Module12 Mar24 2012 Part02 by P1OBWG

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									                             Module 12 continued


   Energy Implications of Development
   Options in Sri Lanka

                                      Energy sources
                                  Energy technologies
                     Energy sufficiency (conservation)
                                     Energy efficiency
                                      Energy security
                                  Sustainability issues
Prof. R. Shanthini
March 24, 2012
Petroleum in Sri Lanka
- Off-shore exploration of petroleum in Mannar basin is being
considered.

- At present, crude oil is imported and refined at the
Sapugaskanda Refinery of the Ceylon Petroleum Corporation
(CPC).

- CPC and Lanka Indian Oil Company (LIOC) are responsible for
the total supply of petroleum.

- LPG supply is carried out by Shell Gas (Lanka) Pvt Ltd.
and Lanka Auto Gas Filling Stations (LAUGFS). Pvt. Ltd.


 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012                   http://www.energy.gov.lk/sub_pgs/elibrary.html
Crude oil refined at Sapugaskanda Refinery
                                                     Flue Gas

                                                     LPG

                       other refinery plants
                        Crude Distiller and          Naptha
Imported
Crude oil                                            Gasoline

                                                     Kerosene

                                                     Auto/Super Diesel

                                                     Fuel oil
                                                     Heavy fuel oil

  Prof. R. Shanthini
                                                     Brown Asphalt
  March 24, 2012                               http://www.energy.gov.lk/sub_pgs/elibrary.html
Sectoral Energy Consumption (thousand TOE)

10,000
 9,000                 Industry

 8,000
                       Transport
                       Household, Commercial & Others
 7,000
 6,000
 5,000
 4,000
 3,000
 2,000
 1,000
       0
       1976            1981        1986   1991   1996     2001       2006
  Prof. R. Shanthini
  March 24, 2012                                        Sri Lanka Energy Balance 2010
Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector (thousand TOE)

5,000
4,500                  Electricity
4,000
                       Petroleum
3,500
                       Biomass
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
 500
     0
     1980              1985          1990   1995   2000       2005         2010
  Prof. R. Shanthini
  March 24, 2012                                     Sri Lanka Energy Balance 2010
Energy Consumption: Transport Sector (thousand TOE)

5,000
4,500                  Petroleum
4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
 500
     0
     1980              1985        1990   1995   2000       2005         2010
  Prof. R. Shanthini
  March 24, 2012                                   Sri Lanka Energy Balance 2010
Energy Consumption: Household, Commercial and Others
                                                            (thousand TOE)
5,000
4,500                  Electricity
                       Petroleum
4,000
                       Biomass
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
  500
     0
     1980              1985          1990   1995   2000       2005         2010
  Prof. R. Shanthini
  March 24, 2012                                     Sri Lanka Energy Balance 2010
Secondary Energy Consumption in Sri Lanka (thousand TOE)

 10,000
  9,000                Electricity
  8,000                Petroleum
  7,000
                       Biomass
  6,000
  5,000
  4,000
  3,000
  2,000
  1,000
       0
       1980            1985      1990   1995   2000       2005         2010
  Prof. R. Shanthini
  March 24, 2012                                 Sri Lanka Energy Balance 2010
Secondary Energy Consumption in Sri Lanka (in %) in 2010



          Biomass
           57.48%                             Petroleum
                                               33.51%




                                       Electricity
                                         9.01%




 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012                        Sri Lanka Energy Balance 2010
Biomass Energy
 Dendro power generation
 Grow fast growing tree species, having high energy yield.
 Eg: Gliricidia Sepium tree
 Harvest biomass from the forest using coppicing techniques
 (the tree as a whole is not cut down, but pruned
 systematically)
 Transport biomass to the power plant
 Fed into the furnace of the conventional steam turbine /
 electrical generator system
 Or, fed into a gasifier to produce a combustible gas that
 could be burnt in a diesel engine coupled to an electrical
 generator.
 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012               Source: http://www.efsl.lk/details.aspx?catid=3
Biomass Energy
 Dendro power generation
 Every MW of dendro power installed creates employment for
 300 people in rural communities.
 Unused land and agricultural smallholds are ideal locations
 for the establishment of biomass plantations and people can
 enhance their earnings by selling fuel wood to dendro plants.
 Employment opportunities are also generated out of the need
 to establish and manage fuel wood plantations and for plant
 construction and maintenance work.




 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012              Source: http://www.efsl.lk/details.aspx?catid=3
Biomass Energy
 Dendro power generation
 Biomass is a renewable energy source which is almost
 carbon neutral as the carbon emissions released during
 combustion are recaptured during re-growth.
 However in practice not all biomass generation will be
 carbon neutral as transportation to the generation plant will
 generate carbon emissions.
 The leaves of the Gliricidia Sepium tree can also be used as
 cattle feed or as a substitute for urea as a soil nutrient.




 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012               Source: http://www.efsl.lk/details.aspx?catid=3
Energy Conservation
The energy conservation fund was established in the mid
1980s to coordinate activities in this area, and later, in the
early 1990s, a separate unit for demand side management
was established in the CEB, mainly to focus on energy
conservation activities in the electricity sector.

This unit has been pursuing several utility sponsored DSM
programmes, such as popularisation of compact fluorescent
lamps (CFLs), development of an energy efficient building
code and energy labelling of electric appliances. Several
private, and non-governmental organisations too, pursue
energy conservation and management activities by offering
expert services and training programmes.

 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012
                      P.D.C. Wijayatunga et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 44 (2003) 3247–3265
                                25000
                                23000
E nerg y C ons umption - G Wh




                                21000
                                19000
                                17000
                                15000
                                13000
                                11000
                                  9000
                                  7000
                                  5000
                                          2008


                                                     2009


                                                            2010


                                                                   2011


                                                                            2012


                                                                                     2013


                                                                                              2014


                                                                                                       2015


                                                                                                                   2016


                                                                                                                          2017


                                                                                                                                 2018


                                                                                                                                        2019


                                                                                                                                               2020
                                                                      Forecast     Forecast with DS M activities

                                                                                            Years

                                Prof. R. Shanthini
                                March 24, 2012
                                F orc es W ater
                                          4%        Textile
                                  1%
                                                     2%
                                                          Garments
                                                            10%
                                                                R ic e
                                                               0.2%
                                                                   R ubber
           Others                                                    7%
            42%
                                                                   S teel
                                                                    4%
                                                                C omunic ation
                                           Ic e Making                1%
                                                1%               Hotels
                                 F ood & B ev                      4%
                                     3%                       Hospitals
                                                                3%

                                                     B uildings
                     C ement
                                              Tea       7%
                       3% P ac kagingC eramic
                              2%        2% 4%
Prof. R. Shanthini
March 24, 2012
                     Sector         GWh/year         kWh/Month


                     Forces                31.3            2607950
                     Water                133.3            11106772
                     Textile               61.6            5130054
                     Garments             310.1            25842745
                     Rice                      7.0          582279
                     Rubber               241.1            20091750
                     Steel                140.4            11698280
                     Comunication          37.7            3138110
                     Hotels               130.7            10889828
                     Hospitals             87.5            7293099


Prof. R. Shanthini
March 24, 2012
                     Sector       GWh/year      kWh/Month


                     Ice Making          17.0         1419058
                     Buildings          239.0         19915546
                     Tea                119.2         9931076
                     Ceramic             65.3         5439253
                     Food & Bev         113.8         9484966
                     Packaging           50.3         4189149
                     Cement             108.4         9032761
                     Others            1367.5




Prof. R. Shanthini
March 24, 2012
                                      S tre e t L ig ht
                                            2%




                                                             L arg e &
            Dom e s tic                                      m e dium
              38%                                          (Indus try &
                                                          C om m e rc ial)
                                                                44%



                                          S m all
                          R e lig ious (Indus try &
                               1%     C om m e rc ial)
                                           15%
Prof. R. Shanthini
March 24, 2012
Environment related issues
 Energy sector emissions:

 Suspended particulate matter (SPM) consists mainly of
 ash with minute quantities of unburned carbon particles.

 Gaseous emissions released as a result of fossil fuel
 Burning are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2)
 and oxides of nitrogen (NOx).

In Sri Lanka, it is mandatory for new thermal power projects
exceeding 25 MW and new hydropower projects exceeding 50 MW
in capacity to get environmental clearance from the relevant Project
Approving Authority by conducting an environmental impact
assessment (EIA)prior to commencement of the project.
 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012
                      P.D.C. Wijayatunga et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 44 (2003) 3247–3265
Emission standards
                                        Emission standards (mg/MJ)
Pollutant
                                 Sri Lanka             World Bank  European
                                (proposed)             (proposed) commission
Nitrogen oxides                       300                     260                     225

Sulphur dioxide                       520                     700                     140

Suspended                              40                      17                      17
particulate




 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012
                      P.D.C. Wijayatunga et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 44 (2003) 3247–3265
Ambient air quality standards (24 h)
                                Ambient air quality standards (mg/m3)
Pollutant
                             Sri Lanka            World Bank               World Health
                                                  (proposed)               Organization
Nitrogen oxides                   0.10                 0.125                      0.15

Sulphur dioxide                   0.08                  0.15                      0.09

Suspended                         0.30                  0.11                      0.15
particulate




 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012
                      P.D.C. Wijayatunga et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 44 (2003) 3247–3265
Ambient air quality standards (1 h)
                                Ambient air quality standards (mg/m3)
Pollutant
                             Sri Lanka            World Bank               World Health
                                                  (proposed)               Organization
Nitrogen oxides                   0.25                  0.35                      0.32

Sulphur dioxide                   0.20                  0.40                      0.35

Suspended                         0.50                     -                         -
particulate




 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012
                      P.D.C. Wijayatunga et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 44 (2003) 3247–3265
Environment related issues
 Energy sector emissions:

 Warm water discharges

 Inundation of land (in case of large hydro reservoirs)

 Land use pattern changes




 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012
                      P.D.C. Wijayatunga et al. / Energy Conversion and Management 44 (2003) 3247–3265
Sustainability Issues




 Prof. R. Shanthini
 March 24, 2012

								
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