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How to Write Clear, Readable Effective Sentences that Readers Love!

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					How to Write Clear, Readable Effective
    Sentences that Readers Love!
          written by Brian Scott
     http://www.LousyWriter.com
                   © Graphics, design and layout by Brian Scott
2                 How to Write Clear, Readable
              Effective Sentences that Readers Love!
                    published by www.LousyWriter.com


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    Contents
    Success in Writing Sentences.......................................................................... 4
    Effective Use of Short Sentences................................................................ 6
    Effective Arrangement of Words ................................................................... 8
    Emphasis and Force in Sentences ............................................................... 11
    Importance of the Opening Sentence ........................................................ 13
    Effective conciseness of expression; avoid wordiness................... 13
    Variety in Sentence Structure ...................................................................... 16
    How to Avoid Careless and Awkward Repetition ................................ 19
    Avoid Redundant Repetition of That .......................................................... 23
    Effective Use of Repetition ............................................................................. 24
    Effective Balance of Constructions ......................................................... 27
    Effective Starts and Stops ............................................................................ 28
    How to Create Climax in Your Sentences................................................ 34
    Effectiveness of Active Voice ........................................................................ 36
    Specific Vs. General Style .............................................................................. 37
    Using Definite, Direct Statements .............................................................. 39




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    Success in Writing Sentences

    Success in writing any type of formal correspondence for either
    business or for the general public depends on the ability to write
    clear-cut, effective sentences. Without this ability you fail to achieve
    the primary purpose of a message—i.e., to convey your thoughts in a
    manner that the reader easily understands them.

    The sentence is the basic unit of expression. Whenever we need to
    convey a thought to another person, we use the sentence. We cannot
    so much as e-mail a customer or correspond with our boss without
    forming a sentence in our minds. In deciding to take such action, we
    say to ourselves, "We need to e-mail Mr. Smith," and then we
    construct the sentence either verbally or written. Sentences are the
    basic units of thought, and the effectiveness of our message depends
    on our skill in constructing them.

    A sentence expresses a complete thought by words that unite
    grammatically. Consider this group of words: "Circulation exceeding
    250,000 copies." This is not a sentence even though it begins with a
    capital letter and ends with a period. It contains no complete
    thought. Not until we have a subject and a predicate can we express a
    complete thought—e. g., "The circulation of The New York Times
    exceeds 950,000 copies."




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    A sentence must have a subject and a predicate. In the example, the
    subject is, "The circulation of The New York Times"; the predicate is
    "exceeds 950,000 copies."

    Failure to decide in your mind precisely what you want to say, or
    failure to determine how you want to say it, results in sentences that
    convey blurred and weak thoughts.

    You can improve your ability to write effective sentences by studying
    and reviewing the important principles of sentence structure in this
    e-book. Follow our advice and review our many examples. By the
    time you have finished our e-book, you will notice an immediate
    improvement in how you construct, review and revise sentences.




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    Effective Use of Short Sentences

    A short sentence, when properly used, can effectively express your
    thoughts.

    Tip 1: A Single, Short Sentence. We can make an important
    thought stand out prominently by placing it in a single, short
    sentence.

    Ordinary: He felt sure that the voters would soon forget his misuse
    of public funds; but he was mistaken, for they did not forget.

    Emphatic: He felt sure the voters would soon forget his misuse of
    public funds, but he was mistaken. They did not forget.

    Emphatic and Concise: He felt sure the voters would soon forget
    how he misused the public funds...but he was wrong. They did not
    forget.

    Tip 2: A Series of Short Sentences. We can make a series of short
    sentences valuable by 1) making a rapid summary; 2) taking the
    reader quickly over a series of events; or 3) emphasizing a series of
    important thoughts.




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    Ordinary: In order that this result may be accomplished, a number of
    matters will have to be adjusted. These include arranging a peace,
    solving economic problems, and settling differences with European
    countries. In fact, we have to re-establish ourselves in the
    reconstructed world.

    Emphatic: In order that this result may be accomplished, a number
    of matters will have to be adjusted. We have a peace to arrange. We
    have economic problems to solve. We have differences with
    European countries to settle. In fact, we have to re-establish
    ourselves in the reconstructed world.

    Emphatic and Concise: To accomplish this result, we must adjust
    some matters: we have to arrange a peace, to solve economic
    problems, and to settle differences with European countries. In fact,
    we have to re-establish ourselves in the reconstructed world.

    Emphatic: To this great conflict for human rights and human liberty
    America has committed herself. There can be no backward step.
    There must be either humiliating and degrading submission or
    terrible defeat or glorious victory. It was no human will that brought
    us to this pass. It was not the President. It was not Congress. It was
    not the press. It was not any political party. It was not any section or
    part of our people.




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    Emphatic and Concise: To this great conflict for human rights and
    human liberty America has committed herself. We cannot step
    backwards. We must have either terrible defeat or glorious victory.
    No American brought us to this crisis--not the President, not
    Congress, not the Press. It was not any political party, nor any class
    of people.

    We need to avoid the habitual use of short sentences otherwise we
    will write in a jerky, disconnected style. As a general rule, use short
    sentences to emphasize special passages.




    Effective Arrangement of Words

    Writing an effective sentence requires us to arrange the words
    logically. The length of the sentences that we use has an important
    bearing on the effectiveness of our language.




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    Short sentences, like short words, are much more easily understood.
    The short sentence lends itself naturally to simplicity of treatment, if
    properly handled; but a series of short sentences, unrelieved by an
    occasional longer one, produces an effect of jerkiness.

    A succession of long sentences, on the other hand, produces a
    heaviness and formality that feels out of place in writing. The best
    effect is judiciously mixing the two.

    One important point in writing any sentence—arrange the parts so
    that the bearing of one part to another will be clearly understood by
    your readers.



    The good sentence has three qualities: unity, coherence, and
    emphasis. In a broader sense, these three qualities also apply to the
    paragraph structure and the document as a whole.

    A sentence, to be unified, must have one central idea. Two ideas in
    one sentence are disastrous. To produce unity in your sentences,
    follow these tips:

    (1) Your sentence must have a main idea; exclude all details not
    bearing on that idea.




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     (2) Make each sentence short enough to help the reader understand
     it as one idea, but long enough form a definite thought of the
     paragraph.

     A sentence is a unit in thought when we make one complete
     statement; when we change the subject of a thought, a new sentence
     becomes necessary.

     Coherence in a sentence means simply "consecutiveness." We need
     to place words in logical sequence—in "one-two-three" order. We do
     not want to force the reader to go back to see how the various parts
     hang together.

     The following suggestions will assist you in writing coherent
     sentences:

     1. The sentence must stand for one central idea. Be careful to say one
     thing at a time.

     2. Do not join in one sentence two or more statements that are parts
     of the same idea.




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     3. Avoid long, rambling sentences. Do not burden sentences with
     details. An attempt to say too much in a sentence leads to confusion.

     4. Be cautious about appending a phrase or a clause to a sentence as if
     by afterthought.

     5. Use connectives carefully and sparingly.

     6. Every word of reference should point with absolute accuracy to
     the word or expression to which it refers.




     Emphasis and Force in Sentences

     When we write or speak we naturally emphasize certain words to
     make our meaning clear. In writing we emphasize a word by
     underscoring; in speaking we stress sound upon the word. Emphasis
     is a powerful aid in effective expression. In many sentences it is
     indicated by the form of the sentence— whatever is important is given
     an important place. Usually the important places in a sentence, a



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     paragraph, or the whole document are the beginning and the end.
     The end is probably the most important as a point of emphasis. The
     lack of emphasis in a sentence is usually caused by "wordiness." It is
     a safe rule to strike out all words that do not add to the meaning.
     The ending of a sentence often falls weak because the writer fails to
     observe the law of climax—which states that a reader's interest
     should grow as the writing or story progresses.

     To further hold a reader's interest, you can use a literary device
     called "force."

     Force in writing is the quality that holds the attention of the reader.
     Force is the appeal that words make to the feeling; clearness is the
     appeal they make to the understanding.

     Force is obtained by:
       1. using expressive words;
       2. placing the words in emphatic positions in the sentence;
       3. varying the length of sentences;
       4. keeping persistently to one idea—"sticking to the text."




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     Importance of the Opening Sentence

     As we have seen from our study of emphasis, the beginning and the
     end of sentences are important. The principle applies also to the
     document as a whole. For example, the opening sentence in a
     business letter is vital, especially if you are trying to win the
     attention and favor of the reader, who may or may not be interested
     in what you have to say. The opening paragraph of a business letter
     often determines if you engage or bore the reader.




     Effective conciseness of expression; avoid
     wordiness

     Conciseness does not necessarily mean brevity. It means getting rid
     of all worthless words—finding the shortest way of expressing an
     idea accurately and completely, without sacrificing any essential
     thought or part of a thought. We can say a 100-word statement is



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     concise if we cannot adequately express it in fewer words. We may
     think a sentence of ten words in length is wordy if we can condense it
     to five words.

     Wordy: There is a considerable amount of time needed for doing the
     work in an adequate manner.

     Concise: To do the work adequately will require considerable time.

     More Concise: I need more time to do the work adequately.

     Wordy: These difficulties can all be avoided, or at least a large
     percentage of them can be.

     Concise: Most of these difficulties can be avoided.

     More Concise: I can avoid most of these difficulties.



     Wordy: There is only one part of the machine that needs to be oiled
     daily and that is the back rod, which is sometimes called the carriage
     rod.




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     Concise: The only part of the machine that needs to be oiled daily is
     the back rod, sometimes called the carriage rod.

     More Concise: The only part of the machine that I need to oil daily
     is the back rod (sometimes called the carriage rod).

     To write concisely, try to reduce a main clause to a subordinate
     clause, a subordinate clause to a phrase, and a phrase to a single
     word.

     Wordy: One feature which this machine has and which makes it
     particularly desirable is that it is economical of fuel.

     Concise: One particularly desirable feature of this machine is that it
     is economical of fuel. (We reduce one clause to a single adjective and
     an adverb; another to a phrase.)

     More Concise: A desirable feature of this machine is its efficiency of
     fuel.

     Wordy: If you ask him a few questions which are pertinent to what
     he is telling you, all that you have to do is to sit back and listen.




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     Concise: If you ask him a few pertinent questions, you have only to
     sit back and listen. (Two clauses reduced to a single word; another
     reduced to a phrase.)

     More Concise: If you ask him a few important questions, just sit
     back and listen.




     Variety in Sentence Structure

     Effective writing requires variety in sentence structure. We must
     avoid monotony. This general principle covers various specific
     injunctions, such as:

     (a) Do not begin a number of successive sentences with the same
     word, like the, this, he, etc., and do not place the subject at the
     beginning of every sentence.

     (b) Avoid "see-saw" sentences: that is, a series of sentences, each
     consisting of two statements connected by and, but, or or.



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     (c) Avoid a series of sentences, each containing a main clause
     followed by a relative clause.

     Awkward: The tendency at present is to move the iron and steel
     mills from inland towns to lake points, such as Cleveland, Chicago,
     and Ohio. This is due to the economy that results from having the
     blast furnace close to the ore dock where the steamer unloads. This
     was an important factor in causing the United States Steel
     Corporation to locate to Ohio. This plant is the largest and most
     complete in the world for the manufacture of steel. (Each sentence
     begins with the subject, and the last three begin with the same word.)

     Improved: At present, the tendency is to move the iron and steel
     mills from inland towns to lake points, such as Cleveland, Chicago,
     and Ohio. In these cities the blast furnace can be placed close to the
     ore dock where the steamer unloads, and as a result the ore can be
     handled more economically. It was this important factor that caused
     the United States Steel Corporation to locate to Ohio, where it has
     erected the largest and most complete plant in the world for the
     manufacture of steel.

     Improved and Concise: At present, we must move the iron and steel
     mills from inland towns to lake points, such as Cleveland, Chicago,




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     and Ohio. In these cities we can place the blast furnace close to the
     ore dock where the steamer unloads. We can then handle the ore
     more economically. This important factor caused the United States
     Steel Corporation to locate to Ohio, where it has erected the world's
     largest and most complete plant to manufacture steel.

     Awkward: The basement is of cement and it extends under the entire
     house. A furnace of modern design is located at one end and is
     arranged so that it can be regulated from the living-room upstairs.
     The laundry-room occupies the entire south half of the basement and
     it is light and sanitary. (" See-saw" sentences; and in addition, each
     begins with the subject.)

     Improved: The basement, which is of cement, extends under the
     entire house. At one end is a furnace of modern design, so arranged
     that it can be regulated from the living-room upstairs. A light,
     sanitary laundry-room occupies the entire south half of the basement.

     Improved and Concise: The basement, made of cement, extends
     under the entire house. A modern furnace at one end can be
     regulated from the living room upstairs. A light, sanitary laundry-
     room occupies the entire south half of the basement.




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     How to Avoid Careless and Awkward
     Repetition

     Careless repetition—the kind that results from a limited vocabulary
     or from laziness to find an appropriate substitute—is always
     objectionable. On the other hand, intelligent repetition is sometimes
     used for emphasis.

     Tip 1: Avoid the careless and awkward repetition of words.

     This caution applies to all classes of words—to prepositions and
     conjunctions as well as to the more conspicuous parts of speech, such
     as nouns and verbs.

     The remedy is to substitute a synonym or a pronoun for the repeated
     word or to change the construction of the sentence.




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     Awkward: The boards are then passed on to the different cutters
     who cut them into certain lengths. One set of workers cuts boards for
     the sides and tops, while another cuts the end boards.

     Improved: The boards are then passed on to different cutters who
     saw them into certain lengths. The pieces for the sides and tops are
     cut by one set of workers; those for the ends by another group.

     Improved and Concise: The foreman passes the boards to the
     cutters who saw them into certain lengths. One group cuts the pieces
     for the sides and tops, and a second group cuts the ends.

     Awkward: The boiler used for making the steam is the chief factor in
     making the steam car a success.

     Improved: The boiler is the main factor in making the steam car a
     success.

     Awkward: Each number is repeated eight times to enable the
     librarian to get used to finding it quickly.

     Improved: Each number is repeated eight times in order that the
     librarian may become accustomed to finding it quickly.




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     Improved and Concise: Repeat each number eight times so that the
     librarian becomes accustomed to finding it quickly.

     Awkward: Many students are without text books this year because
     of the lack of foresight of the present shortage in paper.

     Improved: Many of the students are without text books this year
     because they did not foresee the shortage in paper.

     Improved and Concise: Many students do not have text books this
     year because they did not foresee the paper shortage.



     Tip 2: Do not use a word in two different senses in the same
     sentence.

     Awkward: In those early days, sulphuric acid was but a curiosity, but
     today industrial chemistry could not exist if the supply of this acid
     were stopped.

     Improved: In those early days, sulphuric acid was only a curiosity,
     but today industrial chemistry could not exist if the supply of this
     acid were stopped.




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     Improved and Concise: In ancient times, sulphuric acid was only a
     curiosity, but today industrial chemistry could not exist if we stopped
     producing this acid.



     Tip 3: Tandem Clauses. As a general rule, do not use two
     successive clauses introduced by the same connective, unless they
     both refer to the same word.

     Awkward: Between the walls is a two-inch space which is packed
     with granulated cork, which is the most effective non-conductor of
     heat yet discovered.

     Improved: Between the walls is a two-inch space packed with
     granulated cork, which is the most effective non-conductor of heat
     yet discovered.

     Awkward: The upper floors of the building were completely
     destroyed, for the firemen were unable to reach the flames, for the
     water-pressure was too weak.

     Improved: The upper floors of the building were completely
     destroyed, for the water-pressure was so weak that the firemen were
     unable to reach the flames.




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     Improved and Concise: The firemen were unable to reach the
     flames because of weak water-pressure, causing the fire to destroy
     the upper floors of the building.




     Avoid Redundant Repetition of That

     In a noun clause introduced by that, you should be careful not to
     repeat the conjunction after a number of intervening words because
     you are likely to forget that you have already used it.

     Wrong: We have decided that since labor and materials are sure to
     be lower within a few months that it would be inadvisable to begin
     the construction now.

     Right: We have decided that since labor and materials are sure to be
     lower within a few months, it would be inadvisable to begin the
     construction now.




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     Better: We have decided to postpone construction because we
     believe the cost of labor and materials will drop within a few months.




     Effective Use of Repetition

     Tip 1: Sometimes we can repeat an important word for
     emphasis.

     Right: They were starving—starving in a land of plenty.

     Right: It [the work of the Peace Conference] is full of perils; perils
     for this country, perils for all lands, perils for the people throughout
     the world. (Lloyd George.)

     Right: We wish peace; but we wish the peace of justice, the peace of
     righteousness. (Theodore Roosevelt.)

     Tip 2: Effective Repetition of the Same Form of Construction.




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     You can add emphasis and clearness by repeating the same form of
     construction—noun clause, adverbial clause, infinitive phrase,
     prepositional phrase, and the like—introduced by the same
     connective.

     Use this device only when your sentence has parallel expressions are
     parallel: that is, when they perform the same function in the sentence.

     Right: If you believe that honesty and hard work are needed in city
     government, if you believe that faithful service to the public should
     be rewarded, you should work for the re-election of this candidate.

     Right and Concise: If you believe the city government needs
     honesty and hard work, if you believe the public should reward you
     for faithful service, then you should work to re-elect this candidate.

     Right: Any sort of restraint, whether by military force, by
     legislation, or by public opinion, is obnoxious to this group of
     radicals.

     Right: Based on the objectives of scientists, they need to determine
     the constituents of which the material world is composed, to reduce
     these constituents to their simplest forms, and to build up new
     chemical compounds from them.




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     Right and Concise: The scientists' objectives are to determine what
     elements compose our world, to reduce these elements to their
     simplest forms, and to create new chemical compounds from them.

     In these cases we should repeat the connective wherever the
     repetition will make the statement clearer or more emphatic.

     Not Clear: The courses are intended for students who have had
     experience in the banking business and also those in other kinds of
     work who wish to get a better knowledge of the Federal Reserve
     System.

     Improved: The courses are intended for students who have had
     experience in the banking business and also for those who wish to
     get a better knowledge of the Federal Reserve System.

     Improved and Concise: The courses are for students who have prior
     experience in the banking business and also for students who want to
     learn more about the Federal Reserve System.

     Not Clear: The auditor said that the cashier is under suspicion, and
     there can be no doubt as to his guilt. (Does the writer or the auditor
     say that the cashier is guilty?)




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     Improved: The auditor said that the cashier is under suspicion and
     that there can be no doubt as to his guilt.

     Improved and Concise: The auditor said that the cashier, who is
     under suspicion, is guilty.




     Effective Balance of Constructions

     For special emphasis, you can place two contrasted thoughts (less
     frequently two similar thoughts) in balanced constructions.

     Balanced constructions are similar in form. We build them in such a
     way that one seems to weigh itself against the other. Unlike the
     expressions in the preceding sections, they do not necessarily begin
     with the same word.

     Not Balanced—Weak: In New York, subways are built, but in
     Chicago the plans never get beyond the talking stage.



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     Balanced—Emphatic: New York builds subways; Chicago talks
     about building them.

     Not Balanced: These goods are of excellent quality, and a low price
     has been put on them.

     Balanced—More Emphatic: The quality of these goods is excellent,
     and the price is low.

     (Or)

     Balanced—More Emphatic: These goods are excellent in quality
     and low in price.




     Effective Starts and Stops

     The most prominent places in the sentence are the beginning and the
     end. The skillful writer takes advantage of this fact, whenever



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     possible. He places important statements at the beginning or end to
     add attention and emphasis. In some cases you should use the
     beginning for making a smooth transition from the preceding
     sentence; you cannot always reserve the beginning for emphatic
     statements. In general, the end is more significant than the
     beginning, especially for emphasis.

     Feeble Ending

     Never end a sentence with a weak, straggling phrase or subordinate
     clause. This caution does not apply to a phrase or clause which makes
     a definite contribution to the thought. It refers to those expressions
     which contain a weak and hesitating modification of the main idea, or
     give the impression of being an after-thought. We should avoid these
     expressions within the sentence, or if this is impractical we can place
     them at the beginning.

     Weak: Our future prosperity depends upon the co-operation of
     capital and labor, to a large extent.

     More Emphatic: Our future prosperity, to a large extent, depends
     on the co-operation of capital and labor.




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     Weak: An excess of magnesia in the cement will cause it to expand
     and crack in time.

     More Emphatic: An excess of magnesia in the cement will, in time,
     cause it to expand and crack.

     Weak: This device is adapted for use only with plate cameras having
     removable holders, for reasons which will be explained later.

     More Emphatic: For reasons which will be explained later, this
     device is adapted for use only with plate cameras having removable
     holders.

     Emphatic and Concise: For reasons I will explain later, we can use
     only this device with plate cameras having removable holders.

     A Preposition at the End of a Sentence

     As a general rule, a preposition makes a weak ending for a sentence.

     Weak: The parlor, a medium-sized room, artistically decorated,
     makes a very attractive place to entertain your guests in.




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     More Emphatic: The parlor, a medium-sized room and artistically
     decorated, makes a very attractive place in which to entertain your
     guests.

     Emphatic and Concise: The parlor, a medium-sized room and
     artistically decorated, makes an attractive place to entertain guests.

     In some cases, a preposition may properly stand at the end of a
     sentence. This is especially true in certain questions that lose their
     effectiveness if you use another construction.

     Emphatic: Where did you come from? ("From where did
     you come?" would be much less effective.)

     Emphatic: What did you do that for? (More emphatic than
     "Why did you do that?")

     Certain sentences (see below) are also allowed in speaking and some
     informal types of writing.

     Allowable: This is the article that you were talking about.

     Allowable: He is the man that you asked for.




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     The Periodic Sentence

     For special emphasis, you can place the main thought at the end of
     the sentence. This type of construction produces what is known as
     the periodic sentence.

     Not Periodic: Four members sprang to their feet as soon as the
     chairman finished his remarks.

     Periodic—More Emphatic: As soon as the chairman finished his
     remarks, four members sprang to their feet.

     In practice, not all sentences, or even the majority of them, are made
     periodic. The constant use of this type would produce a stiff and
     monotonous style; but when employed judiciously, it is a valuable aid
     to emphasis.

     Note—Strictly speaking, a periodic sentence is one in which the
     grammatical construction is not complete until the end of the
     sentence is reached. For practical purposes, we can regard a periodic
     sentence when we place a main clause last.




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     Transposed Elements

     We can emphasize a word by transposing it— giving it a position
     different from its normal one. This is especially true of direct objects
     (words or clauses), predicate adjectives, and adverbs placed at the
     beginning of the sentence. Direct objects and predicate adjectives
     normally follow the verb; adverbs either precede or follow the verb.
     When we place them at the beginning of the sentence, the
     unusualness of the position serves to attract the reader's attention to
     them.

     Normal: Although he was tired, he refused to rest.

     More Emphatic: Tired as he was, he refused to rest.

     Normal: We are always willing to help the poor.

     More Emphatic: The poor...we are always willing to help.

     Normal: He is willing to admit that he has failed.

     More Emphatic: "I have failed," he admitted.

     Normal: The procession moved slowly through the crowded street.




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     More Emphatic: Slowly the procession moved through the crowded
     street.




                                  Sentences
     How to Create Climax in Your Sentences

     In a series of words and phrases that vary in relative importance, you
     should arrange the members with the weakest first and the strongest
     last.

     Anti-climax: He was a prominent jurist, a distinguished lawyer, and
     a skillful politician.

     Improved: He was a skillful politician, a distinguished lawyer, and a
     prominent jurist.




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     The Shorter Element before a Longer One in a Series

     As a general rule, the shorter member of a series should precede the
     longer member. In this way we secure one form of climactic
     arrangement.

     Awkward: The book is beautifully illustrated in colors and
     interesting.

     Improved: The book is interesting and beautifully illustrated in
     colors.

     A Negative Statement Before a Contrasted Affirmative One

     In many cases, placing a negative statement before an affirmative
     contrasted statement makes a more emphatic sentence.

     Less Emphatic: He failed because he was over confident, not because
     he was over trained.

     More Emphatic: He failed, not because he was over trained, but
     because he was over confident.




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     Less Emphatic: His actions were guided by a desire for power, not
     by love of humanity.

     More Emphatic: His actions were guided, not by love of humanity,
     but by a desire for power.




     Effectiveness of Active Voice

     Do not use the passive voice when the active voice would be more
     natural and definite. Especially avoid the passive voice when it does
     not clearly indicate the person or thing to which the statement refers.

     Awkward: You know that your efforts are appreciated by us.

     Improved: You know that we appreciate your efforts.

     Awkward and Indefinite: The committee has worked faithfully and
     a number of reforms have been passed. (Who effected the reforms?)




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     Improved: The committee has worked faithfully and has passed a
     number of reforms.




     Specific Vs. General Style

     For emphasis, make a statement concrete by using specific words,
     details, and examples. General statements have a legitimate use in
     carrying the reader over less important parts of an article, but they
     are not suitable for passages that you need to emphasize. The specific
     style is more vivid and it will stimulate the reader's imagination and
     thought.

     General: This machine is guaranteed not to injure any fabric.

     Specific—More Effective: This machine is guaranteed not to tear
     the finest chiffon or the most delicate lace.

     General: By means of production you can become familiar with the
     manufacturing processes used in different cities.



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     Specific—More Effective: By means of international production
     you can become familiar with the process of manufacturing steel rails
     in Pittsburgh, silk in Japan, and laces in France.

     General: Everybody uses this car.

     Specific—More Effective: Everybody uses this car—bankers,
     lawyers, students, parents, mechanics, United States Senators.

     General: All these companies made huge profits during the economy
     and disbursed relatively little in dividends.

     Specific Example Added: During the 2010 recession, all these
     companies made huge profits, and disbursed little in dividends. For
     example, the Corolla Steel Co. earned $179.96 a share on the
     common stock, and paid out only $22.00 a share in dividends.




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     Using Definite, Direct Statements

     Make definite, direct, straightforward statements. Do not be satisfied
     with an approximate statement of a thought. Avoid awkward and
     involved expressions.

     Not Definite: Because of recent conditions, Europe is very limited in
     the industry producing wool.

     Improved—More Direct: Because of the recent war, Europe is
     producing little wool.

     Improved—More Direct and Specific: Because of the recent war,
     Europe is producing only five percent of its normal amount of wool.

     Not Definite: A notable difference between bank panics and
     industrial depressions is the length of time of each.

     Improved: A notable difference between bank panics and industrial
     depressions is that the latter cover a longer period of time.

     Awkward and Involved: Here the student will get instruction which
     cannot help being an aid to him in the betterment of the daily
     pursuance of his duties.




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     Improved: Here the student will get instruction which will be of
     benefit to him in his daily work.

     Improved, Specific and Concise: The new school will provide the
     student with advanced English lessons which will benefit him in his
     daily work.




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Description: This work is a collection of tips and tricks that may make using Microsoft Excel 2003 a little easier and interesting to use. This work describes how to easily create a series of numbers, view all the formulas on a worksheet, highlight a cell based on special conditions, use conditional (IF) formulas, count cells that meet your criteria, sum cells that meet only your criteria, hide worksheets, lookup answer in another table, freeze headings, and colour code worksheet tabs. Creative Commons license: Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Australia