excitement, you took a job as a messenger boy. At this time, there were no phones, only a telegraph service, but sending a telegraph was expensive; it was several cents for each word, so companies and most people communicated through message service at a local telegraph office. This is where and when you began to work your way to the top. You began to realize that every and any job offered a new and exciting learning experience if you took advantage of it. As a telegraph messenger, you memorized the street, alleys, and shortcuts of all of Pittsburgh. And, even though you weren’t a telegraph operator, you memorized Morse code. AS you memorized the streets, you also began to memorize where things were, the theaters, the museums, the libraries, the docks, the factories, making sure that any delivery to a theater was left until the end o the day. This way, if you were lucky, and you were often lucky, you would be able to stay and see the show. This is how you became familiar with Shakespeare, Goethe, and other classic plays. You credited these stolen moments of theater with instilling within you a life-long love of learning. One of the local theater managers told you of a library run by a progressive factory owner who lent books to working books. You soon found yourself borrowing as many books as you could read, reading everything and anything you could. You began a life-long ambition of self-education. You soon found yourself moving up in the telegraph office. You were soon a telegraph operator talking, translating, and writing messages. It was in this capacity that you met the man who could make your career. His name was Thomas A Scott and he was on his way to be a railroad millionaire. He was so impressed with you that he hired you as his personal secretary at a salary that neither you nor your family could believe. So impressed with you, he referred to you as “my boy Andy” and soon you become his right hand man. As his secretary you were in charge of many things, but first and most you sent and received all of his messages by telegraph. In fact, Scott sent so many messages that the two of you ended up sharing the same office to save time between messages. This arrangement not only saved time but also served to be an excellent education for you. You were given a front row seat in how to run a successful business and how to handled the daily operations of the trains. One day there was a nasty train wreck that clogged the tracks so badly that it was causing a train to back-up across the nation Unable to find Mr. Scott, you began to give orders over the telegraph in his name. In less than an hour, the problem was solved. Fearing that you had gone too far, when Scott returned you explained everything. He checked on your work and seeing that everything was indeed working fine, he promoted you, making you his partner. In 1860, the Civil War broke out. You began to realize that America needed iron in order to fight and to make anything of value. Taking a huge risk, you resigned from Mr. Scott’s company and brought an iron company. Within three years, the business was booming. You were only 33 years old. At 35 you resigned, taking two years off and traveling the world, reading and visiting the world’s museums. In London, you met an inventor named Henry Bessemer who had a new process for creating what he called steel, a combination of iron and other alloys that was lighter but stronger than standardized steel. You realized that this was the next great invention. You invested heavily in it and opened up a brand new steel plant in Pittsburgh. This choice would make you one of the richest men in the history of the world. You soon became the steel maker and seller in the world. The wealthier you became, the more literary you became as well. You began to write books about business and lie and even started a magazine for a while. In an article you wrote for you magazine you described what you referred to as Gospel of Wealth. In the Gospel of Wealth, you argued that it was the responsibility of the wealthy to take care of and make life better for the poor and the downtrodden. You argued that those who die rich, die in disgrace. You attempted to use this and other articles to pressure other wealthy corporate owners (your friends) to give generously to philanthropic causes. Even though you wrote articles like this one, “muckrakers” of the time, socially conscious journalists called you a tyrant and a robber baron. They accused you of using unfair labor practices, unfair business practices, and of forgetting where you came from. You lashed back in article after article defending yourself, arguing that you believed in the worker’s right to organize, your upbringing, your parents, and how your family struggled as workers, even mentioning the worker reading clubs your father attended. Even so, the criticisms continued. They continued mostly because you attempted to block the formation of unions at each of your factories. You weren’t brutal about it, but you did fire any identified union leaders or anyone who agitated or fought for unions. It was also common knowledge that you were able to become rich by having your workers work long hours for low wages. The worst moment came at the Homestead Plant in rural Pennsylvania. You had been living in Paris for 6 months and were semi-retired. You had put Henry Clay Frick in charge of Carnie Steel and in charge of the Homestead Plant when a strike broke out. Somehow the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) were able to gain a foothold in the factory and had even managed to bring together skilled and unskilled labor in the strike. They were organized and they were determined. It seems that in your absence, Frick lowered the per hour pay of workers in an effort to raise profits. That was the last straw, and every single worker went out on strike. Frick attempted to bring in scabs, or workers who were willing to break the picket or strike line and work for the company, but only a few dared to cross the strike line and most who did were talked or threatened out of it the next day. Unwilling to compromise, Frick hired Pinkerton Detectives, a notorious group of quasi-law enforcement private investigators, who had become expert strike breakers. With clubs, handguns, rifles, shotguns, and one gattling gun (the first machine gun), Frick ordered the strike over. 300 strikebreakers attacked the unarmed workers. A day long battle took place leaving ten workers dead and over 60 severely wounded. Finally the governor sent in the National Guard to take the town and factory over. The strike was broken and the wages stayed the same. You came down on the sick of Frick supporting him publicly, but within a few weeks he was removed from your company. A few months later Alexander Berkman, Edmma Goldman’s Sasha attempted his misguided assassination of Frick. Your reputation as an honest broker was forever tarnished by the events of the Homestead Strike and you would write in your diary later in life that the events still haunted your waking hours. You never intended for the workers to be injured you said. Even so your steel company continued to reign supreme. In 1900 you sold the company to JP Morgan who was attempting to take it from you an underhanded business deal. Though you felt you could have fought him and won you figured it would take 10-15 years and at age 64, you felt it wasn’t worth it, that there were other things to do. You sold the company for $480 million and refocused your life on philanthropy. Saying that you came into this world poor and that you were determined to leave it poor, you began to give money to those who worked for it. You created the Carnegie Trust and through this organization you created the Carnegie-Mellon University, Carnegie Hall in New York City, and dozens of libraries and museums. You also created a Palace of Peace in Brussels, Belgium, which is now the International Criminal Court. You believed in the philosophy of moral internationalism like Woodrow Wilson but were destroyed when Wilson took America into World War I. You died in 191, just as World War I was reaching peace, but your wife Louise said that you died of a broken heart the day that World War I was declared. In fact, June 28, 1914 was the last journal entry in your diary. John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) You were born to an unremarkable family in an unremarkable part of the work. You were born the second of six children on a small farm in upstate New York. Your family was not rich, but certainly was not the poorest of the poor either when crops when up your family was able to sell the farm and move to a larger place in Ohio, outside Cleveland. It was here in Cleveland that you attended school for the first time, excelling at it and where you found religion. You joined the Euclid Avenue Baptist Church and became such an ardent churchgoer that you became a trustee, or guiding member of the church at age 21. After high school you attended a trade school, named Folsom Mercantile College, completing a 6 month course in bookkeeping in only half the time. You were then rewarded your first job as assistant bookkeeper at the Hewitt and Tuttle firm, a small firm that shipped and received for a few small merchants. Once you began work you dedicated your whole self to it, and your career was on its way. In no time you were cashier, then head bookkeeper and in no time you were making $25 a month, a good salary for such a young and inexperienced worker. In 1859, you took the first of what would be many career risks. You quit your job and with $1,000 saved and with another $1,000 you had borrowed, you formed your own business forming a partnership with another young clerk. At about this time, oil was discovered in the rural areas outside of Cleveland and Cleveland became a booming oil refinery city. It was too much to resist and soon you and four other partners created an oil refinery business. Soon you bought out the company with one other partner and you were on your way. You renamed your company Standard Oil and slowly but surely began to take over all the other local oil firms. By 1872, you had a monopoly of all the oil refineries in the Cleveland area. (Monopoly means that you had control over all the firms, anyone who bought oil in the Ohio region bought it from you, at your prices; there was no competition). This is when you began to completely dominate the oil business. You realized that you could completely control the market if you began to control the “means of production.” You began to realize that you could lose money if the company that created the oil barrels over charged you, or the trains were late, or charged too much, or the warehouse where you kept oil charged too much or had a problem. So, you set out to dominate, to won, to control all of those. You wanted to own a company that had to do with every part of the oil business and you were vicious about how you got control. You would intimidate, drive hard bargains, make deals, and do anything to gain control of these businesses. It was at this time you began predatory pricing as well. What this means is that if any company attempted to move in on any piece of your business, you would simply drop off the prices of your products. In order word, you would drop the prices so low that no company could compete and were driven out of business quickly. As soon as the competition was dead and gone, you would raise the prices super high in order to earn back the money you had lost when you dropped off the prices. Consumers were forced to buy your product because you had a monopoly and therefore you had the only product available for purchase. All of the companies that you owned became one giant trust, or a series of companies all owned by a few people combined together into one super company. This company was called the Standard Oil Trust. There were 42 owners but everyone new who the real owner was, you. It was about this time that a woman named Ida Tarbell began to write a series of articles for anew magazine called McClure’s Magazine. Apparently you had bought her father’s oil years before in a legitimate business deal and now she is upset. She went after you for pure revenge. Over a two-year period, her magazine articles attacked and disparaged every part of your business arrangements and business deals. She investigated you so much and got so many details that she was able to twist them and make it seem like everything you did was evil. For some reason, people listened to her. Her articles put pressure on the government to do something and they did. Accusing Standard Oil of being a predatory monopoly and practicing unfair business practices, the government forced your company to divide into several smaller companies. You fought long and hard to keep unions out of your companies. You felt the workers and the bosses were a family, with the bosses the parents and the workers the children. You felt the company knew what was best for the workers and they should be grateful for what the companies gave them. You felt that you had worked hard and fought your way to the top and that anyone could do it if they were determined, worked hard, and took risks. You retired from the oil business at 57 and chose to become a philanthropist instead. “I believe it is every man’s religious duty to get all he can honestly and to give all he can,” you said. Religion and the church had been an active part of your life and you had given generously to churches as your fortune grew. You would go onto give money to universities, research institutes, African-American colleges, and other outstanding organizations until your death in 1937. Eugene V. Debs “While there is a low class I am in it, while there is a soul in prison I am not free.” “We must triumph as law abiding citizens or not at all. Those who engage in force and violence are our real enemies.” You were born to an intellectually rich but financially poor family in Terre Haute, Indiana. Your father’s library was voluminous but his pocket book near empty. He had a love oh philosophy and literature, of Voltaire and Tartuffe and he passed this on to you in spades. Like most recent immigrants to the United States, life was a struggle. Your family was German immigrants and Germans were new to the midwestern area of Indiana. Though were wasn’t overt, abject hatred of Germans, there were slight quiet rebuffs that made it difficult for your family to get and sustains a good standard of living. What always you was how upbeat your father and mother always were. Even when things were down and life was hard and the future didn’t look good, your father and mother were happy and made sure that you and your brother Theodore were happy as well. Eventually your father was able to scrape together enough money to open a general store where he your mother sold various goods and food. The store allowed your family to gain respect within the community. This happened because your father was a fair man and became known as a fair man also because he got to know everyone in your small town. Despite his heavy German accent he and your mother became known as honorable people. You and your brother went to the local school and both excelled. You enjoyed school, the discussions, the learning, the possibilities of it were intoxicating to you. The discussions begun in school always spilled over to your house and the dinner table. Over food and drink your family would discuss everything. It wasn’t until much later in life that you realized and appreciated how wonderful, close, and loving your family was. The book that moved you the most throughout your life and the one that you read most often and talked of constantly was Les Miserables by Victor Hugo. It told the story of a convict who committed murder, escaped from prison, became rich and then dedicated his life to making the world better. This book captivated your imagination and laid out the course of your life. It was a favorite of your father’s too and the both of you spent hours and hours talking about it. When you graduated from high school, like many recent immigrants, college and the university was not an option. To the majority of Americans who were not recent immigrants college was not an option at this time either. So, at the age of 17 you became a fireman on the Union Pacific Railway. From your home in Terre Haute you road the rails all over the Midwest and South piling coal and making sure the train didn’t burst into flames. You liked the work, you felt important, you got to know workers and you became proud of them and through them, proud of yourself. For the rest of your life you would count yourself as a worker and you would dedicate your life to making the lives of worker better. Train firemen worked hard and it was dangerous work. Accidents happened all the time and friends of yours lost limbs and lives. It wasn’t their fault; it was the industry’s fault. The train companies never provided enough money, time, or safety precautions to insure that all the company’s workers were safe. For a few more dollars a few more lives could have been saved. Your mother worried always about your safety. You knew that she would have worried no matter what, even if you worked In your family store for the rest of your life she would have worried, but the train work worried her sick so you quit it. You worked for a few jobs around town until you finally found your life’s calling, union work. While you worked in Terre Haute at odd jobs your mind and imagination were still on the trains with the workers with the men you worked with, with your friends. You wrote many letters to them and at night after closing time you would walk down to the train tracks and talk to the workers fighting out how they were, how the company had been treating them. These conversations and a man who sought you out would change your life. A man you had met before, who had often come to your father’s store needed your help. He wanted to create a union specifically for railway workers and he needed someone who knew the railways and knew the workers well, that was you. Thus began your life as a union activist. You soon became known for your kindness, generosity and ferociousness while fighting for the rights of workers. You rode the trains nationwide setting up union lodges and convincing workers that their lives would become better as union activists. One day a worker came to your explaining that he had been shortchanged on his last paycheck and that the railroad had failed to respond to his constant please for restitution. You jumped on a train with the worker and went directly to the headquarters of the train company. You went directly to the president’s office and demanded a meeting, which was surprisingly granted. You demanded restitution for the worker, which was granted and the president went on to offer you a job as a vice-president. You told him to go to Hell and jumped back on the train and headed home. With this, your legend grew. Workers everywhere loved you, supported your, and listened to you. With the respect of the workers behind you, you created the American Railway Union (ARU). It became a conglomeration of other smaller unions and would eventually represent every level of railway workers in the industry. Within a year the ARU became the strongest industrial union in the railway industry. As you advocated for railway unionism you kept education yourself reading books, attending lectures, meeting advocates for rights on many issues. After reading a speech by Susan B. Anthony (famous suffragette) you found out where she was speaking next and went to meet her. You were outraged to discover that the theater where she was to be speaking canceled her scheduled appearance due to pressure from groups who opposed giving women the right to vote. So, you rented a hall and asked Ms. Antony to speak in it. Thus began a lifelong friendship. She invited you to write for her journal and this began your career in letters. You would be the editor of over a dozen union and political journals and write weekly columns in many more journals. As you became better and better known authors began to send you copies if their books and your small office and Terre Haute soon boasted a voluminous library of old works as well as more recent ones. You and your brother Theodore began to realize that many important books were not being published by the better known publishing companies. So, in response, you and your brother created Debs’ Brothers Publishing dedicated to publishing lesser-known authors of powerful and important subjects of the people. Your company was dedicated to subjects like unionism, the struggles of farmers and other poor and eventually to subjects of socialism, anarchism, and communism. Though you loved to read were a very smart man, you were not seen as intellectual because most of your ideas didn’t come from books from the lives and struggles of working men and women all over the country. Though your fame began to grow, it was the evil of another man that made you famous. This man was a wealthy industrialist, friend of J.D Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie, a man who monopolized all trains traveling through the Midwest. His name was George C. Pullman and he not only monopolized trains he had created the Pullman Sleeping Car. The Pullman Sleeping Car was the latest and best way to travel by train. The Pullman car was beautiful and elegant, supplied with a kitchen, bedroom, reading room, and the first sunroof. It was the only way to travel. The problem was that Pullman had created an entire town, known as Pullman Town (surprisingly), 60 miles outside of Chicago that surrounded his factory. Every person that worked in the factory was forced to live in the town. All the houses and apartments in the town were owned by Pullman. All the stores and businesses were owned and operated by Pullman. To make things worse, rather than paying workers in money Pullman paid them in company script (fake money) that could only be used in the Pullman stores. One year, as Pullman stock and earnings went down he paid his workers less money while simultaneously raising rents and raising prices in the company stores. The workers at Pullman were in an untenable situation. Paid only in company script, the money was worthless anywhere outside of town even if the workers had any money to spend, Most of workers were begin on rent, owed money to at least one company store and were beginning to slowly starve to death. As one worker describe it, “We are born in a Pullman house, fed from the Pullman shop, taught in the Pullman school, catechized in the Pullman Church, and when we die we shall be buried in the Pullman cemetery and go to the Pullman Hell.” One well skilled mechanic worked 10 hours a day for seen days then got a paycheck for 7 cents. The rent and bills owed to local stores had already been deducted by the company. The workers are Pullman organized a strike and asked you and the ARU for assistance. You responded by going to investigate the situation. You were angered and moved to tears. You voted that the ARU would assist in any way possible. So began the Great Railway Strike. It was said that you could leave the house with $200 and return an hour later with none of it and having bought nothing. You gave it all away. You’d never met a person you didn’t want to help and never had money you didn’t mind giving away to those in greater need than yourself and you learned early I life that there were many who were in greater need than yourself. The Great Railway Strike was no exception, you spend thousands of your own money and put all the money of the union into it as well. Because of your role in the strike the newspapers began to call it the “Debs Rebellion.” The strike was long and nasty. The company brought in paid Pinkerton guards who shot several strikers. The strikers, against your wishes and struggles, returned the Pinkerton kindness by gathering weapons and killing guards. The company responded by calling in the guard and using them to suppress and kill the strikers. The strike was eventually broken and the workers were forced to go back at much the same wage and in much the same working conditions as before. The ARU was destroyed by the strike and you ended up being arrested and convicted for “inciting a riot” even though you advocated for peaceful protest. Regardless, your legend grew. It was while you were in prison that you began to understand and become outraged by the conditions that the prisoners found themselves in. You were locked in a cell with five other men and for 23 hours a day lived in complete darkness. You began to advocate for change immediately. You couldn’t believe how horrible prison was and how it always housed only the poor. You began a legend for speaking to any prisoners to keep their spirits up, sharing the care packages that arrived for you everyday carrying tobacco, candy, and other foods that all prisoners longed for. You became so well known by the warden that he allowed your cell door to remain unlocked all hours. It was while you were in prison that you turn to Socialism. You began to realize that the rich, the powerful were never going to change on their own. You understood that a powerful benevolent force fighting for the people, the common people, was going to have to force companies to do the right thing by the people. Unlike other socialists, you weren’t a fire and brimstone revolutionary socialist. You didn’t want to tear America down, instead what you wanted to do was actually create the country the Constitution called for, a country where all men were equal, where there was a community that protected by the government. You began to feel that if government owned the railroads, if the government forced companies to pay a fair livable wage and to provide hospital treatment that America could become truly great. As soon as you got out of prison you began to write for and created several socialist magazines. You became convicted that the two major political parties, the Republicans and the Democrats were both controlled by the large corporations that were never going to be fair to the average worker. This is why you endorsed and struggled for socialism for the rest of your life. You began to lecture widely on the evil of capitalism and business and on the possibilities of socialism. You had become so famous due to the Pullman Strike that you were asked to run for president on the socialist part ticket because of your speaking ability. You had the unique gift of speaking to both the uneducated and incredibly well educated at the same time, inspiring both and boring neither. You would run for presidency five times as a socialist, growing the numbers you received each time. The belief that socialism could save America began to be something that many people believed in nationwide, rich, poor, radical and conservative. You never won an election but you were never quite sure that it really mattered. What really mattered was that the country began to grow, began to change, and became to become the country that the founding fathers wanted it to be. Both the Republican and Democratic Parties took several things from the pressure of the Socialist Party and put them into their speeches and added them to their governments. That was a victory, not a total victory, but a victory nonetheless. Your hatred and despite of President Wilson was well known. You considered him a complete hypocrite and scoundrel. Someone who espoused progressive views and said that he was going to make America and the world great, and then didn’t’ support working people or women and then led us into a war (WWI) where working men were killed as soldiers. You attacked him and his policies at every turn. In 1917 President Wilson allowed the passage of the Espionage Act and then in 1918 he allowed the passage of the Sedition Act. These two laws were intolerable. You could not believe that a president, a congress, and then the Supreme Court allowed such madness to happen. The very idea that the First Amendment wasn’t allowed during times of war was insane. The First Amendment says that congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech, it doesn’t say except in times of war. The president is sworn to uphold the Constitution and he was not doing it. Several of your friends had already been arrested for speaking the truth about the war and had been jailed for it. You decided to stand with them in solidarity. In speech after speech you didn’t criticize the draft, (even though you desperately wanted to) but you did criticize WWI and President Wilson’s role in it. At speech after speech the Bureau of Investigation recorded your comments and finally arrested you. At your trial you refused to make a deal and refused to argue that you were not guilty of the charges. Instead you and your lawyers argued that the Espionage and Sedition Acts were wrong, immoral, and unconstitutional. You were found guilty and sentence to 10 years in federal prison. You were sent to prison and had much the same experience as the last time. You got to know all the prisoners, advocating for their rights, befriended the warden and were able to walk freely about the prison. You even ran for president from prison as a socialist for the fifth time. You didn’t win but did earn 900,000 votes. Stubborn till the end, you refused to ask for a pardon and President Wilson refused to grant it. In the opening days of President Harding’s administration (Wilson’s successor), you were pardoned. Rather than going straight home to Terre Haute and your wife, President Harding asked to meet you. He welcomed you to the White House with a dinner with important political dignitaries. You died at your home in Terre Haute after struggling for the workers your whole life. John Muir You were born in Scotland, in Dunbar to be exact 3 miles east of Edinburgh, but your family migrated to America early in your life. As a child, your first memories were of your family farm in the wilds of Wisconsin. Your father was a domineering presence in your life. He was a religious dogmatist and he enforced his love for and fear of religion onto you and your mother. He forbid any books other than the bible to be in the house or to be ready by his family. He was brutal beating you and your mother for any slight betrayal of his rules or thinking outside of his box. Your mother taught you to escape into the woods, into its fantasy and into its natural beauty. You followed her advice tramping through the wilderness at every opportunity letting its beauty wash over you and to help you escape. You fell in love with poetry through a kindly neighbor who let you hide out at his house and read deeply, borrowing books from his library and hiding them in your barn away from your father. It was this early love of poetry that would influence your writing for the rest of your love. You were soon saving your pennies and any other money that you could get your hands on to buy books and to hide them throughout your father’s farm. The famous Scottish poet Robert Burns became one of your favorites. As you grew you gained a reputation around your little hometown of being able to create little machines that helped everyone. You created hydrometers, water wheels, lamplighters and other small inventions that you sold, using the money to buy books. In 1860 a neighbor encouraged you to display your inventions at the country fair being held at the University of Wisconsin. You did and were further inspired to attend the university the following year. During your first year there you studied mostly botany and geology but also a healthy helping of literature and poetry. After only a year, you dropped out and enrolled in what you called, “The University of Wilderness.” In that same year the Civil War broke out and as a pathological pacifist, you headed into Canada where you lived off the land and began to study the botany and wildlife of the area. When the war ended you returned and took a job in a factory making wagons in Indianapolis. It was this choice that would change your life. You were injured there, taking a blast of steam full in the face and were blinded for three weeks. It was the first time that you realized how short life was and how easily the beauty and majesty of it could be taken away. Laying there, confined to bed, with heavy towels wrapped around your head to help heal your eyes, you decided that you would reshape your life and spend it doing what you most loved, exploring the wilds. After your eyesight returned you decided to walk to the west and explore as much wilderness as you could. Through your walking and the books and articles that you would write later, you became America’s first animal rights pioneer. Though you walked through the wildest wilderness imaginable you carried no guns and ate no meat. You were a vegetarian before there were names for such things and encouraged others to eat only plants as well. You wrote that “A palm tree preached far grander things than was ever uttered by a human priest” and said that if “a war ever broke out between wild beasts and Lord Man, I would be tempted to sympathize with the bears.” You gained a single-minded devotion to one thing and one thing only, wilderness. The woods and wilderness were your only interest, your only concern, your only focus. You felt that direct exposure to and experience with the majestic wilderness would solve all social problems. You once wrote that you wanted to, “save the wilderness for humans.” You argued that only true communion with nature would allow humans to confront and control their own true natures. In writings, you often pondered rhetorical questions such as, “Are not all plants beautiful?” and “Would not the world suffer from the banishment of a single weed?” While writing letters you use to sign your name, “John Muir, Earth-planet, Universe.” Your number one thought and struggle was for the natural preservation for wildlife. Though universities and other organizations offered you prestigious salaries and positions from which to fight for your cause, you knew that the best way to fight for your cause was to continue living your cause, hiking, exploring, and writing. Rather than become a political leader or organize a political party, in 1892 you founded the Sierra Club, a mountaineering club. The Sierra Club combined political agitation, education, and actual mountaineering. You served as its first president from the time that it was founded until your death in 1914. Gifford Pinchot, the first head of the U.S. Forest Service, hired by President Roosevelt saw the creation of the National Forest System as a way to create and maintain a manufacturing sight for wood and other materials. You wanted the National Park system to be a series of wilderness preserves and parks that saved all natural things and allowed people to visit the natural wonder of America without destroying it. You fought Pinchot’s perspective with your dying breath. You considered yourself a tramp and a vagabond without worldly ambition but you created a strong following of educators and activists who read your books and articles again and again and again. There is a national park system and red woods in California today because of you. Upton Sinclair You are Upton Sinclair celebrated muckraker and author. Known as “Uppie” to your close friends and family. You were in fact one of if not the first muckraker. Things weren’t always thus though. Though you came from a wealthy and famous lineage including an Admiral who led American forces in the Great Lakes region during War of 1812. Though your extended family was famous, your immediate family was not. Your father was an itinerant salesman and a brutal alcoholic. You were born in a boarding house in Baltimore, Maryland, your family leaving early the next morning so that they could skip out on the bill. Your family moved to New York City when one day while roaming through the Bowery district you came across your family splayed out in the gutter, drunk, and unconscious. When your father was drunk, he was brutal, looking to hit you and your mother. You were often sent to rich relatives for your own protection. When you went to stay with them they looked down upon you as the poor cousins and you grew to detest their snobbery. When you came home from one of these trips you asked your mother, “Why are some children poor and other children rich? How can that be fair?” Your mother shrugged with tears on her eyes. This question would drive your writing and your life. You knew early in life that your profession would be that of writer but you also knew that your passion be to fight against the inequality and poverty that you saw all around you. You had a long life and a long career as both journalist and novelist. As a novelist you exposed corporate crime, the corruption of public officials and in your most famous novel The Jungle, you wrote an expose of the meat packing industry which caused such an uproar that the American government was forced to create the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) which supervises and approves meat, meat packing, and safe drug distribution. You were only 26 when you wrote The Jungle, making a name for yourself early in your career. Known as “Uppie” to your friends, you became “Uppie” to the entire country. You took your fame and notoriety from The Jungle and used it to take down other targets you saw as destroying the fabric of America. When topics became too controversial and you couldn’t get a publisher to publish them or a bookseller to sell them you published them yourself and sold them in the street. You would say later, “All my life, I have had fun in controversy,” meaning that you had a good time pointing out the hypocritical corruptions that were taking place in America at this time. You used your fame to gain notice for issues that you were concerned about, meatpacking, poverty, labor unions, socialism, feminism, and other causes that you felt needed attention. You were arrested several times for protest and became a vegetarian (as a result of your research for The Jungle) long before anyone knew what that was or why it was politically or biologically important. You founded and lived in at least two utopian communities in Englewood, New Jersey and Delaware, were an active member of Sierra Club and helped to found the Southern California Chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). You were so involved in so many things that critics began to accuse you of having Jesus complex, meaning that you felt that you and only you could save the world, like Jesus. You responded by saying that the world is such a mess today, that we all we need were a Jesus more than anything else. In 1934 at the height of the Great Depression, you decide to run for governor of California as a candidate for a movement you called EPIC or End Poverty in California. When you won the Democratic Primary and were running against the Republican challenger it is not an over reaction to say that all Hell broke loose up and down the state of California. People everywhere yelled and screamed about the possible socialist takeover that was going to end California and end America, as we knew it. In the very first media blitz of our age, mailers, radio ads, and newspaper ads attacked you as a lunatic communist that was going to destroy everything that America stood for. It worked, you were defeated, but not by much in your run for governor. You lost, but you shook it off, continuing to write, protest, and attack greed and corruption wherever you saw it. You were a visionary ahead of your time. Jane Addams You are Jane Addams. You were born wealthy in a small town called Cedarville, Illinois just outside Chicago. From a young age you recognized that you were ugly and didn’t fit in with the other children. You gravitated toward your father whom you just loved and adored. Though he loved unequivocally you always felt you never quite lived up to his expectations. Around the town of Cedarville, the two of you were an inseparable pair, him dashing around town attending to his business and you just a few steps behind, following his every steps and his every word. Hearing your father interact with others you learned how to speak to people, how to listen to people, how to interact with people, how to convince people, and how to care about people. You would later say that from the very beginning you would sympathized with the poor, the downtrodden, the down and out, the oppressed and the alone, because you were “an ugly, pigeon-toed little girl whose crooked back obliged her to walk with her head held very much upon one side.” You always said it was your low self-perception that began your empathy for others. You saw plenty of others in nearby towns who needed an advocate, who needed a hand, who were helpless, and hopeless. You would say that years later, as an adult their faces searching for some reason to continue on would be etched in your memory. It was here that your outrage at the way things are and your search for a solution began. You were born wealthy and your father, a good businessman, continued to grow your wealth. You were educated in the best schools and at the age of 16 enrolled in what was then called Rockford Seminary and later Rockford College. It was an all girls’ school because the only school that admitted women at this time was Oberlin College in neighboring Ohio. Though you knew that Oberlin was a good school you could not stand to be that far away from your family, father, and home of Illinois. Rockford was a missionary school that drove home the need to contribute, to make an impact, to make your life extraordinary and to make it worth living. You were told that it was going to be difficult to “make it in a man’s world” but you were told that you must and that you would. You graduated with a sense of mission and a sense of obligation to make the world better. After graduating you went on to study medicine for a short time, but something happened. It was nothing that you ever spoke of but it seems that you experienced what we, today, would call a nervous break down. After this, in an effort to help you recuperate, your father sent you on a “tour of Europe.” At this time, the “tour of Europe,” a visit to all the main cities, museums, and cathedrals of England, France, Spain, and other countries was what all the wealthy children did, including Theodore Roosevelt. It was something that you were hoping to avoid, but because of your illness you went along with your father. Your father wanted you to go and so, you went for him, but the trip became yours. Rather than visiting the museums and cathedrals you visited the factories and slums. You wanted to see what the reality of Europe and the world was. While visiting London, you visited Tonybee Hall, a community center that was fighting to make the world better for the poor, for the oppressed, for the downtrodden. You realized here, in the slums of Europe, that our life’s calling was going to be with them, that to be true with yourself, you were going to have to cast your lot with the slums of America. When you returned to America you moved into the South side of Chicago to live amongst and fight for the poorest of the poor. You found an old dying manor house on Halstead Street owned by a friend of the family who gave it over to you. You did a little research and discovered that it had been owned by a wealthy merchant years before named Charles Hull. From his name, the name of your settlement house was born, Hull House. Hull House was opened to the public the very next week and never closed. You remembered that your father never locked the doors to your house because he wanted everyone and anyone to be welcomed in your home. You decided that your doors would never be locked either and that Hull House would became whatever the neighborhood, the city, the people needed it to be. It would help anyone who needed help, anyone who asked for help. With the opening of the Hull House, you began the settlement house movement and soon in large urban cities nationwide homes began to be opened to service the poor. Long before the job had been named, you had become a social worker, seeing the social needs of everyone in need. Living and working in inner it Chicago, you saw Social Darwinism up close and first hand. At this time, large corporations and robber barons had applied Charles Darwin’s theory of “survival of the fittest” to a social context. They argued that those who were rich deserved to be rich and those who were poor deserved to be poor. They argued that Americans should be able to “pull themselves up by their own bootstraps.” In other words they said that everyone could be successful if they only worked hard. You saw through these lies as you witnessed the lies of the poor, weak, or the immigrants who worked 12 to 14 hours a day making only enough to survive, and to survive barely. You swung your doors wide to feed the hungry, heal the sick, play with the children, and educate the ignorant. Hull House grew into a school, a cafeteria, a playground, an art museum, a theater, a dance studio and anything that could be imagined. 2,000 people a day came through the doors of Hull House and were better for it. Hull House was an instant success and suddenly money and support began pouring in from all over the country. Industrialists, movie stars, politicians, everyone seemed to want to help. It seems that you had made giving and helping hip and fashionable. You did everything at Hull House, acting not just as director and founder but as midwife, baby sitter, theater director, teacher, you did anything and everything that needed to be done. You also turned out to be gifted writer, eloquently explaining your mission, your hopes, your fears, and your desires for the future. You would go no to have an effect on law, presenting arguments to congress, and pressuring politicians to make the government serve the people. You wrote numerous books, pamphlets, and newspaper articles in an effort to educate the public on the struggles and difficulties of the oppressed and downtrodden and how the average American could help. You supported the Progressive Party and both candidates Robert M. Lafollette and Theodore Roosevelt for president For your struggles you were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the first woman to be given such an honor. You were a tireless advocate for the poor and in need until your death in 1935. Mother Jones “Pray for the dead, and fight like Hell for the living. Mother Jones “Women are fighters. You will never solve the problem until you let the women. No nation is greater than its women.” You are Mother Jones, fiery gray haired radical who inspired workers to struggle against their capitalist bosses well into their nineties. At the height of your influence and power you were in your mid- eighties and were either agitating for the United Miners Federation (UMF) or the Socialist Party, but never gave absolute allegiance to any organization. You always followed your own views. Claiming that all those who suffered were your children you began to call yourself Mother Jones. Formerly you were known as Mary Jones and Mary Harris. You struggled for justice throughout your whole life through the power of your voice and the power of your actions. Eventually you would work for the United Miners Federation, the Socialist Party with Eugene Debs, and be a founding member of the IWW, though you would eventually disagree with them on many issues, especially their belief in using violence first against companies. You were born and raised in Cork County, Ireland, in a strong Catholic household. When the potato famine hit Cork County, and your entire family was devastated. Over a million people in Ireland died of malnutrition and outright starvation. For generations the potato had been the staple crop, providing the Irish with food for three meals a day. When the Phytopthora infestans fungus hit the potato crop, Ireland would never be the same. Within a few years, 12% of the population would die and at least 2 million fled the country. You and your family were part of that two million, moving to New York City then to Vermont. When you were 24 you moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where happy and your family was growing when disaster struck for the second time in your short life. In 1867, 2,500 people in Memphis, where you lived, developed the Yellow Fever and an additional 600 people developed Cholera. Among those who died were your husband and four children. The horror of this event of so much death and sorrow so early in life, scarred you so deeply, you rarely talked about it, but it changed your life forever. Digging into that pain and despair, you used it to fuel your lifetime of struggle against oppression and for justice. While in New York, you earned a degree from a Normal School, allowing you to teach elementary school. While in Memphis, you learned how to sew dresses and became a talented seamstress. Soon after your family died, you ran from your sadness and anger to Chicago, Illinois where you opened a seamstress shop. It was here that your anger began to take shape into action. It was during the worst depression that the United States had ever seen that Mary Jones became Mother Jones. While you were in Chicago, you watched the trial that came from the Haymarket Square Affair, in which radical leaders were blamed for the murders of 8 police officers that they did not do. In the wake of the trial, and several of their executions, you began to attend meetings of the Knights of Labor and Terrance Powderly, the head of the KOL would become a life-long friend. It was watching the corporations abuse their work force with unsafe working conditions, low wages, and long hours and worst of all, making their children work. It was during this time that the Haymarket Affair took place as well. Some labor activists and radicals were delivering a May Day (International Workers Day) speech arguing for better worker rights. The speakers were anarchist radicals; some of whom felt that violence should be used in order to better protect workers helping them get safer conditions and the eight-hour work day. As police arrived to break up the meeting, a bomb was thrown at them, killing at least one police officer. The police officers responded by opening fire on the crowd. When the dust settled eight police officers were killed, mostly by friendly fire (police accidentally shooting each other) and an untold number of civilians. In the wake of violence, the leaders who were giving the speeches were blamed for the violence, even though it was never proven who threw the bomb. They were put on trial and found guilty, two were subsequently hanged, one committed suicide the night before he was hanged, one was given life in prison, and two were eventually pardoned after spending time in prison. Soon after this incident, Mother Jones was born. You became Mother Jones, the mother of all workers, the mother of all children who worked in factories, the mother who cared for and fought for their justice. Though you were a very smart woman, you weren’t an intellectual activist, believing in acting rather than the written word. Instead of behind a desk writing articles, you would be found giving speeches and organizing workers. You first became the International Organizer for the United Mine Workers or UMW. At this time coal was the energy source feeding the growing industries, Mother Jones felt by organizing coal workers, she could guarantee better working conditions for them. She surrounded herself with the radical labor organizers of the day, “Big Bill” Haywood, Eugene Debs, and others. It was your job to rally workers together, to convince them to join the union, to convince them to go on strike, to convince them that justice could be earned through struggle. You believed strongly in the power of the strike, in the power of every mine worker or other worker, refusing to work until the company gave them what they needed for safe working conditions. You walked into mines, into job sites and began talking to workers in their own language, in ways that they could understand, inspiring then, making them believe they were worthy and could win. When workers would go on strike, companies would often hire “scabs” and strike breakers, men with guns to beat strikers, forcing them to go back to work. You fought against this by getting worker’s wives to form “mop and bucket brigades,” having them strike with their husbands, daring and shaming strike breakers into letting them beat women, and men continued to strike. Your greatest and most well known act of resistance was the “Children’s Crusade.” One of the many issues of the day that drove you to speech after speech and rally after rally was the need and desire to end child labor. You organized a march of children laborers carrying signs like, “we want to plan,” and “we want a childhood,” and “we want to go to school,” from Pennsylvania to New York City to gain consciousness of the plight of children workers. Your plan was to march to President Theodore Roosevelt’s home at Sagamore Hill in New York, knock on his door and demand a discussion with him. Though you wrote him a letter and marched to his home, he neither replied nor agreed to see you, but every major newspaper in the country covered your march. You believed strongly in the power of the strike and although spoke about the need for violence, you never used it yourself and often dissuaded others from using it as well. During a series of Colorado Coal strikes, though you were banned from entering the strike zone by the governor of the state, you did so anyway. You gave a speech, was immediately arrested, put on a train to Denver and told never to return. You went to Denver, held some meetings, made a few speeches, then returned to Trinidad, the site of the strike. You stopped the train outside of town, and then marched in through a dry creek bed. You remained in town for thee hours before you were arrested. As you said, “Wherever there are workers in trouble, I’ll be there.” Early in your career you advocated the exclusion of Chinese immigrants from America in order to protect the American workforce. You were sent to prison a number of times for speeches you gave, strikes you were part of and court orders you refused to follow. Any place that downtrodden workers were, especially miners and especially children, you could be found there encouraging workers to join unions, encouraging them to resist the companies, and encouraging them to strike. “Big Bill” Haywood and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or Wobblies) You are “Big Bill” Haywood, a former miner and founding member of the Western Federation of Miners and the IWW. As a young man you became known for your powerful oratory skills and your radical beliefs. With you as the secretary of the WFM or Western Federation of Miners, there politics became much louder and much more radical. You began to call for the use of violence to help the workers gain the justice, rights, and security they deserved. When Frank Steunenberg, the former governor of Idaho, who broke a WFM strike in Cour D Alene, Idaho, was killed by a bomb that was attached to his fence post. You were immediately suspected and you were later arrested with two other top members of the WFM. The charges were later dismissed after Clarence Darrow the pre-eminent trial lawyer of the day proved that the charges against you were a government conspiracy to destroy unionism and radical thought throughout the country. In 1905 you dreamed of the perfect union and gathered together a group of union activists and radicals in Chicago. Out of a series of meetings was formed the Industrial Workers of the World or the IWW or Wobblies for short. In the initial meeting you and the other radicals hammered out a manifesto that called for one big union, a union for all workers everywhere. This was the first time that anyone had dreamed that big, had dreamed that anyone regardless of sex, race, ethnicity, or religion would be allowed in. “They welcomed all who toiled, including African-Americans, immigrants, women, unskilled workers and migratory laborers, under the assumption that they were workers first and foremost.” They argued passionately against the “splintering of unions” into craft unions of skilled vs. unskilled labor of some ethnicities and not others. They felt by including everyone, they would be unstoppable. The IWW argued that trying to change the plight of workers through politics was a waste of time since the majority of workers were foreign born and could not vote anyway. Instead of politics, the IWW worked on labor and union organizing instead. “The IWW dedicated itself to revolutionary social transformation, quickly becoming America’s most prominent organization.” The IWW’s manifesto said in part, “The working class and the employing class have nothing in common. There can be no peace as long as hunger and want are found among millions of working people, and the few who make up the employing class have all the good things in life…Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a class, take possession of the earth and the machinery of production and abolish the watch system.” The IWW attracted mostly single, unattached men who had a belief that violence had the ability to transform society. They believed in confrontational politics all the way through, strikes over arbitration, violence whenever and wherever necessary. It was you who became its chief spokesperson. You had never been a scholar but you were powerful, mesmerizing and very convincing speaker. You described the IWW as “Social with its clothes on.” Even though it had big dreams, the IWW despite your hard work never reached fruition. Your trial, even though you were found not guilty, bankrupted the union and gave it a bad name as “a pack of radicals” throughout the country.
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